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Heung William - - 2007
The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was ...
Aaslyng Margit D - - 2007
Danish consumers from Roskilde, a town near the Danish capital Copenhagen (n=213), and from Holstebro, a provincial town in the north-western part of Jutland (n=162), rated nine different samples of pork on an unstructured hedonic scale from "do not like at all" to "like very much". The samples represented variation ...
Pinder Robert W - - 2007
Current regulation aimed at reducing inorganic atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is focused on reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x) = NO + NO2); however, controls on these pollutants are likely to increase in cost and decrease in effectiveness in the future. A supplementary strategy is ...
Moran Michael J - - 2007
Four chlorinated solvents-methylene chloride, perchloroethene (PCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethene (TCE)-were analyzed in samples of groundwater taken throughout the conterminous United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. The samples were collected between 1985 and 2002 from more than 5,000 wells. Of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyzed in groundwater samples, solvents ...
Xie Jian-jun - - 2007
This paper presents the experimental investigations of the emissions of SO2, NO and N20 in a bench scale circulating fluidized bed combustor for coal combustion and co-firing coal and biomass. The thermal capacity of the combustor is 30 kW. The setup is electrically heated during startup. The influence of the ...
Ohura Takeshi - - 2007
The environmental sources and behaviors of chlorinated 2- to 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs). ClPAHs are ubiquitous contaminants found in urban air, vehicle exhaust gas, snow, tap water, and sediments. The concentrations of ClPAHs in each of these environments are generally higher than those of dioxins but markedly lower than ...
Putschew A - - 2007
The potential of ozonation for the removal of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) with focus on the oxidation products was examined. Iopromide used as model compound was dissolved in tap water, respectively in the effluent of a membrane bioreactor and was ozonated. Ozone (10 mg/L) was continuously introduced into a ...
Macías Francisco A - - 2006
The utility of benzoxazinones and some of their synthetic derivatives in the search for new leads for herbicide model development has been widely discussed. As the benzoxazinone skeleton contains three different potential areas for functionalization (C-2, N-4, and aromatic protons H-5, H-6, H-7, and H-8), and the first two have ...
Robinson Allen L - - 2006
The chemical mass balance model is applied to a large dataset of organic molecular marker concentrations to apportion ambient organic aerosol to food cooking emissions in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Ambient concentrations of key cooking markers such as palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, and cholesterol are well correlated, which implies the existence of ...
Auffhammer Maximilian - - 2006
Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a ...
Heber Albert J - - 2006
Federally funded, multistate field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP), ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and odor from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States. This paper describes the use ...
Quirino L L - - 2007
As part of a program for discovering whether afflicted areas exist, indoor (222)Rn concentrations in the State of Zacatecas were surveyed, (222)Rn concentration being measured by gamma-ray spectrometry of radon decay products adsorbed into charcoal canisters. A survey was implemented during Summer 2001: 228 dwellings in the state were tested ...
Som D - - 2007
Commuters' exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) especially BTEX travelling in passenger cars in Kolkata, India were quantified in Phase I (2001-2002) and Phase II (2003-2004). Monitoring was made inside and in the immediate outside of passenger cars fitted with and without catalytic converters using different types of fuels, along ...
Guerra Sergio A - - 2006
Field data for coarse particulate matter ([PM] PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected at selected sites in Southeast Kansas from March 1999 to October 2000, using portable MiniVol particulate samplers. The purpose was to assess the influence on air quality of four industrial facilities that burn hazardous waste ...
Baxter Lisa K - - 2007
Air pollution exposure patterns may contribute to known spatial patterning of asthma morbidity within urban areas. While studies have evaluated the relationship between traffic and outdoor concentrations, few have considered indoor exposure patterns within low socioeconomic status (SES) urban communities. In this study, part of a prospective birth cohort study ...
Huggett Robert J - - 2006
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure biomarkers were measured in high cockscomb prickleback (Anoplarchus purpurescens) fish collected from both previously oiled and unoiled shore in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, to test the hypothesis that fish living in the nearshore environment of the sound were no longer being exposed to PAH ...
Lu Longjun - - 2007
The absorption and upconversion fluorescence spectra of a series of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped xBi(2)O(3)-(90-x)GeO2-10Na(2)O (BGN x, x=31, 36, 41, 46 and 51 mol%) glasses have been studied. Intense green and red emission bands at around 533, 548 and 659 nm, corresponding to the 2H(11/2)-->4I(15/2), 4S(3/2)-->4I(15/2) and 4F(9/2)-->4I(15/2) transitions of Er3+, respectively, were ...
Palmqvist Annemette - - 2006
The persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediments may be influenced by benthic invertebrate bioturbation. Through processes such as deposit-feeding and enhancement of microbial metabolic activity PAHs may be remobilized from the sediment compartment, and either transferred to organisms at higher trophic levels or to the overlying water ...
Yang Wenyan - - 2006
In this paper, CH(4) flux was measured from Nov. 2002 to Oct. 2005, to estimate CH(4) emissions in winter and during freeze-thaw period, and interannual variation in CH(4) emissions in freshwater marsh in northeast China. The results showed that there was an obvious CH(4) emission (0.1-2.3 mg m(-2) h(-1)) in ...
Nain Mahabir - - 2006
The problem of randon is an important global problem of radiation hygiene concerning the world population. Radon and its progeny are the major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Keeping this in mind, the environmental monitoring of radon, thoron and their progeny in some ...
Khan A B M S - - 2006
Heavy-duty diesel vehicle idling consumes fuel and reduces atmospheric quality, but its restriction cannot simply be proscribed, because cab heat or air-conditioning provides essential driver comfort. A comprehensive tailpipe emissions database to describe idling impacts is not yet available. This paper presents a substantial data set that incorporates results from ...
Wang Xiaoke - - 2007
Rapid economic development and an increasing demand for food in China have drawn attention to the role of ozone at pollution levels on crop yields. Some assessments of ozone effects on crop yields have been carried out in China. Determination of ozone distribution by geographical location and resulting crop loss ...
Hudson N - - 2007
Odour emission rates were measured for seven different anaerobic ponds treating piggery wastes at six to nine discrete locations across the surface of each pond on each sampling occasion over a 14-month period. Emission rate values varied between ponds, between seasons for the same pond and even for the same ...
Hudson N - - 2007
Odour emission rates were measured for seven different anaerobic ponds treating piggery wastes at six to nine discrete locations across the surface of each pond on each sampling occasion over a thirteen month period. Significant variability in emission rates were observed for each pond. Measurement of a number of water ...
Grant Roberta L - - 2007
This paper provides information on 1,3-butadiene (BD) and chloroprene as atmospheric pollutants in Texas and reviews available emission estimates and monitoring data. Ambient BD concentrations in most areas of Texas are predominantly influenced by on-road and off-road vehicular emissions or biomass burning, since BD is a product of combustion. However, ...
Harley Robert A - - 2006
Gasoline-powered motor vehicles are a major source of toxic air contaminants such as benzene. Emissions from light-duty vehicles were measured in a San Francisco area highway tunnel during summers 1991, 1994-1997, 1999, 2001, and 2004. Benzene emission rates decreased over this time period, with a large (54 +/- 5%) decrease ...
Parra M A - - 2006
Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 40 rural sampling points in Navarre (northern Spain). Air samples were collected by means of sorbent passive sampling and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass-selective detector (GC/MSD). A total of 140 VOCs were identified during the study, which ...
Litto R - - 2007
Fugitive methane emissions account for about 50% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian conventional oil and gas sector. Sources include leaks in natural gas transmission facilities such as pipelines and compressor stations. There are three sources of methane emissions in a compressor station. The first is emissions ...
Girgzdiene Rasa - - 2007
The analysis of data of the ground-level ozone concentration and accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) in the rural areas of Lithuania is presented. Trends in the annual ozone mean, 95th and 25th percentiles were determined as statistically not significant at Preila and Rugsteliskes sites during ...
Fontcuberta M - - 2006
This study reports on the concentrations of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food samples collected in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) from 2003 to 2004. Food samples included meat products, fish (fresh and smoked), other seafood (cephalopods, crustaceans, and bivalves), vegetable oil, and tea. Concentrations of benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, ...
Ho Steven Sai Hang - - 2006
Cooking fumes are an important carbonyl emission source, especially in a highly urbanized city, such as Hong Kong. Cooking exhaust from 15 commercial kitchens of a variety of cooking styles was sampled and analyzed for a suite of 13 carbonyl compounds. Carbonyl compositions were varied among the different cooking styles. ...
Kelessis A G - - 2006
In this study, quasicontinuous measurements of major aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes were carried out by means of an automatic gas chromatograph (GC-PID analyzer), in the urban air of Thessaloniki, at a mean level of 27 m above ground, during the years 2003 ...
Canakci Mustafa - - 2007
In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental ...
Kwon Jaymin - - 2006
Ambient volatile organic compound concentrations outside residences were measured in Elizabeth, New Jersey as part of the Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal A:r (RIOPA) study to assess the influence of proximity of the residences to known ambient emissions sources. The closest distances between the outdoor samplers and emission sources ...
Hu Y - - 2006
The study was conducted in a Chinese population with occupational or environmental exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A total of 106 subjects were recruited from coke-oven workers (workers), residents in a metropolitan area (residents) and suburban gardeners (gardeners). All subjects were monitored twice for their personal exposures to PAHs. ...
Toner Stephen M - - 2006
The aerodynamic size and chemical composition of individual ultrafine and accumulation mode particle emissions (Da = 50-300 nm) were characterized to determine mass spectral signatures for heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) emissions that can be used for atmospheric source apportionment. As part of this study, six in-use HDDVs were operated ...
Lin Daohui - - 2006
Factors affecting transfer percentages of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated, including tea variety, tea/water ratio (TWR, g/mL), brewing times, washed tea or unwashed tea, and covered cup or uncovered cup. It was observed that %PAH transfer varied with tea variety and increased with the decrease of TWR. The ...
Leney Jocelyn L - - 2006
The purpose of the present study was to quantify elimination kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult green frogs (Rana clamitans) and leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Three experiments were conducted: PCB elimination rate constants were determined for both frog species, and PAH elimination rate constants ...
Hoff Steven J - - 2006
It is a common practice in the midwestern United States to raise swine in buildings with under-floor slurry storage systems designed to store manure for up to one year. These so-called "deep-pit" systems are a concentrated source for the emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and odors. As part ...
Casini S - - 2006
The aim of this study was to develop and apply a multi-biomarker system to assess the toxicological effects of produced water (PW) from a Mediterranean off-shore oil platform. The selected bioindicator organism, mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), was exposed in the laboratory to high concentrations of different PW: PW before treatment (BT), ...
Hamers Timo - - 2006
A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed by ...
Whicker Jeffrey J - - 2006
Assessments of contaminant-related human and ecological risk require estimation of transport rates, but few data exist on wind-driven transport rates in nonagricultural systems, particularly in response to ecosystem disturbances such as forest wildfire and also relative to water-driven transport. The Cerro Grande wildfire in May of 2000 burned across ponderosa ...
Wu Yuh-Shen - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter in total suspended particulate (TSP), fine particles (particle matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 microm, PM2.5) and coarse particles (particle matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10 microm, PM2.5-10), at high wind speed (wind ...
Wei See Siao - - 2006
Food cooking using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has received considerable attention in recent years since it is an important source of particulate air pollution in indoor environments for non-smokers. Exposure to organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in particles is of particular health concern since some of ...
Reinosdotter K - - 2006
Snow quality and its variations due to distance from the road were studied. Also, how the snow quality changes over time during the melting period was discussed. Snow samples were collected at three occasions during the winter of 2004. The samples were taken along a highway in the Luleå region, ...
Wang Jing-Li - - 2006
The pollution of particulate matter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) is a serious environmental problem in Beijing. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 in 2001 from seasonal monitor results was more than 6 times that of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards proposed by U.S. EPA. The major contributors ...
Cirillo Teresa - - 2006
Multipathway exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Pyrene (Py) was studied among children ages 7-9 living in two areas of the Campania Region (South-Italy) classified as urban and rural. During five consecutive days PAHs and Py were detected in air samples from outdoors, indoors (school and home), individuals at ...
Gupta A K - - 2006
The 24-hour concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and respirable suspended particulates (PM(10)) were monitored during March 2003 to February 2004 from a network of 15 sampling stations along a populated urban corridor of Kolkata City in India. The air samplers were placed at a distance 20-200 m from ...
Yamada Etsu - - 2006
A small, time efficient and sensitive instrument for the continuous analysis of very volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a boiling point lower than 100 degrees C in addition to the analysis of VOCs with a boiling point in the range of 100-150 degrees C was developed and applied to the ...
Khokhar M S K - - 2006
Inhalation of radon and its daughter products is the major contributor to the total exposure of the population to natural radiation. An indoor radon survey has been carried out in the state of Chhattisgarh (80.26 degrees N to 84.41 degrees N and 17.8 degrees E to 24.1 degrees E), India ...
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