Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 492
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Hefting Mariet M - - 2003
Riparian buffer zones are known to reduce diffuse N pollution of streams by removing and modifying N from agricultural runoff. Denitrification, often identified as the key N removal process, is also considered as a major source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The risks of high N2O emissions during ...
Fujita Eric M - - 2003
Since the mid-1970s, ozone (O3) levels in portions of California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) on weekends have been as high as or higher than levels on weekdays, even though emissions of O3 precursors are lower on weekends. Analysis of the ambient data indicates that the intensity and spatial extent ...
Kuusimaki Leea - - 2003
The levels of particle and vapour phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the diesel exhaust compounds in bus garage work were measured in winter and in summer. Five personal air samples were collected from the breathing zones of 22 garage workers every other day of consecutive weeks. Control samples ...
Zuccarello Joseph L - - 2003
Discovery of the fuel additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, surface water, and stormwater has prompted studies of its sources, transport and fate. More limited data, however, is available on the extent of contamination of coastal waters, as well as the persistence of MTBE in the marine environment. We ...
Dakhel Nathalie - - 2003
A controlled gasoline spill experiment was performed under outdoor conditions typical for winter in temperate regions to study the fate of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol, benzene, and selected other petroleum hydrocarbons. Artificial gasoline containing MTBE and ethanol (5% w/w of each) was placed at a defined depth into a ...
Bailis Rob - - 2003
Linkages between household energy technology, indoor air pollution, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have become increasingly important in understanding the local and global environmental and health effects of domestic energy use. We report on GHG emissions from common Kenyan wood and charcoal cookstoves. Our estimations are based on 29 d ...
Rosell Mònica - - 2003
In Catalonia (northeast Spain), a monitoring program was carried out to determine methyl tert.-butyl ether (MTBE), its main degradation products, tert.-butyl alcohol (TBA), tert.-butyl formate (TBF), and other gasoline additives, the oxygenate dialkyl ethers ethyl tert.-butyl ether, tert.-amyl methyl ether and diisopropyl ether and the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene ...
Wey M Y - - 2003
The research investigated the absorption/adsorption efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different Ca-based sorbents in a spray dryer during incineration process. For further improving the adsorption capacity of Ca-based sorbents, different spraying pressure and additives were carried out in this study. Experimental results ...
Zhu Li-Zhong - - 2003
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of four typical homes in Hangzhou, China were determined with a highly automated chromatographic method. The results indicated that the concentrations of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor air were between 1.907 microg/m3 and 14.29 microg/m3, which were much higher ...
Cohen Douglas L - - 2003
The formula for the noise-equivalent change in radiance (NEdN) for sampling noise [Appl. Opt. 38, 139 (1999)] can work well when applied to the double-sided interferograms of radiance spectra dominated by isolated emission lines, but it does not work well when applied to broad, slowly varying radiance spectra such as ...
Ma Hwong-Wen - - 2003
A new Gas-Induced Reactor (GIR) has been developed to improve the efficiency of ozone utilization in water treatment. In this study, the GIR was used to investigate the behavior of ozonation of aqueous phenol solution by means of O3 and O3/H2O2 processes in order to explore the feasibility and efficiency ...
Muthumbi W - - 2003
The importance of combustion processes as a source of substances with estrogenic activity in the environment was investigated. Wood (nontreated and treated with wood preservatives), barbecue charcoal, meat, and kitchen waste were combusted in a laboratory-scale incinerator. Flue gas emissions (particulates and gaseous pollutants) were trapped in polyurethane foam cartridges. ...
Zhu Lizhong - - 2003
Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, multi-ringed compounds known to be carcinogenic in air of six domestic kitchens and four commercial kitchens of China were measured in 1999-2000. The mean concentration of total PAHs in commercial kitchens was 17 microg/m3, consisting mainly of 3- and 4-ring PAHs, and 7.6 microg/m3 in domestic ...
Godin-Beekmann S - - 2003
Long term stratospheric DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) ozone lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements have been performed at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) since 1985 and as part of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Changes (NDSC) since 1991. This paper provides a detailed description of the DIAL lidar ...
Abu-Jarad F - - 2003
The results of a first phase of an indoor radon survey in a total of 1610 dwellings distributed in nine cities of the Eastern and the Western provinces of Saudi Arabia are presented. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data for seven cities in ...
Kim Jin-Gab - - 2003
The food industry is interested considerably in using ozone to enhance the shelf-life and safety of food products and in exploring new applications of the sanitizer. This interest was recently accompanied by a US governmental approval of ozone for the safe use, in gaseous and aqueous phases, as an antimicrobial ...
Gupta A K - - 2003
A long-term study of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and ammonia (NH3) has been performed in a port and harbor region in India from January 1997 to December 2000. Meteorological data was also collected to establish the correlation with gaseous pollutants concentrations. Monthly mean concentrations of NOx were ...
Varotsos Costas - - 2003
Varotsos (2002a,b), suggested that both the smaller-sized ozone hole over Antarctica and its splitting in two holes in September 2002 occurred due to an unprecedented major sudden stratospheric warming caused by very strong planetary waves propagated in the southern hemisphere. Subsequently, a NASA press release of December 6, 2002, also ...
Kieber Robert J - - 2002
The concentrations of the various chromium species were determined in 89 rainwater samples collected in Wilmington, NC, from October 1, 1999, to December 31, 2001. Volume-weighted annual average concentrations of Cr(total), particulate Cr, Cr(III)(aq), and Cr(VI)(aq) were 4.6, 2.2, 0.8, and 1.2 nM, respectively. There was distinct seasonal and diurnal ...
McDonald Blair G - - 2002
Photoenhanced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is well demonstrated in laboratory and in a few in situ studies. Effects have been observed for multiple taxa and toxicological endpoints, and the mechanism of toxic action has been described. However, this phenomenon is ameliorated by physical, chemical and biotic factors. The ...
Alcalde Miguel - - 2002
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly toxic organic pollutants widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In the present work, 2 colorimetric assays for laccase-catalyzed degradation of PAHs were developed based on studies of the oxidation of 12 aromatic hydrocarbons by fungal laccases from Trametes versicolor and Myceliophthora thermophila. Using ...
Mader Brian T - - 2002
A controlled field experiment (CFE) methodology with a filter/sorbent sampler was used to minimize artifact effects when measuring values of the gas/particle (G/P) partitioning constant (Kp, m3 microg(-1)) for semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in the atmosphere. CFE sampling was conducted at three different locations (Beaverton, OR; Denver, CO; and Hills, ...
Arsene Cristian - - 2002
The epicuticular composition of different body parts of the Cabbage White, Pieris rapae L., was investigated using GC and GC/MS. The major group of components, hydrocarbons, occurs in two distinct classes, which show different distributions on the cuticle of the insects. Unbranched shorter chain compounds (C21 to C31, linear group) ...
Richardson Bruce J - - 2002
The outer layers of layflat, low density polyethylene plastic tubing (the principal component of semi-permeable membrane devices, SPMDs) were biofouled at a clean site in Hong Kong coastal waters for periods of 1-4 weeks. Following pre-fouling, triolein was added to the SPMDs and, along with control (unfouled) devices, they were ...
Siegmund Barbara - - 2003
The presence of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) as contaminants in foods is nowadays a legitimate cause of concern, as they are reported to be strong direct-acting mutagens and carcinogens that may pose a risk to human health. Nevertheless, their concentrations in foods are in the ultra-trace region. In this ...
Greenwell Leona L - - 2002
A positive correlation has been established between increased levels of airborne particulate pollution and adverse health effects, the toxicological mechanisms of which are poorly understood. For toxicologists to unambiguously determine these mechanisms, truly representative samples of ambient PM10 are required. This presents problems, as PM10 collecting equipment commonly employed, such ...
Nolte Christopher G - - 2002
Source sample extracts of vegetative detritus, motor vehicle exhaust, tire dust paved road dust, and cigarette smoke have been silylated and analyzed by GC-MS to identify polar organic compounds that may serve as tracers for those specific emission sources of atmospheric fine particulate matter. Candidate molecular tracers were also identified ...
Viau Claude - - 2002
Five healthy volunteers consumed similar amounts of identical foods for 5 consecutive days. The concentration of pyrene and of benzo(a)pyrene was determined in each of the 15 meals by a short analytical method that included sample saponification, solvent extraction, and HPLC analysis. The volunteers also provided three daily total volume ...
Yang Hsi-Hsien - - 2002
In order to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission from steel and iron industries, this study measured the stack emission of twelve steel and iron plants in southern Taiwan to construct a set of source fingerprints. The study sampled the emissions by the USEPA's sampling method 5 with the ...
Offenberg John H - - 2002
Concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds in dissolved and particulate forms in precipitation are related to those measured concurrently in air measured at multiple locations along the tracks of several storms. In 14 paired (air and precipitation) samples collected at urban, over-water, and downwind stations around southern Lake Michigan, compound-specific total ...
Arafa W - - 2002
The indoor radon concentration in a typical Egyptian village in Delta was measured in 50 houses during summer 1999 and winter 2000. This survey was done using three different types of charcoal canisters: 4" open-faced, 2.75" open-faced, and 2.75" diffusion barrier. The average winter to summer ratio was 2.1 and ...
Lee S C - - 2002
The assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has become a major issue of air quality network monitoring in Hong Kong. This study is aimed to identify, quantify and characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different urban areas in Hong Kong. The spatial distribution, temporal variation as well as correlations of ...
Fang Guor-Cheng - - 2002
Airborne particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in industrial, background and urban atmosphere environments were investigated using toxic equivalent factors (TEFs) in central Taiwan during the period of August-December 2002. Concentrations of airborne particles were 93.4, 81.3 and 102.4 microg/m3 for industrial, background and urban sites, respectively. Concentrations of 21 ...
Kang Jong-Won - - 2002
The authors investigated Korean municipal middle school students to ascertain whether urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol-markers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure-reflect PAHs in ambient air. The authors used the beta-ray absorption method, which is an index of ambient-air PAH exposure, to collect total suspended particulate (TSP) data. The authors ...
Borbon A - - 2002
Continuous hourly air quality data involving 37 C2-C9 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) over 4 years are reported for the first time in Lille metropol, northern France, at two urban roadside and background sites. The data have been analysed in two complementary steps: univariate statistics which define the spatial and temporal characteristics ...
Ricking M - - 2002
To document the historical input the PAH-profiles of sediment cores in two different basins of the Baltic Sea, the Gotland Basin (GB) and Arkona Basin (AB), were analysed by means of GC-MS. 35 PAHs were quantified in all samples, and additionally, several marker PAHs, like Cyclopenta[cd]phenanthrene (CCP) for combustion processes ...
Law Robin J - - 2002
Fish and shellfish are exposed to a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) following oil spills at sea, and can become contaminated as a result. Finfish have a more effective mixed-function oxidase enzyme system than shellfish, and are therefore able to metabolise and excrete PAH more effectively than the ...
Baeza M J - - 2002
Fire behaviour under experimental conditions is described in nine Mediterranean gorse shrublands ranging from 3-12 years of age with different fuel loads. Significant differences in the fire-line intensity, fuel load and rate of fire spread have been found to be related to the stage of development of the communities. Fire ...
Asikainen Arja H - - 2002
Two experiments were performed with an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifier (ACFBG), the first with pelletized straw and the second with loose straw, to investigate the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorophenols (CIPhs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated benzenes (ClBzs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the bottom ...
Gatermann R - - 2002
A method for the enantioselective separation of the chiral polycyclic musks HHCB, AHTN, AHDI, and ATII is presented. Eighteen fish samples (rudd, tench, crucian carp, eel) and one pooled zebra mussel sample from the pond of a municipal sewage treatment plant were investigated with regard to their concentrations and the ...
Ginzel Matthew D - - 2002
This study evaluates the potential for using blends of synthetic hydrocarbons in mark-recapture studies of insects. To test the durability of hydrocarbons, we applied a blend of five straight-chain hydrocarbons (C24, C21, C26. C28, C30) to detached elytra of the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetrophthalmus (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), mounted the ...
Jones Tim - - 2002
Airborne particulate matter has been collected from within, and proximal to, an opencast coal mine in south Wales. This work forms the first part of a three year project to collect and characterise, then determine the possible toxicology of airborne particles in the south Wales region. High-resolution Field Emission SEM ...
Jaimes L - - 2002
Samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in a smog chamber in order to determine whether automotive exhausts or LP Gas emissions play a greater role in the source of propane and butane, which affect ozone formation and other pollutants in the ambient air of the Mexico City metropolitan ...
Youssef Tarek - - 2002
The germination behavior of Sporobolus iocladus seeds including germination percentage, accumulated germination percentage, the average incubation period to germination and germination velocity was studied under laboratory conditions. Treatments included six salinity regimes (0, 70, 140, 210, 280 and 350 mM NaCI) and three sources of oil hydrocarbons; Light Arabian Crude, ...
Fernandes Milena B - - 2002
Polycyclic aromatic and monoaromatic (benzene, toluene and xylene, or BTX) hydrocarbons were monitored in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the summer of 1998/1999. The levels of these aromatic chemicals decreased with distance from main roads, indicating mobile sources are the main pollutant emitters in this Latin American city. Benzo[ghi]perylene/indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and ...
Mugica V - - 2002
With the purpose of estimating the source contributions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) to the atmosphere at three different sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, 92 ambient air samples were measured from February 23 to March 22 of 1997. Light- and heavy-duty vehicular profiles were determined to differentiate the NMHC ...
Maw S J - - 2002
The evolution of NOx from grass and maize silages was measured using chemiluminescence in samples kept in airtight containers, in the silos and in a 750 kg mass removed to a mixer waggon. Measurements were made on the grass and maize silos in two consecutive years. The results show that ...
Mostafa Gamal A - - 2002
Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrpcarvons (PAHs) in some seafoods caught from Lake Timsah were determined. The tested samples were tilapia fish (Oreochromis aureus), crabs (Portuns pelagicus), bivalves (Venerupis decussata), clams (Strombus tricornis) and gastropods (Munes Sp.). Where these seafoods are locally and favorite consumed foods in the area around the ...
Sahle-Demessie E - - 2002
The use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a gasoline additive has resulted in increasing pollution of groundwater. Most of the conventional treatment technologies are inefficient or costly when the initial concentration of MTBE is low (< 200 microg/L). To find an ecology friendly and inexpensive method for MTBE remediation, ...
Prak Dianne J Luning - - 2002
The degradation rates of mixtures of pyrene (PYR), fluoranthene (FLA), and phenanthrene (PHE) by Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA 505 were measured in the presence of the nonionic surfactant Tween 80. For strain EPA 505, FLA and PHE are growth substrates, while PYR is not. Linear degradation rates ranging from 0.05 to ...
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