Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1283
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Jahng Jeong Won - - 2008
This study was conducted to define the regulatory mechanisms underlying stress-induced decreases in food intake and weight gain. Rats received a single or 4 daily injections of dexamethasone (0.1 or 1 mg/kg). Food intake and weight gain were recorded, and plasma leptin, brain contents of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid ...
Sink K S - - 2008
Cannabinoid CB1 antagonists/inverse agonists suppress food-motivated behaviors and are being evaluated as potential appetite suppressants. It has been suggested that the effects of CB1 antagonism on food motivation could be related to actions on mesolimbic dopamine (DA). If this were true, then the effects of interference with cannabinoid CB1 transmission ...
Whitaker Keith W - - 2008
Loss of appetite and cachexia is an obstacle in the treatment of chronic infection and cancer. Proinflammatory cytokines released from activated immune cells and acting in the central nervous system (CNS) are prime candidates for mediating these metabolic changes, potentially affecting both energy intake as well as energy expenditure. The ...
Sutton Gregory M - - 2008
Melanocortin receptors are considered promising candidates for the treatment of behavioral and metabolic disorders ranging from obesity to anorexia and cachexia. These experiments examined the response of mice to peripheral injections of two compounds. PG932 is a derivative of SHU9119 which is non-selective antagonist of melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors (Mc3r ...
Cline Mark A - - 2007
Information on the physiological functions of neuropeptide FF; NPFF, a morphine modulating octapeptide in avians is lacking. Thus, we designed a study to investigate the effects of central NPFF with particular emphasis on appetite-related processes. Cobb-500 chicks were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 0, 4.16, 8.32 or 16.6nmol NPFF, and feed ...
Tallett A J - - 2008
Endogenous opioids have long been implicated in mechanisms of appetite control. A significant strand in the evidence base has been the hypophagic action of broad-spectrum opioid receptor antagonists (such as naloxone) in opiate-naïve animals. However, while much has been learned about sites of action, underlying receptor mechanisms and the role ...
Jean Alexandra - - 2007
Anorexia nervosa is a growing concern in mental health, often inducing death. The potential neuronal deficits that may underlie abnormal inhibitions of food intake, however, remain largely unexplored. We hypothesized that anorexia may involve altered signaling events within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure involved in reward. We show ...
Matsuda K - - 2007
An endogenous ligand of central-type benzodiazepine receptors (CBR), the endozepine octadecaneuropeptide (ODN), is a very potent inhibitor of food intake in rodents. Although endozepines have been localized and characterized in the trout hypothalamus, so far, the action of these neuropeptides on feeding behavior has never been investigated in fish. In ...
White Meghan M - - 2007
A fragment of intermedin (IMD), IMD17-47, has been shown to antagonize the hypotensive effects of intravenous IMD administration; however, the effects of IMD17-47 have not been studied in other systems such as brain and pituitary gland. IMD17-47 was administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) into male rats alone or prior to administration of ...
Cline Mark A - - 2008
Intracerebroventricular injection of visfatin caused increased feed intake and pecking efficiency, but did not affect water intake in chicks. Visfatin-treated chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamus, decreased reactivity in the ventromedial hypothalamus and the dorsomedial hypothalamus, infundibular nucleus, periventricular nucleus, paraventricular nucleus were not affected. A low ...
Grabenstatter Heidi L - - 2007
PURPOSE: The present study evaluated the effectiveness of intraperitoneal (IP) injections and oral administration of carbamazepine (CBZ) in food on the frequency of spontaneous motor seizures in rats with kainate-induced epilepsy. The purpose was to develop a convenient drug-in-food approach for continuous, long-term administration of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: ...
Bespalov A Y - - 2007
RATIONALE: Dopamine D1 receptor stimulation is critically involved in early appetitive phases of learning in various behavioral paradigms. However, extended habit training was previously shown to reduce the ability of dopamine D1 receptor antagonists such as R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH-23390) to disrupt behavioral performance. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate ...
Scott Karen A - - 2007
Exendin-4 (Ex4), a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has been shown to reduce food intake and suppress gastric emptying in rodents and humans. In this study we investigated the effects of peripheral administration of Ex4 on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus macaques. Rhesus macaques (n ...
Sink Kelly S - - 2008
Drugs that interfere with cannabinoid CB1 transmission suppress various food-motivated behaviors, and it has been suggested that such drugs could be useful as appetite suppressants. Biochemical studies indicate that most of these drugs assessed thus far have been CB1 inverse agonists, and although they have been shown to suppress food ...
Olsson Madelene - - 2007
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is postulated to act as a hormonal signal from the pancreas to the brain to inhibit food intake and reduce adipose energy reserves. The present study compared the effects of chronic peripheral and chronic central administration of IAPP on food intake and meal pattern in rats. ...
Khan Md Sakirul Islam - - 2007
We investigated the effect of peripheral or central administration of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on food intake in layer and broiler chicks (Gallus gallus). The intraperitoneal administration of L-NAME significantly decreased food intake in both broiler and layer chicks while the administration of D-NAME, ...
Wang ChuanFeng - - 2007
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreases food intake and body weight, but few central sites of action have been identified. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is important in energy metabolism regulation, and expresses both BDNF and its receptor. We tested three hypotheses: 1) PVN BDNF reduces feeding and increases energy expenditure ...
Soria-Gómez E - - 2007
Evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), increases food intake when injected into the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), thereby potentially activating hypothalamic nuclei involved in food intake regulation. We aimed to evaluate potential orexigenic effects of the endocannabinoid anandamide and of AA5HT, a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, and ...
Ebenezer I S - - 2007
The effects of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on food intake were investigated in food-deprived rats. 8-OH-DPAT (25-100 microg/kg) administered subcutaneously immediately prior to the presentation of food produced a dose-related decrease in food intake in rats that had been fasted for 22 h. The hypophagic effect of 8-OH-DPAT (50 ...
Martin N M - - 2007
Previously, we have shown that low-dose tri-iodothyronine (T3) increases food intake in rodents. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed to investigate the effects of low-dose T3 on food intake in normal body weight individuals. However, despite an elevation in fT3 comparable to our earlier studies, administration of low-dose T3 in ...
Meyering-Vos Martina - - 2007
In the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, the action of sulfakinin (SK) gene expression on food intake, food transport in the gut and carbohydrate digestion (alpha-amylase activity) was investigated by using the RNA interference (RNAi) method. Injection of SK double-stranded (ds) RNA into the abdomen of female adults and last ...
Woolley J D - - 2007
Mu opioid (MOP) agonists acting in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) robustly enhance consumption of palatable foods. In addition, the effect on consumption of palatable foods produced by MOP agonists acting in the NAcc depends on both recent flavor exposure and the availability of a choice between different-flavored foods. In contrast, ...
Salamone John D - - 2007
Drugs that interfere with cannabinoid CB1 receptor transmission suppress a number of food-related behaviors, and these compounds are currently being assessed for their potential utility as appetite suppressants. In addition to rimonabant (SR141716A), several other compounds have been evaluated, including AM251 and AM1387. Biochemical studies indicate that most of the ...
Melis Tiziana - - 2007
The assumption of a novel high palatable food (a candied cherry) occurs concomitantly with an increase in the concentration of extra-cellular dopamine and its main metabolite 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by about 45% in the dialysate obtained by intracerebral microdialysis from the shell of the nucleus accumbens of male rats. Such ...
de Oliveira Lisandra B - - 2007
GABAergic activation in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) induces sodium and water intake in satiated and normovolemic rats. In the present study we investigated the effects of GABAA receptor activation in the LPBN on 0.3M NaCl, water, 2% sucrose and food intake in rats submitted to sodium depletion (treatment with ...
Kamisoyama Hiroshi - - 2007
The appetite-suppressive action of brain-gut peptides is similar in both chickens and mammals. In mammals, the brain-gut peptide neuromedin U (NMU) suppresses food intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin. In chickens, central administration of CRF, oxytocin, or arginine-vasotocin (AVT, a nonmammalian equivalent of arginine-vasopressin) suppresses food ...
Schuhler S - - 2007
Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) is known to play an important role in the control of food intake and energy metabolism in addition to its actions on the pituitary-thyroid axis. We have previously shown that central administration of TRH decreases food intake in Siberian hamsters. This species is being increasingly used as ...
Chen Jun - - 2007
Pharmacokinetics and lactone/carboxylate equilibrium of 9-Nitrocamptothecin (9-NC) were compared after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) injection at a dose of 1.5mg/kg 9-NC solution. The concentrations of three different forms of 9-NC, namely lactone, carboxylate and total 9-NC, were measured by HPLC analysis. Injection routes were demonstrated to have significant effect ...
Honda Kazuhisa - - 2007
Food intake in chickens is regulated in a manner similar to that in mammals. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which increases the plasma corticosterone concentration, plays an important role as a mediator of many appetite-suppressive peptides in the central nervous system in both species. Central administration of glucagon suppresses food intake in ...
Olszewski Pawel K PK Minnesota Obesity Center, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, - - 2007
Numerous reports have described opioids as peptides involved in the regulation of food intake. The role of these endogenous substances appears to be linked with reward-dependent feeding, since injection of opioid receptor ligands alters consumption of palatable foods and solutions more readily than of non-palatable ones, and intake of such ...
Ebenezer Ivor S - - 2007
The effects of the 5HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) were investigated on food intake in non-deprived mice. 8-OH-DPAT (50-200 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 5 min prior to presentation of food, produced a dose-related increase in cumulative food intake in C57BC6 mice. The hyperphagic effect of 8-OH-DPAT (100 mg/kg, s.c.) was abolished ...
Nonogaki Katsunori - - 2007
Milnacipran, a selective serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitor, increases extracellular 5-HT and NA levels equally in the central nervous system. Here, we report that systemic administration of milnacipran (20-60 mg/kg) significantly suppressed food intake after fasting in C57BL6J mice. The appetite-suppressing effects of milnacipran were sustained for 5 ...
Cline Mark A - - 2007
This study was conducted to determine the effects of xenin on appetite related processes in chicks. Chicks were centrally and peripherally administered xenin, and feed and water intake were quantified. Chicks responded with a linear dose-dependent decrease in feed intake to central xenin and had a quadratic type response to ...
Shousha Saad - - 2007
To investigate the physiological roles of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in avian species, we elucidated the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on food intake, body temperature and gross locomotor activity in adult Japanese quail. Both i.p. and i.c.v. administration of ...
Balasubramaniam Ambikaipakan - - 2007
Peripheral administration of the endogenous Y(2) and Y(4) receptor selective agonists, PYY(3-36) and PP, have been shown to inhibit food intake and body weight gain in rodents, and to reduce appetite and caloric intake in humans. We have previously developed a long-acting, potent and highly selective Y(2) receptor selective agonist, ...
Carlini Valeria P - - 2007
Ghrelin (Ghr) is an appetite stimulating hormone that is produced peripherally, by the stomach, and centrally as well. Previous investigations show that Ghr increases food intake and memory retention in rats, and that extra-hypothalamic structures, such as the hippocampus, participate in these effects. In the present work we analyzed the ...
Woolley J D - - 2006
Opioid signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) regulates feeding behavior, having particularly strong effects on consumption of highly palatable foods. Since macronutrient content may contribute to palatability, it is uncertain whether opioid regulation of food consumption is based primarily on its macronutrient content or its flavor per se. In order ...
Fekete Eva Mónika - - 2007
Bombesin-like peptides including gastrin releasing peptide and neuromedin C are known to inhibit feeding. Bombesin receptors have been found in moderate to high densities in the amygdaloid body, which is essentially involved in the regulation of feeding and body weight. In the present experiments neuromedin C (15, 30, and 60 ...
Kim Dae-Kwon - - 2007
The itch-associated responses evoked by intradermal injection of 12(S)-HPETE and leukotriene B4 were compared in ICR-mice. 12(S)-HPETE and leukotriene B4 (0.01-0.2 nmol/site) induced scratching of the injected site, respectively; the dose-responses were a peak at 0.05 nmol/site (12(S)-HPETE) or 0.03 nmol/site (leukotriene B4). The scratching response by 12(S)-HPETE (0.05 nmol/site) ...
Fekete Eva M - - 2007
Brain corticotropin-releasing factor/urocortin (CRF/Ucn) systems are hypothesized to control feeding, with central administration of 'type 2' urocortins producing delayed anorexia. The present study sought to identify the receptor subtype, brain site, and behavioral mode of action through which Ucn 3 reduces nocturnal food intake in rats. Non-food-deprived male Wistar rats ...
Kittner Holger - - 2006
The present study was aimed to clarify the role of purinergic signalling in the regulation of ingestion behaviour. The ATP/ADP analogues 2-methylthioATP (2-MeSATP) and adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADPbetaS) increased the food intake after intracerebroventricular infusion in 18-h food-deprived rats. This effect was abolished by pretreatment with the non-selective P2X/P2Y receptor antagonist ...
Patterson M M Department of Metabolic Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, - - 2006
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviour, metabolism and reproduction. GALP is an endogenous ligand of the galanin receptors, which are widely expressed in the hypothalamus. GALP is predominantly expressed in arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones, which project to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial ...
Ohinata Kousaku - - 2006
Prostaglandin (PG) E2, a bioactive lipid produced in the brains of various mammals, decreases food intake after central administration. We examined which of four distinct subtypes of PGE2 receptors (EP1-EP4) mediated the anorexigenic action of PGE2 using highly selective ligands. PGE2 at a dose of 0.1-10 nmol/mouse decreased food intake ...
Taha Sharif A - - 2006
Endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the neural control of food intake. Opioid signaling is thought to regulate palatability, the reward value of a food item as determined by orosensory cues such as taste and texture. The reward value of a food reflects not only these sensory properties but also the ...
Lewis Sarah R - - 2006
The feeding response following administration of the free fatty acid oxidation inhibitor, mercaptoacetate (MA) is conceptualized as an experimental model of lipoprivation, which may contribute to the understanding of inter-individual differences in the modulation of this homeostatic response. Although variation in the intake of food, water and glucoprivation as well ...
Xin Zhili - - 2006
The discovery and pharmacological evaluation of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonists are reported. Previously, 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-based GHS-R antagonists reported from our laboratories have been shown to be dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors. By comparing the X-ray crystal structure of DHFR docked with our GHS-R antagonists and ...
Brandt Karsten - - 2006
Peripherally administered beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) agonists stimulate lipolysis and inhibit food intake. To test the hypothesis that this inhibition of feeding is due to a substrate-driven increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO), we assessed the ability of the FAO inhibitor mercaptoacetate (MA) to reverse the feeding-inhibitory effect of the ...
Ward Heather G - - 2006
Acute pharmacological studies implicate mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of the brainstem in modulating eating. The long-term effects of preventing the cellular function of parabrachial MORs on food consumption remain to be elucidated. To determine whether (1) chronic inhibition of MOR-mediated G-protein coupling in the PBN of ...
Le Merrer Julie - - 2006
Repeated administration of abused drugs sensitizes their stimulant effects and results in a drug-paired environment eliciting conditioned activity. We tested whether food induces similar effects. Food-deprived male mice were given novel food during 30 min tests in a runway (FR group) that measured locomotor activity. Whereas the activity of this ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2006
We investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on food intake in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Cumulative food intake was significantly decreased by ICV injection of PACAP or VIP. Similarly, IP administration of PACAP or VIP ...
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