Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 956
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
Kok, Petra
The evolutionary advantage to conserve energy in the form of adipose issue in order to survive long periods of food shortage in the past, turned into a major health problem in current times of plenty. Excess accumulation of body fat, or “obesity”, is associated with severely increased co-morbidity and mortality ...
Carter Owen B J - - 2006
ISSUE ADDRESSED: The aim of this paper is to provide an accessible overview of research literature on the link between childhood obesity and food advertising on Australian television. METHODS: A systematic review of current medical, public health, psychological and marketing research literature surrounding the topics of childhood obesity and television ...
Félix Bernadette - - 2006
Swallowing is under the control of premotoneurons located in the medullary solitary tract nucleus. Although rats with transected midbrain do not seek out food, they are able to ingest food present near the mouth, and acute food deprivation induces an increase in food intake. Leptin is a satiety signal that ...
de Pedro N - - 2006
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the possible role of leptin in food intake and body weight regulation in goldfish. We examined the effects of i.c.v. or i.p. acute leptin administration on food intake in food-deprived goldfish at different time intervals post-injection (0-2, 2-8 and 0-8 h). ...
Someshwar Jean - - 2006
Childhood obesity is one of the formidable challenges that healthcare providers face. Early recognition and implementation of preventive strategies is crucial in combating this problem. Inculcation of a healthy lifestyle in our youth by encouraging physical activity, decreasing sedentary pastimes, and making healthy food choices is critical right from the ...
Yamada Tetsuya - - 2006
Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is involved in development of the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with insulin and leptin resistance. We show here that ectopic expression of very low levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in epididymal fat (Epi) reverses both insulin and leptin resistance. UCP1 expression in Epi improved glucose ...
Rigal Natalie - - 2006
Previous studies in humans have shown that short to middle-term pre-exposure to multiple foods can reduce the negative response to novel foods (neophobia). In order to explore the effects of a long-term exposure to varied foods on food neophobia, we studied a population of obese adolescents observed in a longitudinal ...
Grotz V Lee - - 2006
The role of the food industry in the response to the epidemic of obesity is guided by many factors, including the current state of knowledge of the problem. There have been efforts among food and beverage companies to help increase our knowledge about the factors contributing to overweight and to ...
Thirlby Richard C - - 2006
Among factors influencing the outcome of bariatric surgery may be genetics and familial risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the etiology of obesity and its impact on hunger, satiety, and food likes in obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This study was based on 76 patients ...
He Wu - - 2006
The sensing of circulating nutrients within the mediobasal hypothalamus may be critical for energy homeostasis. To induce a sustained impairment in hypothalamic nutrient sensing, adeno-associated viruses (AAV) expressing malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD; an enzyme involved in the degradation of malonyl coenzyme A) were injected bilaterally into the mediobasal hypothalamus of ...
Flachs P - - 2006
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diets rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), protect against insulin resistance and obesity in rodents and increase insulin sensitivity in healthy humans. We tested whether the anti-diabetic effects of EPA and DHA involve enhanced production of the endogenous insulin sensitiser, adiponectin. ...
Al-Arabi Ateegh - - 2006
We have studied the effects of chronic peripheral infusion of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and norepinephrine (NE) alone and together. Do these hormones additively affect energy balance and body weight similarly in obese animals? 20 obese (fa/fa) Zucker strain rats were studied. Food intake, body weight and resting metabolic rate ...
Kim Sun Kwang - - 2006
Previous studies indicate that acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) treatment reduces body weight and food intake in rats by increasing the level of anoretic peptides and decreasing that of orexigenic peptides in the hypothalamus. Considering a well-established role of leptin as a major regulator for feeding behavior in the hypothalamus, we ...
Druce Maralyn R - - 2006
The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly and the associated morbidity and mortality has led to an urgent need for potential therapeutic targets to reduce appetite and food intake. Gut hormones released after eating that coordinate digestive activity and promote satiety are novel potential treatments for obesity. Oxyntomodulin is a ...
Cassels Susan - - 2006
The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) has received considerable attention for their alarming rates of overweight and obesity. On Kosrae, one of the four districts in the FSM, 88% of adults aged 20 or older are overweight (BMI > 25), 59% are obese (BMI > 30), and 24% are extremely ...
Goldstone Anthony P - - 2006
Obesity is a major global epidemic, with over 300 million obese people worldwide, and nearly 1 billion overweight adults. Being overweight carries significant health risks, reduced quality of life, and impaired socioeconomic success, with profound consequences for health expenditure. The most successful treatment for obesity is gastric bypass surgery, which ...
Zeinoaldini S - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Central but also peripheral IGF-1 is suggested to play a role in the initiation of puberty as it directly affects GnRH synthesis and release. A possible intermediate in the effects of IGF-1 on puberty might be the adiposity-signaling hormone leptin, whose plasma levels are decreased in food-restricted (FR) rats. ...
Ferguson Lynnette R - - 2006
It has been suggested that the supermarket of today will be the pharmacy of tomorrow. Such statements have been derived from recognition of our increasing ability to optimize nutrition, and maintain a state of good health through longer periods of life. The new field of nutrigenomics, which focuses on the ...
Pagotto U - - 2006
Although adjustments to nutritional lifestyle and increased physical activity remain the milestones of weight loss therapy, it is evident from the exponential increase of the number of obese subjects in Western countries that these two approaches alone are no longer able to limit this progression. This alarming phenomenon occurs in ...
Cota Daniela - - 2006
Obesity represents nowadays one of the most devastating health threats. Published reports even project a decline in life expectancy of US citizens due to the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity. This alarming increase is intimately linked with recent changes of environment and lifestyle in western countries. In this context, the ...
Ahituv Nadav - - 2006
Peptide YY (PYY) has been implicated in the control of food intake through functional studies in rodents and humans. To investigate whether genetic alterations within this gene result in abnormal weight in humans, we sequenced its coding exons and splice sites in a large cohort of extremely obese [n = ...
Yoshimatsu Hironobu - - 2006
Hypothalamic neuronal histamine and its H(1) receptor (H(1)-R) form part of the leptin signaling pathway in the brain, and regulate body weight and adiposity by affecting food intake and energy expenditure. The pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R) is also important for leptin signaling. We investigated whether and how these two ...
Bertile Fabrice - - 2006
This paper sets out to review the implication of the melanocortin system in regulating feeding behavior and energy balance during short- and long-term food deprivation. It is discussed in relation to: (1) body fat exhaustion and the known enhanced drive for refeeding in late fasting and (2) peripheral hormonal status ...
Davidson T L - - 2005
At a simple behavioral level, food intake and body weight regulation depend on one's ability to balance the tendency to seek out and consume food with the ability to suppress or inhibit those responses. Accordingly, any factor that augments the tendency to engage in food seeking and eating or that ...
Boggiano M M - - 2005
The neuropeptide Y (NPY)/peptide YY (PYY) system has been implicated in the physiology of obesity for several decades. More recently ignited enormous interest in PYY3-36, an endogenous Y2-receptor agonist, as a promising anti-obesity compound. Despite this interest, there have been remarkably few subsequent reports reproducing or extending the initial findings, ...
Król E - - 2006
We have previously shown that cold-acclimated (8 degrees C) male field voles (Microtus agrestis) transferred from short (SD, 8:16 h L:D) to long photoperiod (LD, 16:8 h L:D) exhibit increases in body mass, adiposity and food intake. To assess whether these increases were associated with decreased leptin sensitivity, we infused ...
Sonestedt Emily - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To examine if obesity status and socio-economic and lifestyle factors are associated with self-reported past food habit change, and also whether the level of obesity depends on the reason for change. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis within the Malmo Diet and Cancer (MDC) study using data from the baseline examination and ...
Broberger C - - 2005
In the clinic, obesity and anorexia constitute prevalent problems whose manifestations are encountered in virtually every field of medicine. However, as the command centre for regulating food intake and energy metabolism is located in the brain, the basic neuroscientist sees in the same disorders malfunctions of a model network for ...
Isganaitis Elvira - - 2005
Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties ...
le Roux C W CW Department of Metabolic Medicine, 6th Floor Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, United - - 2006
The responses of the gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) to food were investigated in 20 normal-weight and 20 obese humans in response to six test meals of varying calorie content. Human volunteers had a graded rise in plasma PYY (R2 = 0.96; P < 0.001) during increasing calorific meals, but ...
Bernachon-Agache F - - 2005
The leptin, protein of 146 amino acids, produced gene ob (chromosome 7) acts via the hypothalamus on the control of energy balance. It is implied in the adequacy between the food intake and the energy expenditure, and maintains stable body mass. We studied leptine's diurnal rhythm in old person of ...
Beckman Tiffany - - 2005
Obesity has emerged as the dominant American public health problem of the 21st century. Because it stems from consuming more energy than is burned, understanding the role of appetite is central to understanding the causes of obesity. Appetite is fundamentally a biological process, based on a set of neurological signals ...
Angelopoulos Nicholas - - 2005
Obesity is today one of the commonest of life-threatening diseases in developed countries and generally results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although there is increasing evidence for a genetic basis of obesity in some clinical syndromes, this seems to be the cause only in a limited ...
Della-Fera Mary Anne - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: ob/ob mice have increased sensitivity to many of leptin's effects. The primary objective of this experiment was to determine whether ob/ob mice demonstrated increased sensitivity to leptin-induced adipose tissue apoptosis. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Fifteen-week-old female ob/ob and Ob/? mice received 0 (saline), 2.5, or 10 microg/d leptin for ...
Chung Wendy K - - 2005
Obesity has become an increasingly prevalent public health problem and represents the complex interaction of genetic, developmental, behavioral and environmental influences. Although rare, the study of syndromic forms of obesity provides insight into underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms by which adiposity is regulated through food intake, energy expenditure and partitioning ...
Williamson Donald A - - 2005
Leptin deficiency has been associated with extreme obesity and hyperphagia in rodents and humans. A rare genetic disorder in humans yields the absence of the hormone leptin, extreme obesity, and a ravenous appetite. Reports on these rare cases have indicated that therapy using leptin injections can yield significant weight loss ...
Fry James - - 2005
The present paper reports on results obtained as part of the economics module of the LIPGENE project. It reviews recent trends in obesity in the fifteen member states of the EU (the member states before enlargement in 2004) and concludes that in 2002 for both adult men and women at ...
Palani Anandan - - 2005
Herein, we report a small molecule MCH-R1 antagonist which demonstrates oral efficacy in chronic rodent models. Substituted phenyl biaryl urea derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as MCH-R1 antagonists for the treatment of obesity. The structure-activity relationship studies in this series resulted in identification of urea 1 as a potent and ...
Roefs A - - 2006
This study investigated whether relatively automatic evaluations of food differ between situations and between obese people and lean controls. These evaluations were assessed in the affective priming paradigm (APP) -- a response latency based measure for associations. In Experiment 1, we either focused participants (33 obese and 26 lean controls) ...
Violante Rafael - - 2005
The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) has promoted surveys in asthma and allergic diseases using standardized methodologies including validated questionnaires. Many items in the questionnaires have also been implied in the overweight and obesity etiology. To describe the factors associated with obesity in subjects of 6-7 ...
Dridi Sami - - 2005
While there have been many studies in various species examining the mode of central leptin action on food intake, there is however a paucity of data in birds. We have, therefore, addressed this issue in broiler chickens because this strain was selected for high growth rate, hence high food intake. ...
Oakes Michael E - - 2005
The modern health media as well as the food and diet industries praise certain foods and food nutrients as being healthful while at the same time criticizing other foods and nutrients as promoters of obesity and disease. Do the categorical messages that much of the general public has assimilated concerning ...
Bray George A - - 2005
Using an epidemiologic model of the interactions between environmental agents and human hosts to explain obesity, we explored food, medications, physical inactivity, toxins, and viruses as environmental agents that interact with a genetically programmed host to disturb energy balance and cause obesity. Large portion sizes, high fat intakes, easy access ...
Simpson S J - - 2005
The obesity epidemic is among the greatest public health challenges facing the modern world. Regarding dietary causes, most emphasis has been on changing patterns of fat and carbohydrate consumption. In contrast, the role of protein has largely been ignored, because (i) it typically comprises only approximately 15% of dietary energy, ...
Small Caroline J - - 2005
Many peptides are synthesised and released from the gastrointestinal tract. Although their roles in the regulation of gastrointestinal function have been known for some time, it has become increasingly evident that they also influence eating behaviour. Peptide YY (PYY) is released postprandially from gastrointestinal L-cells with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) ...
Ladenheim Ellen E - - 2005
Leptin amplifies feeding inhibition and neural activation produced by either cholecystokinin or intragastric preloads, suggesting that leptin may increase the efficacy of gastrointestinal meal-related signals. To determine whether leptin would similarly potentiate the feeding inhibitory actions of another putative satiety peptide, we evaluated the effects of third ventricular leptin administration ...
Lins Márcia Clements - - 2005
We investigate whether leptin treatment to lactating rats affects food intake, body weight and leptin serum concentration and its anorectic effect on their adult offspring. Lactating rats were divided into 2 groups: Lep-single injected with recombinant rat leptin (8 microg/100 g of body weight, daily for the last 3 consecutive ...
McBriar Mark D - - 2005
Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Antagonists of the MCH receptor are expected to affect food intake and weight gain, making MCH-R1 an attractive target for obesity treatment. Herein, we report the discovery of a novel, orally active series of MCH-R1 antagonists ...
Jethwa Preeti H - - 2005
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Neuromedin U (NMU), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, or leptin, an adipostat hormone released from adipose tissue, reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. Leptin stimulates the release of NMU in vitro, and NMU expression is reduced in models of low or absent leptin. We investigated the role ...
Kuo Alice Y - - 2005
There is an association between autonomic nervous system output and obesity. The sympathetic nervous system stimulates lipid metabolism and regulates food intake and, hence, body weight. Leptin, produced by adipocytes in proportion to their size, has been shown to directly stimulate the satiety center. In the experiment reported here, food ...
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >