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Results 251 - 300 of 477
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Barranco A - - 2004
The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection in different fatty foods from a Spanish market. The average concentration of the sum of total PAHs in edible vegetable oils was below 25 ng/g, whereas the sum of heavy PAHs did not ...
Jaward Foday M - - 2004
Ship-board air samples collected between The Netherlands and South Africa in January-February 2001 were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The highest PAH concentrations occurred in the European samples, and in samples close to West Africa and South Africa. Consistently low PAH concentrations were measured in ...
Wong Jonathan W C - - 2004
The bioavailability and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be increased through the addition of surfactants. Previous studies of this nature have been conducted under mesophilic conditions. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of synthetic surfactants and biosurfactants on solubilization and degradation of ...
Chen J C - - 2004
Sludge incineration is becoming an important disposal method of industrial sludge from the viewpoint of the need to minimize the environmental impact. This work employs a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator to investigate the combustion characteristics of petrochemical sludge. Effects of different operating conditions on the performance of sludge incineration and ...
Squillace Paul J - - 2004
The quality of shallow groundwater in urban areas was investigated by sampling 518 monitoring wells between 1996 and 2002 as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Well networks were installed primarily in new residential/commercial areas less than about 30 years old (17 studies) and ...
Franklin Anna C - - 2004
Passive samplers with two different collection substrates were used to obtain an average ozone concentration for 1 month during the summer of 2002 for each South Carolina county. One sampler contained a filter coated with indigo carmine, whose color fades when exposed to ozone. The fading was measured by reflectance ...
Gobi K Vengatajalabathy - - 2004
A biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is developed for the detection of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP). A monoclonal antibody against HBP (abbreviated hereafter as HBP-mAb) is developed and used for the detection of HBP by competitive SPR-based immunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. A novel HBP-hapten compound, HBP-bovine ...
Brook Jeffrey R - - 2004
An ensemble-trajectory analysis technique known as Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis was applied to determine which geographic areas systematically contributed to above- and below-average fine particle mass (PM2.5) over eastern North America. Six-hour average measurements from 12 rural or suburban locations in eastern North America collected using a tapered element oscillating ...
McDonald Rafael - - 2004
The morphology of ambient particulate matter (PM) is an important characteristic that seldom is measured and reported. A study was performed to determine the viability of a method to establish the distribution of shapes and the fractal dimensions of aggregates of ambient aerosols. Particles of PM with aerodynamic diameter less ...
Lemiere Sébastien - - 2004
Heavy fuel oils containing high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were released into the marine environment after the Erika oil spill on the Atlantic coast. As highly condensed PAH pollutants can bioaccumulate in invertebrates, their transfer to vertebrates through the food chain was of concern. This study aimed to ...
Cooper C David - - 2004
In many urban areas, on-road vehicles are the biggest contributing source category of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Based on a recently completed emission inventory study for three counties in central Florida, the major source by far of anthropogenic VOCs and NOx was on-road mobile sources, even ...
Dissanayake Awantha - - 2004
A field study was carried out to investigate whether polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) could be measured using fluorescence spectrometry. Crabs were collected as part of an integrated study to assess PAH contamination in Southampton Water, UK. Urine was collected from crabs via a non-destructive technique ...
van der Leun Jan C - - 2004
The intention of this paper is to stimulate the interest for the ozone layer, especially among young colleagues in photobiology; the "layer" is not only important, but also fascinating. In spite of remarkably effective action, the recovery of the ozone layer will be a long-term process. It will need the ...
Soga K - - 2004
A number of previous studies are reviewed to examine the actual reduction of NAPL from source zones and the effectiveness of the specific technique of remediation used at sites under study. It has been shown that complete removal of the NAPL in free phase or residual is not possible due ...
Shaw Melanie - - 2004
Two water quality monitoring strategies designed to sample hydrophobic organic contaminants have been applied and evaluated across an expected concentration gradient in PAHs in the Moreton region. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) that sequester contaminants via passive diffusion across a membrane were used to evaluate the concentration of PAHs at four ...
Wurl Oliver - - 2004
Boundary layers between different environmental compartments represent critical interfaces for biological, chemical and physical processes. The sea-surface microlayer (uppermost 1-1000 microm layer) forms the boundary layer interface between the atmosphere and ocean. Environmental processes are controlled by the SML, and it is known to play a key role in the ...
Fabietti F - - 2004
Twenty-three samples of human milk collected from the milk bank of a children's hospital were analysed with a view to monitoring the possible presence of some of the most common aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene and toluene) and to quantify their concentrations. The analysis was carried out by the "purge and trap" ...
Doong Ruey-An - - 2004
The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment samples collected from 12 locations in Gao-ping River, Taiwan were analyzed. Molecular ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to characterize the possible pollution sources. Concentrations of total 16 PAHs (SigmaPAHs) in water samples ranged from below ...
Stemmler Konrad - - 2004
This study presents the quantification of the emissions of the refrigerants CFC-12 (CCl2F2), HCFC-22 (CHClF2), and HFC-134a (CF3CH2F) from road traffic in Switzerland. These gases are used as refrigerants in car air conditioning systems (A/C-systems) and in cool aggregates for refrigeration transport. All three substances act as greenhouse gases, and ...
Zereini Fathi - - 2004
The concentrations and distribution of platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh) in airborne particulate matter were studied in a period of one year from August 2001 to July 2002 in urban and in nonurban areas. Airborne dust samples were collected as a total amount (particles with an aerodynamic diameter <22 ...
Kim J H - - 2004
Tropospheric ozone, derived from the Scan-Angle Method (SAM) and the Convective Cloud Differential (CCD) method, exhibits a noticeable abundance over the South Atlantic, where it is associated with biomass-burning in the austral spring. This feature is also seen in the distribution of carbon monoxide observed from Measurements Of Pollution In ...
Punín Crespo M O - - 2004
The algae considered new foods according to Regulation CE 258/97 need a guarantee of their healthfulness before being in the European market. In this work ten samples of the brown alga Himanthalia elongata have been analyzed with the aim of verifying the absence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, due to the ability ...
Lu Qing-Gang - - 2004
Influence of co-firing rate on SO2 emission from co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW) and bituminous containing high amount of sulfur (1.79%) was studied in a 0.15 MWt circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The temperature selected is 1123 K, typical for MSW incineration using CFB. The particle concentration in the dilution zone ...
Cheung C C C - - 2004
In this study, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis (L.), was exposed to two concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.3 microg l(-1); 3 microg l(-1)) and two concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (0.5 microg l(-1); 5 microg l(-1)). In addition, a mixture of the contaminants was used (0.3 microg l(-1) B[a]P+0.5 microg l(-1) ...
Shih Tom - - 2004
The environmental behavior of fuel oxygenates (other than methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) is poorly understood because few data have been systematically collected and analyzed. This study evaluated the potential for groundwater resource contamination by fuel hydrocarbons (FHCs) and oxygenates (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], tertamyl methyl ether [TAME], diisopropyl ether [DIPE], ...
Ho L - - 2004
The ozonation of MIB and geosmin was studied in synthetic waters containing two natural organic material (NOM) fractions and sodium bicarbonate. The ozonation of both compounds was found to be affected by the character of the NOM fractions, with higher apparent rate constants observed in the fraction containing higher UV/visible ...
Falcó Gemma - - 2003
The dietary intake of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) by the general population of Catalonia, Spain, was calculated. Concentrations of PAHs in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia from June ...
Peachey Rita B J - - 2003
A review of the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and tributyltin (TBT) in sediments from Mobile Bay, Alabama, shows that overall levels of PAH decrease from the upper bay (RI) to the lower bay (RIV). Analysis of PAH ratios indicate that pyrogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion are ...
Mai Bixian - - 2003
The coastal region off Macao is a known depositional zone for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Pearl River Delta and Estuary of southern China and an important gateway for the regional contributions of contamination to the globe. This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of the input sources and transport ...
Kuusimäki Leea - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of bus-garage and waste-collection workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from diesel exhaust by the measurement of levels of seven urinary PAH metabolites: 2-naphthol, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1+9-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-hydroxypyrene. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One urine sample from ...
Väänänen Virpi - - 2003
The exposure of paving workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during stone mastic asphalt (SMA) paving and remixing was evaluated. The effects on the workers' PAH exposure were also evaluated during the use of an industrial by-product, coal fly ash (CFA), instead of limestone as the filler in the SMA. ...
Fraser M P - - 2003
Samples of fine particulate matter were collected in a roadway tunnel near Houston, TX over a period of 4 days during two separate sampling periods: one sampling period from 1200 to 1400 local time and another sampling period from 1600 to 1800 local time. During the two sampling periods, the ...
Lee Wen-Jhy - - 2003
In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from two batch-type medical waste incinerators (MWIs), one with a mechanical grate and the other with a fixed grate, both operated by a medical center, were assessed. Both MWIs shared the same air-pollution control devices (APCDs), with an electrostatic precipitator and a ...
Hellou Jocelyne - - 2003
Mytilus edulis were collected intertidally from three locations in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, on five occasions during spring and summer 2000. Bioindicators of health (lipid content), condition and gonad indices (CI and GI), and sex ratio, as well as vitellins, were compared with the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) ...
Zayed Joseph - - 2003
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), is an organic derivative of Mn used as an anti-knock agent in Canadian unleaded gasoline since 1976. This study aims to estimate Mn emissions from MMT source in the Canadian environment as well as the Mn pollution index per capita in each of the Canadian provinces. ...
Reynolds W J - - 2003
This study investigated the response of biomarker measurements and histopathological indicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in the flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). Flounder were fed food spiked with a mixture of four PAHs at an environmentally relevant range of concentrations for either one or six months. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity ...
Hefting Mariet M - - 2003
Riparian buffer zones are known to reduce diffuse N pollution of streams by removing and modifying N from agricultural runoff. Denitrification, often identified as the key N removal process, is also considered as a major source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The risks of high N2O emissions during ...
Fujita Eric M - - 2003
Since the mid-1970s, ozone (O3) levels in portions of California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) on weekends have been as high as or higher than levels on weekdays, even though emissions of O3 precursors are lower on weekends. Analysis of the ambient data indicates that the intensity and spatial extent ...
Kuusimaki Leea - - 2003
The levels of particle and vapour phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the diesel exhaust compounds in bus garage work were measured in winter and in summer. Five personal air samples were collected from the breathing zones of 22 garage workers every other day of consecutive weeks. Control samples ...
Zuccarello Joseph L - - 2003
Discovery of the fuel additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, surface water, and stormwater has prompted studies of its sources, transport and fate. More limited data, however, is available on the extent of contamination of coastal waters, as well as the persistence of MTBE in the marine environment. We ...
Dakhel Nathalie - - 2003
A controlled gasoline spill experiment was performed under outdoor conditions typical for winter in temperate regions to study the fate of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol, benzene, and selected other petroleum hydrocarbons. Artificial gasoline containing MTBE and ethanol (5% w/w of each) was placed at a defined depth into a ...
Bailis Rob - - 2003
Linkages between household energy technology, indoor air pollution, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have become increasingly important in understanding the local and global environmental and health effects of domestic energy use. We report on GHG emissions from common Kenyan wood and charcoal cookstoves. Our estimations are based on 29 d ...
Rosell Mònica - - 2003
In Catalonia (northeast Spain), a monitoring program was carried out to determine methyl tert.-butyl ether (MTBE), its main degradation products, tert.-butyl alcohol (TBA), tert.-butyl formate (TBF), and other gasoline additives, the oxygenate dialkyl ethers ethyl tert.-butyl ether, tert.-amyl methyl ether and diisopropyl ether and the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene ...
Wey M Y - - 2003
The research investigated the absorption/adsorption efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different Ca-based sorbents in a spray dryer during incineration process. For further improving the adsorption capacity of Ca-based sorbents, different spraying pressure and additives were carried out in this study. Experimental results ...
Zhu Li-Zhong - - 2003
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of four typical homes in Hangzhou, China were determined with a highly automated chromatographic method. The results indicated that the concentrations of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor air were between 1.907 microg/m3 and 14.29 microg/m3, which were much higher ...
Cohen Douglas L - - 2003
The formula for the noise-equivalent change in radiance (NEdN) for sampling noise [Appl. Opt. 38, 139 (1999)] can work well when applied to the double-sided interferograms of radiance spectra dominated by isolated emission lines, but it does not work well when applied to broad, slowly varying radiance spectra such as ...
Ma Hwong-Wen - - 2003
A new Gas-Induced Reactor (GIR) has been developed to improve the efficiency of ozone utilization in water treatment. In this study, the GIR was used to investigate the behavior of ozonation of aqueous phenol solution by means of O3 and O3/H2O2 processes in order to explore the feasibility and efficiency ...
Muthumbi W - - 2003
The importance of combustion processes as a source of substances with estrogenic activity in the environment was investigated. Wood (nontreated and treated with wood preservatives), barbecue charcoal, meat, and kitchen waste were combusted in a laboratory-scale incinerator. Flue gas emissions (particulates and gaseous pollutants) were trapped in polyurethane foam cartridges. ...
Zhu Lizhong - - 2003
Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, multi-ringed compounds known to be carcinogenic in air of six domestic kitchens and four commercial kitchens of China were measured in 1999-2000. The mean concentration of total PAHs in commercial kitchens was 17 microg/m3, consisting mainly of 3- and 4-ring PAHs, and 7.6 microg/m3 in domestic ...
Godin-Beekmann S - - 2003
Long term stratospheric DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) ozone lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements have been performed at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) since 1985 and as part of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Changes (NDSC) since 1991. This paper provides a detailed description of the DIAL lidar ...
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