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Bhangar Seema - - 2008
Ozone levels in airplane cabins, and factors that influence them, were studied on northern hemisphere commercial passenger flights on domestic U.S., transatlantic, and transpacific routes. Real-time data from 76 flights were collected in 2006--2007 with a battery-powered UV photometric monitor. Sample mean ozone level, peak-hour ozone level, and flight-integrated ozone ...
Ziegenhals Katja - - 2008
For the analysis of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) classified as priority from the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and benzo[c]fluorene (BcL) assessed to be relevant by the Joint FAO/WHO Experts Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in food, a sensitive analytical method is necessary. In the past, many methods ...
Robinson M S - - 2008
Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated ...
Paradiz B - - 2008
Very high emissions of PCDD/Fs up to 1300 microg TEQ per ton of coal were measured during combustion of commercial high chlorine content coal in a stove. A pronounced effect of the temperature profile in the chimney on PCDD/F emissions was identified, suggesting formation in the chimney. Emissions of PCDD/Fs ...
Silva C A - - 2009
Fish (Astyanax sp.) were exposed to water samples from the Arroio Saldanha, locality of an oil spill, and the Barigui River (upstream and downstream of the confluence of the river and Arroio Saldanha), Brazil. Histopathological and biochemical biomarkers, as acetylcholinesterase (AchE), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, lipid peroxidation ...
Joly-Turquin Guillemette - - 2009
Impacts of the Erika oil spill on the common starfish Asterias rubens were investigated in the field and using laboratory experiments based on contamination via food at different stages of the starfish reproductive cycle. Two months after the shipwreck, levels of hydrocarbons characteristic of Erika fuel were significantly higher in ...
Meijer Sandra N - - 2008
Internationally there are few long-term air monitoring programs, which are necessary to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures as required underthe UNECE POPs protocol. In the United Kingdom, the Toxic Organic Micropollutants (TOMPS) program, funded by the Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (Defra), was started in 1991 ...
Zhi Guorui - - 2008
China is thought to be the most important contributor to the global burden of carbonaceous aerosols, and residential coal combustion is the greatest emission source of black carbon (BC). In the present study, two high-efficiency household coal-stoves are tested together with honeycomb-coal-briquettes and raw-coal-chunks of nine different coals. Coal-burning emissions ...
Chu Li-Bing - - 2008
A microbubble ozonation process for enhancing sludge solubilization was proposed and its performance was evaluated in comparison to a conventional ozone bubble contactor. Microbubbles are defined as bubbles with diameters less than several tens of micrometers. Previous studies have demonstrated that microbubbles could accelerate the formation of hydroxyl radicals and ...
Kobayashi Reiko - - 2008
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in a pilot study of field wheat grain as a model indicator for environmental contamination. The edible grain would serve as a portal for human exposure. Wheat grain was initially studied since it is one of the major food crops consumed ...
Sol Sean Y - - 2008
Effects of chemical contaminant exposure on gonadal development in adult male English sole (Parophrys vetulus) from Hylebos Waterway and Colvos Passage, Puget Sound, Washington were investigated. Hylebos Waterway sediment is contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines (OCs), and Colvos Passage, a nearby nonurban area, is minimally contaminated. Fish ...
Weinstein John E - - 2008
Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a commonly used synergist in many pyrethroid formulations due to its ability to interfere with cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases. Because PBO can co-occur in the estuarine environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of compounds metabolized by CYP isozymes, the overall objective of this study ...
Hong Sang B - - 2008
An HPLC system was automated for the measurement of gaseous hydroperoxides in the ambient air. In this system, samples collected using a glass coil without a long sampling tube are injected automatically into HPLC. The analytical system is based on the post-column derivatization, which is a reaction of hydroperoxides with ...
Hakami Roya - - 2008
One etiologic factor for high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Golestan (Northeastern Iran) might be exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We examined whether food and water are major sources of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure in this population. We used a dietary questionnaire to assess the daily intake of ...
Serafim A - - 2008
Aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in the whole soft tissues of Bathymodiolus azoricus from three Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vents (Menez-Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow), and Mytilus galloprovincialis from three contaminated coastal sites in South Portugal were analysed, and its effects on the digestive gland microsomes mixed-function oxygenase system (MFO) were assessed. ...
Sharma Homdutt - - 2008
Atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Delhi were evaluated to study particulate PAHs profiles during the different seasons of 2003. Samples of urban suspended particulate matter were collected during January 2003 to December 2003 at three locations (Okhla, Dhaulakuan and Daryaganj), using a high volume sampler provided with ...
Nagendra-Prasad D - - 2008
Studies were performed to evaluate the effects of pre-exposure of calli to ozone in promoting tolerance of the regenerated Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plantlets against acute ozone stress (AOS). Calli induced from tomato leaf explants were subjected to pre-treatment with ozone: T(1)=100 ppb, T(2)=200 ppb and T(3)=300 ppb. For ...
Axten Charles W - - 2008
Since the mid-1970s, samples of airborne and waterborne fibrous particulates have been collected in the area of the Northshore Taconite Ore Processing Facility by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (PCA), and the University of Minnesota. Indirect sample preparation has consistently been used although other ...
Bonasoni P - - 2008
In this work we present the new ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory (Nepal, 27.95 N, 86.82 E) located in the Himalayas, specifically in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. This measurement station has been set-up with the aim of investigating natural and human-induced environmental changes at different scales (local, regional ...
Faheem Munazza - - 2007
An indoor radon measurement survey has been carried out in six districts of the Punjab province. These included Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Narowal and Mandibahauddin districts. In each district, 40 representative houses were chosen and indoor radon levels were measured in these dwellings in autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons ...
Levin Ingeborg - - 2008
Monthly mean 14CO2 observations at two regional stations in Germany (Schauinsland observatory, Black Forest, and Heidelberg, upper Rhine valley) are compared with free tropospheric background measurements at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps) to estimate the regional fossil fuel CO2 surplus at the regional stations. The long-term mean ...
Mehta Goverdhan - - 2007
Three cyclooctitol derivatives, in the form of a tetraacetate, (1S*,2R*,3S*,4S*)-2,3,4-triacetoxycyclooctan-1-ylmethyl acetate, C17H26O8, and two regioisomeric acetonide triacetates, (3aS*,4R*,8S*,9S*,9aS*)-8,9-diacetoxy-2,2-dimethylcyclooctano[d][1,3]dioxan-4-ymethyl acetate and (3aS,4R,7S,9R,9aS)-7,9-diacetoxy-2,2-dimethylcyclooctano[d][1,3]dioxan-4-ylmethyl acetate, both C18H28O8, have been studied. The conformation of the cyclooctane ring in the three compounds is quite close to the boat-chair form of the parent hydrocarbon. Packing is ...
Hocking W K - - 2007
Stratospheric ozone attenuates harmful ultraviolet radiation and protects the Earth's biosphere. Ozone is also of fundamental importance for the chemistry of the lowermost part of the atmosphere, the troposphere. At ground level, ozone is an important by-product of anthropogenic pollution, damaging forests and crops, and negatively affecting human health. Ozone ...
Snelling Jeff - - 2007
The widespread contamination of groundwater resources associated with methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) use has prompted a search for replacement oxygenates in gasoline. Among the alternatives currently under development are higher methyl-tert-alkyl ethers, notably methyl-tert-hexyl ether (MtHxE) and methyl-tert-octyl ether (MtOcE). As was the case with MtBE, the introduction of these ethers ...
Deniz Cengiz - - 2008
Ship emissions are significantly increasing globally and have remarkable impact on air quality on sea and land. These emissions contribute serious adverse health and environmental effects. Territorial waters, inland seas and ports are the regions most affected by ship emissions. As an inland sea the Sea of Marmara is an ...
Kim Ki Youn - - 2008
The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines ...
Beaulieu John C - - 2007
Changes in post-cutting volatiles, quality, and sensory attributes during fresh-cut storage (4 degrees C) of cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. Reticulatus, Naudin, cv. 'Sol Real') harvested at four distinct maturities (1/4-, 1/2-, 3/4-, and full-slip) were investigated after 0, 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 14 days in a 2-year ...
Fan L - - 2007
AIMS: To investigate the effects of ozone on inactivation of Listeria innocua on solid media. METHODS AND RESULTS: Suspensions of L. innocua ranging from 4.5 x 10(4 )- 6.4 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1) were inoculated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA, pH 5.6 and 6.8) and nutrient agar (NA, pH 6.0 ...
Blanch Josep-Salvador - - 2007
We studied the effects of water stress, fertilization and time course on foliar volatile terpene emission rates by Quercus ilex and Pinus halepensis in a garden experiment. The terpenes mostly emitted by both species were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene and Delta(3)-carene. P. halepensis emission rates (average 31.45 microg g(-1) DM h(-1)) ...
Kistemann Thomas - - 2008
Regarding the health effects of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and their decomposition products (particularly vinyl chloride (VC)) under chronic low-dose exposure, VOC groundwater contaminations are seen to be an ongoing public health issue. This article presents results of a long-term investigation surveying VOC and VC groundwater contamination upstream of a ...
Chen Yi - - 2007
Commercial cooking emissions are important air pollution sources in a heavily urbanized city. Exhaust samples were collected in six representative commercial kitchens including Chinese restaurants, Western restaurants, and Western fast-food restaurants in Hong Kong during peak lunch hours. Both gaseous and particulate emissions were evaluated. Eight gaseous and twenty-two particulate ...
Kim Ki-Hyun - - 2008
The emission concentrations of carbonyl compounds in air were quantified from a total of 195 man-made source units within 77 individual companies at a large industrial complex in Korea. The measurement data were evaluated both by absolute magnitude of concentration and by their relative contribution to malodor formation such as ...
Adame José A - - 2008
In order to improve our knowledge of the surface ozone in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, annual, monthly, weekly and daily ozone concentrations have been closely monitored in the Seville metropolitan area highlighting those episodes that exceed the European Ozone Directive. A three-year period (2003-2005) and eight ozone stations ...
Wang Ji-Zhong - - 2007
On the basis of a monthly sampling effort from March 2005 to February 2006, the total concentrations of the sums of 27 and 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (defined as sigma27PAHs and sigma15PAHs, respectively) in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, and associated fluxes were determined. No clear ...
Martínez María Del Carmen Guzmán Mdel - - 2007
The synergistic effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was tested on the coral Porites divaricata. Small branches were incubated in different concentrations of fluoranthene followed by exposure to ecologically relevant levels of natural solar radiation, with and without UVR. Exposure to the highest concentration of ...
Andreae Meinrat O - - 2007
Looked at in a simplistic way, aerosols have counteracted the warming effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) over the past century. This has not only provided some 'climate protection', but also prevented the true magnitude of the problem from becoming evident. In particular, it may have resulted in an underestimation of ...
Liu Yanan - - 2007
This study concerns the use of personal samplers to evaluate the exposure of traffic police to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the winter of 2005 in Beijing. We measured the samples collected for gas and particulate phases PAHs with the same technique used for an earlier study during the summer ...
Winter Anna R - - 2007
Natural organic matter (NOM) is significant in determining fate, transport and toxicity of metals in aqueous systems but NOM is not a static component; NOM can undergo photochemical changes in chemical structure. These changes will modify NOM quality and in turn influence how metals are transported in the environment, as ...
Song Yu - - 2007
The ambient air quality standard for ozone is frequently exceeded in Beijing in summer and autumn. Source apportionments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are precursors of ground-level ozone formation, can be helpful to the further study of tropospheric ozone formation. In this study, ambient concentrations of VOCs were continuously ...
Fujita Eric M - - 2007
The US. Department of Energy Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study was conducted to assess the sources of uncertainties in using an organic compound-based chemical mass balance receptor model to quantify the relative contributions of emissions from gasoline (or spark ignition [SI]) and diesel (or compression ignition [CI]) engines to ambient concentrations ...
Janzen H Henry - - 2007
Farmlands are expansive, diverse, and intensively managed ecosystems. These lands, so critical to human welfare, are threatened by growing stresses as demand for food escalates, fresh water wanes, cheap fuels deplete, and other uses jostle for space. With these coming pressures, how can we foster permanence on the lands that ...
Regmi Shekhar - - 2007
Anaerobic lagoons are a major source of odor at concentrated animal feeding operations. Seven different kinds of artificial (geotextile and polyethylene foam) and natural (straw and redwood) permeable lagoon covers were evaluated for their potential to reduce odorous emissions generated by anaerobic waste lagoons. A novel floating sampling raft was ...
Buratti M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Fumes and vapours released during laying of hot asphalt mix have been recognised as a major source of exposure for asphalt workers. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationships between inhalation exposure to asphalt emissions and urinary biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in asphalt workers (AW, n=75) and in ground ...
Hassanain M A - - 2007
The activity of Ethoxyresorufin-o-dealkylase (EROD) in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus was evaluated as a response to experimental and natural contamination of water with Benzo-a-pyrene and/or cadmium. The activity was measured fluorimetrically in the hepatic S9 fraction while the content of the enzyme was measured by ELISA. ...
Reinik M - - 2007
The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and 11 other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from 322 commercial, cured meat products and 14 home-grilled meat samples as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme during 2001-2005. The maximum acceptable concentration of 5 microg kg(-1) for benzo[a]pyrene was exceeded in 3.4% of ...
Stefens Josemar - - 2007
Regular (non-alkylated) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologues were determined in sediments from Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon using gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Concentrations varying from 405 to 11734 ng x g(-1) were found for total PAHs (regular and alkylated homologues). The study showed a pyrogenic ...
Schubert Michael - - 2007
The inhomogeneous distribution of radon between water and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) allows for utilizing naturally occurring radon as aqueous tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers ("NAPL source zones"). For the qualitative assessment (i.e. the localization) of NAPL source zones depleted radon concentrations that occur locally ...
Perugini Monia - - 2007
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by an HPLC method with fluorescence detection in bivalves (Mitylus galloprovincialis), cephalopods (Todarodes sagittatus), crustaceans (Aristeus antennatus), and fish (Mullus surmeletus, Scomber scombrus, Micromesistius poutassou, and Merluccius merluccius) caught in the Gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and ...
Nwaneshiudu Oke C - - 2007
Risks due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure from food consumption for the population of Azerbaijan were determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. The guidelines and methods described and presented in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Part A was used in ...
Zheng Mei - - 2007
The primary emission source contributions to fine organic carbon (OC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations on a daily basis in Atlanta, GA, are quantified for a summer (July 3 to August 4, 2001) and a winter (January 2-31, 2002) month. Thirty-one organic compounds in PM2.5 were identified and ...
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