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Results 401 - 450 of 495
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Webster L - - 2000
A few days after the grounding of the oil tanker Braer on 5 January 1993, an Exclusion Zone was designated by Order under the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985, prohibiting the harvesting of farmed or wild shellfish within the Zone to prevent contaminated products reaching the market place. The ...
Bonnet P - - 2000
Bitumen fumes emitted during road paving or roofing contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experimental studies have been previously performed to test the carcinogenic potency of bitumen fumes. Some of them have been criticised either on the grounds that the fume condensates were not representative of fumes to which humans are ...
Papageorgopoulou A - - 1999
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the ambient air of six towns in N. Greece. This paper presents the variability of the particle-bound PAHs concentrations and the particle PAH content during the cold and the warm months. Correlations of total PAHs with other atmospheric pollutants were largely different among ...
Phillips T J - - 1999
Ozone emissions were measured above a "personal air purifier" (PAP) designed to be worn on a lapel, shirt pocket, or neck strap. The device is being marketed as a negative ion generator that purifies the air. However, it also produces ozone within the person's immediate breathing zone. In order to ...
Kuo W S - - 1999
Synergistic effects including TOC elimination, ozone consumption and microtoxicity reduction for combination of photolysis and ozonation compared to those of direct photolysis and ozonation alone on destruction of chlorophenols including 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol were studied. It was found that the synergistic effects of combination of photolysis and ozonation increased ...
Lewis R G - - 1999
House dust is a repository for environmental pollutants that may accumulate indoors from both internal and external sources over long periods of time. Dust and tracked-in soil accumulate most efficiently in carpets, and the pollutants associated with dust and soil may present an exposure risk to infants and toddlers, who ...
Kim J G - - 1999
Ozone (O3) is a strong antimicrobial agent with numerous potential applications in the food industry. High reactivity, penetrability, and spontaneous decomposition to a nontoxic product (i.e., O2) make ozone a viable disinfectant for ensuring the microbiological safety of food products. Ozone has been used for decades in many countries and ...
Phillips D H - - 1999
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), of which benzo[a]pyrene is the most commonly studied and measured, are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic matter. They are widely distributed in the environment and human exposure to them is unavoidable. A number of them, such as benzo[a]pyrene, are carcinogenic and mutagenic, and they ...
Lomascolo A - - 1999
Consumer preference for natural food additives has led to an increasing demand for natural aromatic compounds. An alternative production process to plant and chemical sources is the use of biotechnological methods involving microorganisms, which ensure a stable supply, quality and price. Among filamentous fungi, white-rot basidiomycetes represent an important group ...
Dubowsky S D - - 1999
A photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS) was used to measure real-time indoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at three residences. Semi-quantitative measurements of total indoor particle-bound PAH and temperature were collected continuously every minute for approximately 2 weeks at each location. The purpose of this study was to examine the ...
Naeher L P - - 1999
The relationship between ambient air pollution and daily change in peak expiratory flow (PEF) was studied in a sample of 473 nonsmoking women (age 19 to 43 yr) in Virginia over summers 1995- 1996. Daily 24-h averages of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), fine particulate sulfate (SO42-) and strong acid ...
Geueke K J - - 1999
The currently available information on PCDD/F emissions from diesel vehicles is briefly surveyed. Considerable uncertainty is identified concerning the emissions from heavy duty diesel trucks which have been measured only twice so far. These measurements led to emission factors differing by a factor of 200; similar discrepancy was also revealed ...
Pérez Chabela M L - - 1999
Causes of the food borne epidemics in Mexico City have usually been ascribed to poor handling and preparation of foods. In this work, presence of microorganisms indicative of contamination were analysed in meat sold in Mexico City's retail outlets. Enterobacteriaceae, psycorothrophs, mould and yeast, and mesophile counts, were evaluated in ...
Eder E - - 1999
Reports on intraindividual changes of DNA adduct levels in humans are rare. Most of the data available in the literature are from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are measured in white blood cells with 32P-postlabeling or immunochemical assays. Surprisingly, environmental exposure can have a larger effect on PAH adduct levels ...
Chen M L - - 1999
This study conducted an atmospheric aerosol sampling to measure the PM10 (particles < 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (particles < 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter) mass concentrations from October 1996 to June 1997 in northern (Taipei), central (Taichung) and southern (Kaohsiung), the three largest cities of Taiwan. Seventy-eight ...
Till M - - 1999
A number of highly toxic environmental pollutants including certain polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and 'dioxin-like' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are among the most potent agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Induction of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) in mammalian cell culture is widely used as a functional parameter for AHR ...
Nielsen T - - 1999
The occurrence of particle associated PAH and other mutagenic PAC was determined in 1996 in the street air of Copenhagen. In addition, particle extracts were tested for mutagenicity. The measurements were compared with previous measurements in 1992/1993. The levels had decreased in this period. The decrease was caused by an ...
Young HP - - 1999
The causal relationship between food intake and hydrocarbon synthesis was examined in vivo and in vitro. Fed Blattella germanica (L.) nymphs synthesized hydrocarbons in a stage-specific manner, with high rates occurring in the first 6 days of a 13-day last stadium, in relation to feeding. A similar pattern was exhibited ...
Knize M G - - 1999
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mutagens and animal carcinogens sometimes formed when foods are heated or processed. Determining their role in cancer etiology depends on comparing human exposures and determining any significant dose-related effects. Chemical analysis of foods shows that flame-grilling can form both PAH ...
Levy J I - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: The combination of poor ventilation and fuel-powered ice resurfacers has resulted in elevated nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in many indoor ice skating rinks. This study examined the factors influencing concentrations and the effects of various engineering controls in ice rinks with different resurfacer fuels. METHODS: Indoor NO2 concentrations were ...
Lodovici M - - 1998
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are present in cigarette smoke, are common air and food genotoxic contaminants and possible human carcinogens. We measured the following PAH levels: benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, BaP, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene as well as (+/-) syn and anti BaP diol-epoxide (BPDE) DNA adducts in ...
Matković N - - 1998
During the eighties the city of Rijeka was one of the most polluted cities in Croatia with sulphur dioxide due to high emission of this pollutant from industrial plants. In mid-eighties, annual means of SO2 exceeded 100 micrograms/m3 in the city centre, in the Bakar Bay area varied between 70-80 ...
Lodovici M - - 1998
The levels of 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 6 of which carcinogenic were measured in the leaves of evergreen tree (Laurus nobilis) sampled in 13 locations in summer and winter in Tuscany, Italy. The carcinogenic PAH levels were correlated with the PAH air levels sampled at the same site. Samples ...
Wu M T - - 1998
Coke-oven workers are exposed to high concentrations of coke-oven emissions, which are comprised mainly of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We conducted a pilot study to determine the time changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations, as a metabolite of pyrene, in coke-oven workers after exposure to a benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) of total ...
Kim, Jin-Gab
In recent years, consumption of fresh vegetables has greatly increased and consumer's demand for fresh or minimally-processed fresh food (MPF) is on the rise. The risk of contamination by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, and growth of these contaminants are of concern because most of these products are consumed without thermal ...
McFarland B L - - 1998
Environmental regulations are driving R&D efforts to produce low sulfur fuels, including diesel fuel and gasoline for motor vehicles. Biocatalytic sulfur removal from fuels has potential applicability for producing low sulfur gasoline. Microbial biocatalysts have been identified that can biotransform sulfur compounds found in fuels, including ones that selectively remove ...
Arbaugh M J - - 1998
Hourly ambient ozone exposure data and crown injury measurements were gathered in the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains of California to develop relationships between the Ozone Injury Index (OII), the Forest Pest Management Index (FPM), chlorotic mottle, fascicle retention (OII index components) and cumulative ambient ozone indices for Pinus ...
Vyskocil A - - 1997
1 Objectives of this study were (1) to compare concentrations of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in air of polluted and nonpolluted area of Czech Republic during winter and summer periods and (2) to verify if urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), as supposed practical biological marker, permits the assessment of spacial and ...
Korb C L - - 1997
We have developed a Doppler lidar system using the edge technique and have made atmospheric lidar wind measurements. Line-of-sight wind profiles with a vertical resolution of 22 m have a standard deviation of 0.40 m /s for a ten-shot average. Day and night lidar measurements of the vector wind have ...
Chen C I - - 1997
Two thermophilic anaerobic bacterial consortia (ALK-1 and LLNL-1), capable of degrading the aromatic fuel hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes (BTEX compounds), were developed at 60 degrees C from the produced water of ARCO'S Kuparuk oil field at Alaska and the subsurface water at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...
Guillén M D - - 1997
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) belong to a large chemical family comprising many different compounds with important biological activity in mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. PAH have been detected in both raw and processed foods. The presence of PAH in non-processed foods is associated with environmental pollution from both human and industrial ...
Heikkilä P R - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the possibility of using urinary 1-naphthol excretion as a marker of complex exposure among workers handling creosote. METHODS: Urine specimens of 6 workers from a creosote impregnation plant, where railroad ties were impreganted with coal tar creosote, were collected during 1 workweek, and the concentration of ...
Minoia C - - 1997
We propose a sampling strategy, using individual dosimetry to measure the daily inhaled quantity of PAHs in urban air. The method was applied to monitor 56 subjects living in an Italian town (Pavia; 80 000 inhabitants) and the Environmental Reference Concentration (E.R.C.) of six PAHs (classified as 'possible' carcinogenic agents ...
Husain A - - 1997
Analysis for the presence of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 327 foodstuff samples originating from locally reared animals was carried out. The data revealed that non-carcinogenic PAHs were detected in considerable amounts in several food commodities. The carcinogenic PAH concentrations were relatively low in most of the samples investigated. ...
Kangsadalampai K - - 1997
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing fractions of smoked and charcoal-broiled foods, namely, Sheat fish (Kytopterus apogon), Mimrow (Crossocheilus reba), Freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus), chicken wings, rice pork sausage and pork, in addition to naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, naphthacene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene, dibenz[ah]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene, were ...
Hemminki K - - 1997
Levels of aromatic DNA adducts in foundry workers and controls were followed at four annual samplings. During this time exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) decreased and the level of DNA adducts decreased accordingly. In the total group exposure was related to the level of adducts. Adduct levels correlated with ...
Cho J S - - 1997
After eighteen months of active remediation at a JP-4 jet-fuel spill, a residual of unremediated hydrocarbon remained. Further site characterization was conducted to evaluate the contribution of natural attenuation to control exposure to hazards associated with the residual contamination in the subsurface. Activities included the detailed characterization of ground-water flow ...
Spengler J D - - 1996
In a prospective study of infants' exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2)* and respiratory illness, NO2 concentrations were measured in more than 1,400 homes in Albequerque, NM, From January 1988 through June 1991 (Health Effects Institute Research Report Number 58, Parts I, II and III). This report characterizes the variability in ...
Sjödin A - - 1996
Data from long-term measurements of ambient NO2 concentrations at roof level in 15 Swedish cities have been used to verify expected trends in urban traffic NOx emissions, resulting mainly from the growth in the number of threeway catalyst (TWC) cars in Sweden since the mid 1980s. The result show that, ...
Schlemitz S - - 1996
Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) were determined in different kinds of food. The investigation of food matrices necessitates the development of appropriate analytical procedures for sensitive monitoring and determination of these compounds. The analysis of the nitro-PAHs was carried out by GC/MSD, GC plus mass spectrometry, and GC/NPD (nitrogen-phosphorus detection) ...
Nejdi A A Université de Nancy 1, Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie du Comportement, URA CNRS 1293, B.P. 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, - - 1996
Male or female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to a water tank in which food could be obtained only by wading in the water towards a feeder. Behavioral differentiation occurred in that three distinct categories could be distinguished: major carriers (transporting over 80% of the food pellets), sporadic carriers (transporting less ...
Brown J R - - 1996
The results of monitoring for 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at Exhibition Road, London, UK during the period from January 1991 to September 1992 are presented. Although both particulate and gaseous PAH were analysed, the results are expressed as total PAH. The PAH measurements are complemented by the simultaneous monitoring ...
Kang D - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: Increased risk of lung cancer has been associated with employment in the steel industry. This association is thought to be due in part to increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air found in this work environment. Measurement of PAH metabolites in human urine provides a means of ...
Lodovici M - - 1995
The content of total and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Italian foods was measured. The highest levels of PAHs were found in pizza baked in wood-burning ovens and barbecued beef and pork. Relatively high levels were also found in beet greens and squash, apples and bread, fried beef, pork ...
Levin J O - - 1995
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in air, and worker urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were studied in a coke oven, a Söderberg aluminium smelter pot-room, and during road-paving. Increased PAH exposure was shown to cause increased 1-hydroxypyrene excretion. Road-paving gave low PAH exposure, but resulted in a detectable elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level. ...
Baez A P - - 1995
Ambient levels of carbonyls were measured at the University of Mexico campus, Mexico City. Only formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured, since aldehydes with higher molecular weight were not detected. The most abundant aldehyde was formaldehyde, with an overall ratio CH3CHO/H2CO of 0.43. Maximum concentrations occurred for formaldehyde at 10:00 h ...
Guillén M D - - 1994
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in general, comprise the largest class of known environmental carcinogens. Reports of some studies of total diet in a number of developed countries indicate that food constitutes an important source of exposure of man to PACs, although other authors have shown ...
Gschaidmeier H - - 1994
Indirect evidence has suggested that multiple subunits of microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are involved in diglucuronide formation of diphenols of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Bock et al., Mol Pharmacol 42: 613-618, 1992). To substantiate this suggestion functional target sizes of UGTs catalysing these reactions were determined in microsomes in situ by radiation ...
Omland O - - 1994
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and ...
Stavric B - - 1994
It has been established that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or more specifically benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), either by inhalation through cigarette smoking or by contact through occupational exposure of the lungs or skin, can result in cancerous lesions. It appears that the general population consumes more B[a]P from food than ...
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