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Results 351 - 400 of 492
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Wang Wen-Xiong - - 2002
The absorption efficiency (AE) of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound, in the green mussel Perna viridis was measured under different biological and food conditions (body size, food quantity, and food species). Uptake of BaP from the aqueous phase by different species of phytoplankton and green mussels was ...
Lee Kiyoung - - 2002
Nitrous acid (HONO) may be generated by heterogeneous reactions of nitrogen dioxide and direct emission from combustion sources. Interactions among nitrogen oxides and ozone are important for outdoor photochemical reactions. However, little is known of indoor HONO levels or the relationship between residential HONO, NO(2), and O(3) concentrations in occupied ...
Zhong Weike - - 2002
Nine important vegetables were collected from northern Chinese wholesale markets and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents. Anthracene, flupranthene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were determined. The contents of the four PAH congeners were at the same level with the mean concentrations 6.46, 4.05, 3.33, 4.51 microg kg(-1) for fresh weight ...
Rustemeier K - - 2002
Cigarette mainstream smoke from blended research cigarettes with and without the addition of ingredients was analyzed for its chemical composition. In total, 333 ingredients commonly used in cigarette manufacturing were assigned to three different groups. Each group of ingredients was introduced at a low and a high level to the ...
Telli-Karakoç Fatma - - 2002
In 1999, the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the total PAH and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sea water, sediment and mussels collected along the coast of Izmit Bay, the most important bay of the Marmara Sea. The total-PAH concentrations, measured by Spectrofluorometry were in the range ...
Kondrashov Valery V - - 2002
Urbanization typically involves a continuous increase in motor vehicle use, resulting in congestion known as traffic jams. Idling emissions due to traffic jams combine with the complex terrain created by buildings to concentrate atmospheric pollutants in localized areas. This research simulates emissions concentrations and distributions for a congested street in ...
Bravo A H - - 2002
Wildfires in Mexico increased in 1998, compared to information for the last 6 years. The average number of wildfires in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) for this year (1998) were 58% (1916 events) more events than the 1992-1997 (average cases 1217 events). Mexico City affected area corresponds to 1.3% ...
Panek Jeanne A - - 2002
Ozone stress has become an increasingly significant factor in cases of forest decline reported throughout the world. Current metrics to estimate ozone exposure for forest trees are derived from atmospheric concentrations and assume that the forest is physiologically active at all times of the growing season. This may be inaccurate ...
Nikolopoulos Dimitrios - - 2002
A large scale radon survey using track etch detectors has been carried out from 1995 to 1998 in Greece in order to estimate the radon concentrations in Greek dwellings and the exposure of the Greek population to radon. The total data set consisted of 1,277 samples. Residential potential alpha energy ...
Lighton John R B - - 2002
The discontinuous gas exchange cycle of the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus, mean mass 5.9 mg, is rudimentary and is characterized by bursts of CO(2) at frequencies ranging from 3.6 mHz at 15 degrees C to 13.3 mHz at 35 degrees C. The mean volume of CO(2) emitted per burst is 3.6 ...
Kleeman M J - - 2001
A 3D Eulerian source-oriented model for an externally mixed aerosol is developed and then used to compute the contribution that different emission sources make to regional fine particle concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin surrounding Los Angeles, CA, on September 25, 1996. The model simultaneously tracks fine particle concentrations ...
Erduran M S - - 2001
Gas phase pollutants. nitric acid (HNO3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3) and particulate matter, were collected simultaneously for six months from the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere (Küçük Calticak, Antalya) using a "filter pack" system developed in our laboratory. This system is a combination of chemically treated filters for the collection of ...
Chen B H - - 2001
The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the smoke from model lipids and food lipids during heating were determined and the mechanism of PAH formation was studied. A Rancimat oil stability analyzer was used as a model system for heating model lipids and food lipids at 220 degrees C ...
Piccardo M T - - 2001
During 1999, a biological monitoring study was conducted at four sites along the Ligurian coast (Cornigliano, Voltri, Vado Ligure and Sanremo). At each site the concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in native and caged mussels. The mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), sampled in the Spring and the ...
Seila R L - - 2001
Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juárez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five sites, three ...
Chow J C - - 2001
The 'Imperial/Mexicali Valley Cross-Border PM10 Transport Study' acquired a database of meteorological and air quality measurements to determine source contributions to elevated PM10 concentrations and to estimate transport of PM10 between the US and Mexico. The study was conducted from 13 March 1992 to 29 August 1993, in a 80-km ...
Wang S X - - 2001
The quality of gasoline and diesel fuel affects pollutant emissions from vehicles. By applying the COMPLEX model, developed by the US EPA and industry to relate fuel composition to vehicle emissions, this paper estimates the influence of improvements in gasoline quality to lower vehicular NOx emissions. A case study is ...
Mastral A M - - 2001
The main aim of this work was the analyzing of the release to the atmosphere of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (D(a,h)A), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), three of the most carcinogenic PAHs listed by US-EPA as priority pollutants, emitted from combustion at the last generation reactors used nowadays in power generation, fluidized bed ...
Buehler S S - - 2001
Atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides were compared at Brule River and Eagle Harbor, two rural sites on Lake Superior that are part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN). Brule River lies 40 km southwest of Duluth, MN, a small industrial city, and ...
Kasting J F - - 2001
A simple coupled ecosystem-climate model is described that can predict levels of atmospheric CH4, CO2, and H2 during the Late Archean, given observed constraints on Earth's surface temperature. We find that methanogenic bacteria should have converted most of the available atmospheric H2 into CH4, and that CH4 may have been ...
Engelbrecht J P - - 2001
This article presents results from the particulate monitoring campaign conducted at Qalabotjha in South Africa during the winter of 1997. Combustion of D-grade domestic coal and low-smoke fuels were compared in a residential neighborhood to evaluate the extent of air quality improvement by switching household cooking and heating fuels. Comparisons ...
Nan H M - - 2001
This study was undertaken to determine the effects of occupation, lifestyle and the genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and glutathione S-transferases micro1 (GSTM1) and 1 (GSTT1) on the concentrations of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol among Korean coke oven workers and university students. The ...
Kazerouni N - - 2001
Animal studies have shown that dietary intake of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), causes increased levels of tumors at several sites, particularly in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of dietary intake of BaP and cancer in humans is not clear. We created a BaP database of ...
Wey M Y - - 2001
Previous studies have shown that pollutants from incineration include heavy metals, organic compounds, particulate and acid gas. However, most studies on a single pollutant, it is rare for a study to concentrate on all possible pollutants and the relations between these pollutants under various incineration conditions. The objective of this ...
Zhang J - - 2001
The objective of this paper is to conduct an integrated analysis of the energy, greenhouse gas, and air quality impacts of a new type of boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) in contrast to those of the raw coal from which the BB-coal was formulated (R-coal). The analysis is based on the ...
Hansen A D - - 2001
Aerosol light absorption as black carbon (BC) was measured from November 19, 1995, to February 6, 1996, at a location 0.65 km downwind of the center of McMurdo Station on the Antarctic coast. The results show a bimodal frequency distribution of BC concentrations. Approximately 65% of the measurements were found ...
Kim Y M - - 2001
Concentrations of 15 VOCs including 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and styrene were measured in a wide range of urban microenvironments, viz: homes, offices, restaurants, pubs, department stores, coach and train stations, cinemas, libraries, laboratories, perfume shops, heavily trafficked roadside locations, buses, trains, and automobiles. For most target VOCs-including 1,3-butadiene and benzene-mean concentrations ...
Kanaly R A - - 2001
Bacterial mineralization of [7-14C]benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) to 14CO2 was enhanced by the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Mineralization of BaP was affected differently by different NAPLs, and the mode of enhancement of mineralization by a NAPL most likely occurred by a combination of cometabolic and physical effects. Mineralization was enhanced ...
Kim H - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has been used as a biological marker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and urinary 2-naphthol is suggested as a new marker for route-specific exposure to airborne PAHs. We analyzed urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol concentrations in 292 male Koreans (129 university students and 163 shipyard ...
Jongeneelen F J - - 2001
Many individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are genotoxic carcinogens. One of the parent PAH, pyrene, undergoes simple metabolism to 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-Hydroxypyrene and its glucuronide are excreted in urine. Biological monitoring of exposure to PAH has rapidly been expanded since urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was suggested as a biological index of dose of ...
Williams R - - 2000
A combined epidemiological exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants from numerous spatial boundaries associated with an elderly population, provide ...
Okay O S - - 2000
The role of algal concentration in the transfer of organic contaminants in a food chain has been studied using the ubiquitous model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the contaminant, Isochrysis galbana as the phytoplankton food source, and the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) as the primary consumer. The effect of ...
Opiekun R E - - 2000
Control subjects (CON) and self-reported methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)-sensitive subjects (SRS) were evaluated to distinguish between the following gasoline blends: gasoline versus gasoline + MTBE (15% MTBE v/v); and gasoline versus gasoline + MTBE + reodorant. The study also investigated the ability of a reodorant to conceal the odor ...
Van Loy M - - 2000
The Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (ARIES) was designed to provide high-quality measurements of PM2.5, its components, and co-varying pollutants for an air pollution epidemiology study in Atlanta, GA. Air pollution epidemiology studies have typically relied on available data on particle mass often collected using filter-based methods. Filter-based PM2.5 ...
Tuomi T - - 2000
To estimate the impact of office equipment on the quality of indoor air, the emission of ozone and organic volatiles was measured from one photocopier and four laser printers, three of which operated according to traditional corona discharge technology. The laser printers equipped with traditional technology emitted significant amounts of ...
Moore G - - 2000
The efficacy of ozone as a terminal disinfectant was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Different microorganisms of importance to the food industry were inoculated onto stainless steel squares and incubated at various temperatures and relative humidities for up to 4 h. Survival of microorganisms from these controls was compared with identically ...
LeBourgeois H W HW - - 2000
The detection of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) depends on the viability of the ear's conduction apparatus. However, tympanic membrane perforations and other conductive disorders have not been fully investigated with regard to the examination of DPOAEs. Using the guinea pig model, we made perforations of different sizes and loci on ...
Viau C - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Wood combustion is used as a major energy source in African countries and could result in indoor, pollution-related health problems. This exploratory study was undertaken to estimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and carbon monoxide exposure in individuals living in traditional rural houses in Burundi. METHODS: Standard methods were used ...
Germuska R - - 2000
During the last three decades contamination of food by traces of toxic substances has been the object of intensive research in modern food toxicology. Various classes of compounds of different origin were detected in food and beverages. In particular nitrosamines and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons attracted attention, due to their mutagenic ...
Hyvärinen M J - - 2000
The Finnish Tobacco Act has restricted smoking in public places since 1976, and in 1994 the Act was amended to include workplaces as well. In 2000, the Tobacco Act will be expanded further to restaurants. In Finland, the exposure of clients and employees to the vapor phase environmental tobacco smoke ...
Monteiro P R - - 2000
The chronic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on ovary development, total hepatic lipids and plasma sex- and corticosteroid levels in female flounder (Platichthys flesus) were examined. Sexually mature feral female flounder were exposed via the diet to phenanthrene (0.5, 2.5 or 12.5 nmol/g food) or chrysene (0.4 nmol/g food) ...
Gebhart K A - - 2000
Several factors have recently caused visibility impairment at Big Bend National Park, TX, to be of interest. Analyses of historical data collected there have shown that visibility is poorer and fine particle concentrations are higher at Big Bend than at other monitored Class I areas in the western United States. ...
Rivera J A - - 2000
Contributions to water retention capacity (% WRC) and texture changes were determined for pork by-products (lung lobes, kidneys), chicken viscera (head, feet and viscera) and mechanically separated chicken (MSC) as affected by pH and various salts in a high-moisture model system. The % WRC for meat by-products and MSC was ...
Kobayashi A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Formaldehyde (FA) in exhaust from F-4 aircraft with low smoke combustor(LSC) J79 engines has been reported to be of sufficient concentration to cause irritation. It has also been noted that eye and respiratory irritation became more frequent and severe after the fuel was changed from JP-4 to JP-8. The ...
Wiegand J - - 2000
222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations are 42 (n = ...
McKendry I G - - 2000
Three years of hourly averaged PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter) tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) data from 10 sites in the large coastal valley incorporating Greater Vancouver were used to investigate the spatiotemporal dimensions and air pollution meteorology of particulate pollution. During the period studied, the ...
Lafontaine M - - 2000
Five representative workers and two external observers were monitored by personal air and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (PyOH) sampling for a four-shift working week in an artificial shooting target factory. The targets (clay pigeons), are made from petroleum pitch and molded at 190 degrees C. No respiratory protective mask was worn. Atmospheric ...
Webster L - - 2000
A few days after the grounding of the oil tanker Braer on 5 January 1993, an Exclusion Zone was designated by Order under the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985, prohibiting the harvesting of farmed or wild shellfish within the Zone to prevent contaminated products reaching the market place. The ...
Bonnet P - - 2000
Bitumen fumes emitted during road paving or roofing contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experimental studies have been previously performed to test the carcinogenic potency of bitumen fumes. Some of them have been criticised either on the grounds that the fume condensates were not representative of fumes to which humans are ...
Papageorgopoulou A - - 1999
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the ambient air of six towns in N. Greece. This paper presents the variability of the particle-bound PAHs concentrations and the particle PAH content during the cold and the warm months. Correlations of total PAHs with other atmospheric pollutants were largely different among ...
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