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Results 351 - 400 of 477
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Seila R L - - 2001
Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juárez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five sites, three ...
Chow J C - - 2001
The 'Imperial/Mexicali Valley Cross-Border PM10 Transport Study' acquired a database of meteorological and air quality measurements to determine source contributions to elevated PM10 concentrations and to estimate transport of PM10 between the US and Mexico. The study was conducted from 13 March 1992 to 29 August 1993, in a 80-km ...
Wang S X - - 2001
The quality of gasoline and diesel fuel affects pollutant emissions from vehicles. By applying the COMPLEX model, developed by the US EPA and industry to relate fuel composition to vehicle emissions, this paper estimates the influence of improvements in gasoline quality to lower vehicular NOx emissions. A case study is ...
Mastral A M - - 2001
The main aim of this work was the analyzing of the release to the atmosphere of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (D(a,h)A), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), three of the most carcinogenic PAHs listed by US-EPA as priority pollutants, emitted from combustion at the last generation reactors used nowadays in power generation, fluidized bed ...
Buehler S S - - 2001
Atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides were compared at Brule River and Eagle Harbor, two rural sites on Lake Superior that are part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN). Brule River lies 40 km southwest of Duluth, MN, a small industrial city, and ...
Kasting J F - - 2001
A simple coupled ecosystem-climate model is described that can predict levels of atmospheric CH4, CO2, and H2 during the Late Archean, given observed constraints on Earth's surface temperature. We find that methanogenic bacteria should have converted most of the available atmospheric H2 into CH4, and that CH4 may have been ...
Engelbrecht J P - - 2001
This article presents results from the particulate monitoring campaign conducted at Qalabotjha in South Africa during the winter of 1997. Combustion of D-grade domestic coal and low-smoke fuels were compared in a residential neighborhood to evaluate the extent of air quality improvement by switching household cooking and heating fuels. Comparisons ...
Nan H M - - 2001
This study was undertaken to determine the effects of occupation, lifestyle and the genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and glutathione S-transferases micro1 (GSTM1) and 1 (GSTT1) on the concentrations of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol among Korean coke oven workers and university students. The ...
Kazerouni N - - 2001
Animal studies have shown that dietary intake of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), causes increased levels of tumors at several sites, particularly in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of dietary intake of BaP and cancer in humans is not clear. We created a BaP database of ...
Wey M Y - - 2001
Previous studies have shown that pollutants from incineration include heavy metals, organic compounds, particulate and acid gas. However, most studies on a single pollutant, it is rare for a study to concentrate on all possible pollutants and the relations between these pollutants under various incineration conditions. The objective of this ...
Zhang J - - 2001
The objective of this paper is to conduct an integrated analysis of the energy, greenhouse gas, and air quality impacts of a new type of boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) in contrast to those of the raw coal from which the BB-coal was formulated (R-coal). The analysis is based on the ...
Hansen A D - - 2001
Aerosol light absorption as black carbon (BC) was measured from November 19, 1995, to February 6, 1996, at a location 0.65 km downwind of the center of McMurdo Station on the Antarctic coast. The results show a bimodal frequency distribution of BC concentrations. Approximately 65% of the measurements were found ...
Kim Y M - - 2001
Concentrations of 15 VOCs including 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and styrene were measured in a wide range of urban microenvironments, viz: homes, offices, restaurants, pubs, department stores, coach and train stations, cinemas, libraries, laboratories, perfume shops, heavily trafficked roadside locations, buses, trains, and automobiles. For most target VOCs-including 1,3-butadiene and benzene-mean concentrations ...
Kanaly R A - - 2001
Bacterial mineralization of [7-14C]benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) to 14CO2 was enhanced by the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Mineralization of BaP was affected differently by different NAPLs, and the mode of enhancement of mineralization by a NAPL most likely occurred by a combination of cometabolic and physical effects. Mineralization was enhanced ...
Kim H - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has been used as a biological marker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and urinary 2-naphthol is suggested as a new marker for route-specific exposure to airborne PAHs. We analyzed urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol concentrations in 292 male Koreans (129 university students and 163 shipyard ...
Jongeneelen F J - - 2001
Many individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are genotoxic carcinogens. One of the parent PAH, pyrene, undergoes simple metabolism to 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-Hydroxypyrene and its glucuronide are excreted in urine. Biological monitoring of exposure to PAH has rapidly been expanded since urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was suggested as a biological index of dose of ...
Williams R - - 2000
A combined epidemiological exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants from numerous spatial boundaries associated with an elderly population, provide ...
Okay O S - - 2000
The role of algal concentration in the transfer of organic contaminants in a food chain has been studied using the ubiquitous model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the contaminant, Isochrysis galbana as the phytoplankton food source, and the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) as the primary consumer. The effect of ...
Opiekun R E - - 2000
Control subjects (CON) and self-reported methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)-sensitive subjects (SRS) were evaluated to distinguish between the following gasoline blends: gasoline versus gasoline + MTBE (15% MTBE v/v); and gasoline versus gasoline + MTBE + reodorant. The study also investigated the ability of a reodorant to conceal the odor ...
Van Loy M - - 2000
The Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (ARIES) was designed to provide high-quality measurements of PM2.5, its components, and co-varying pollutants for an air pollution epidemiology study in Atlanta, GA. Air pollution epidemiology studies have typically relied on available data on particle mass often collected using filter-based methods. Filter-based PM2.5 ...
Tuomi T - - 2000
To estimate the impact of office equipment on the quality of indoor air, the emission of ozone and organic volatiles was measured from one photocopier and four laser printers, three of which operated according to traditional corona discharge technology. The laser printers equipped with traditional technology emitted significant amounts of ...
Moore G - - 2000
The efficacy of ozone as a terminal disinfectant was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Different microorganisms of importance to the food industry were inoculated onto stainless steel squares and incubated at various temperatures and relative humidities for up to 4 h. Survival of microorganisms from these controls was compared with identically ...
LeBourgeois H W HW - - 2000
The detection of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) depends on the viability of the ear's conduction apparatus. However, tympanic membrane perforations and other conductive disorders have not been fully investigated with regard to the examination of DPOAEs. Using the guinea pig model, we made perforations of different sizes and loci on ...
Viau C - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Wood combustion is used as a major energy source in African countries and could result in indoor, pollution-related health problems. This exploratory study was undertaken to estimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and carbon monoxide exposure in individuals living in traditional rural houses in Burundi. METHODS: Standard methods were used ...
Germuska R - - 2000
During the last three decades contamination of food by traces of toxic substances has been the object of intensive research in modern food toxicology. Various classes of compounds of different origin were detected in food and beverages. In particular nitrosamines and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons attracted attention, due to their mutagenic ...
Hyvärinen M J - - 2000
The Finnish Tobacco Act has restricted smoking in public places since 1976, and in 1994 the Act was amended to include workplaces as well. In 2000, the Tobacco Act will be expanded further to restaurants. In Finland, the exposure of clients and employees to the vapor phase environmental tobacco smoke ...
Monteiro P R - - 2000
The chronic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on ovary development, total hepatic lipids and plasma sex- and corticosteroid levels in female flounder (Platichthys flesus) were examined. Sexually mature feral female flounder were exposed via the diet to phenanthrene (0.5, 2.5 or 12.5 nmol/g food) or chrysene (0.4 nmol/g food) ...
Gebhart K A - - 2000
Several factors have recently caused visibility impairment at Big Bend National Park, TX, to be of interest. Analyses of historical data collected there have shown that visibility is poorer and fine particle concentrations are higher at Big Bend than at other monitored Class I areas in the western United States. ...
Rivera J A - - 2000
Contributions to water retention capacity (% WRC) and texture changes were determined for pork by-products (lung lobes, kidneys), chicken viscera (head, feet and viscera) and mechanically separated chicken (MSC) as affected by pH and various salts in a high-moisture model system. The % WRC for meat by-products and MSC was ...
Kobayashi A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Formaldehyde (FA) in exhaust from F-4 aircraft with low smoke combustor(LSC) J79 engines has been reported to be of sufficient concentration to cause irritation. It has also been noted that eye and respiratory irritation became more frequent and severe after the fuel was changed from JP-4 to JP-8. The ...
Wiegand J - - 2000
222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations are 42 (n = ...
McKendry I G - - 2000
Three years of hourly averaged PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter) tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) data from 10 sites in the large coastal valley incorporating Greater Vancouver were used to investigate the spatiotemporal dimensions and air pollution meteorology of particulate pollution. During the period studied, the ...
Lafontaine M - - 2000
Five representative workers and two external observers were monitored by personal air and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (PyOH) sampling for a four-shift working week in an artificial shooting target factory. The targets (clay pigeons), are made from petroleum pitch and molded at 190 degrees C. No respiratory protective mask was worn. Atmospheric ...
Webster L - - 2000
A few days after the grounding of the oil tanker Braer on 5 January 1993, an Exclusion Zone was designated by Order under the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985, prohibiting the harvesting of farmed or wild shellfish within the Zone to prevent contaminated products reaching the market place. The ...
Bonnet P - - 2000
Bitumen fumes emitted during road paving or roofing contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experimental studies have been previously performed to test the carcinogenic potency of bitumen fumes. Some of them have been criticised either on the grounds that the fume condensates were not representative of fumes to which humans are ...
Papageorgopoulou A - - 1999
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the ambient air of six towns in N. Greece. This paper presents the variability of the particle-bound PAHs concentrations and the particle PAH content during the cold and the warm months. Correlations of total PAHs with other atmospheric pollutants were largely different among ...
Phillips T J - - 1999
Ozone emissions were measured above a "personal air purifier" (PAP) designed to be worn on a lapel, shirt pocket, or neck strap. The device is being marketed as a negative ion generator that purifies the air. However, it also produces ozone within the person's immediate breathing zone. In order to ...
Kuo W S - - 1999
Synergistic effects including TOC elimination, ozone consumption and microtoxicity reduction for combination of photolysis and ozonation compared to those of direct photolysis and ozonation alone on destruction of chlorophenols including 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol were studied. It was found that the synergistic effects of combination of photolysis and ozonation increased ...
Lewis R G - - 1999
House dust is a repository for environmental pollutants that may accumulate indoors from both internal and external sources over long periods of time. Dust and tracked-in soil accumulate most efficiently in carpets, and the pollutants associated with dust and soil may present an exposure risk to infants and toddlers, who ...
Kim J G - - 1999
Ozone (O3) is a strong antimicrobial agent with numerous potential applications in the food industry. High reactivity, penetrability, and spontaneous decomposition to a nontoxic product (i.e., O2) make ozone a viable disinfectant for ensuring the microbiological safety of food products. Ozone has been used for decades in many countries and ...
Phillips D H - - 1999
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), of which benzo[a]pyrene is the most commonly studied and measured, are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic matter. They are widely distributed in the environment and human exposure to them is unavoidable. A number of them, such as benzo[a]pyrene, are carcinogenic and mutagenic, and they ...
Lomascolo A - - 1999
Consumer preference for natural food additives has led to an increasing demand for natural aromatic compounds. An alternative production process to plant and chemical sources is the use of biotechnological methods involving microorganisms, which ensure a stable supply, quality and price. Among filamentous fungi, white-rot basidiomycetes represent an important group ...
Dubowsky S D - - 1999
A photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS) was used to measure real-time indoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at three residences. Semi-quantitative measurements of total indoor particle-bound PAH and temperature were collected continuously every minute for approximately 2 weeks at each location. The purpose of this study was to examine the ...
Naeher L P - - 1999
The relationship between ambient air pollution and daily change in peak expiratory flow (PEF) was studied in a sample of 473 nonsmoking women (age 19 to 43 yr) in Virginia over summers 1995- 1996. Daily 24-h averages of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), fine particulate sulfate (SO42-) and strong acid ...
Geueke K J - - 1999
The currently available information on PCDD/F emissions from diesel vehicles is briefly surveyed. Considerable uncertainty is identified concerning the emissions from heavy duty diesel trucks which have been measured only twice so far. These measurements led to emission factors differing by a factor of 200; similar discrepancy was also revealed ...
Pérez Chabela M L - - 1999
Causes of the food borne epidemics in Mexico City have usually been ascribed to poor handling and preparation of foods. In this work, presence of microorganisms indicative of contamination were analysed in meat sold in Mexico City's retail outlets. Enterobacteriaceae, psycorothrophs, mould and yeast, and mesophile counts, were evaluated in ...
Eder E - - 1999
Reports on intraindividual changes of DNA adduct levels in humans are rare. Most of the data available in the literature are from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are measured in white blood cells with 32P-postlabeling or immunochemical assays. Surprisingly, environmental exposure can have a larger effect on PAH adduct levels ...
Chen M L - - 1999
This study conducted an atmospheric aerosol sampling to measure the PM10 (particles < 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (particles < 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter) mass concentrations from October 1996 to June 1997 in northern (Taipei), central (Taichung) and southern (Kaohsiung), the three largest cities of Taiwan. Seventy-eight ...
Till M - - 1999
A number of highly toxic environmental pollutants including certain polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and 'dioxin-like' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are among the most potent agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Induction of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) in mammalian cell culture is widely used as a functional parameter for AHR ...
Nielsen T - - 1999
The occurrence of particle associated PAH and other mutagenic PAC was determined in 1996 in the street air of Copenhagen. In addition, particle extracts were tested for mutagenicity. The measurements were compared with previous measurements in 1992/1993. The levels had decreased in this period. The decrease was caused by an ...
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