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Results 301 - 350 of 1284
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Azpeleta Clara - - 2010
The present study focused on the effects of a subchronic melatonin treatment on locomotor activity and cortisol plasma levels in goldfish. We compared two different administration routes: peripheral (10 microg/g body weight) versus central (1 microg/microl) injections of melatonin for 7 or 4 days, respectively. Daily locomotor activity, including both ...
Zheng Huiyuan - - 2010
Melanocortin-3/4 receptor ligands administered to the caudal brain stem potently modulate food intake by changing meal size. The origin of the endogenous ligands is unclear, because the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) harbor populations of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons. Here we demonstrate that ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2010
In submammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acts as an anorexigenic neuropeptide as well as a potent stimulator of corticotropin and thyrotropin release from the pituitary. As a step for demonstrating the involvement of CRF in the feeding regulation of anuran larvae, which are known to stop feeding toward the metamorphic ...
Tibiriça Eduardo - - 2010
Cannabis sativa (also known as marijuana) has been cultivated by man for more than 5,000 years. However, there was a rise in its use in the 20th century for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, whose structure was identified in the 1960's, is ...
Katsuura Yoshihiro - - 2010
Opioid signaling has been strongly implicated in driving palatable food consumption. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is one important site of this effect; hyperphagia elicited by administration of exogenous mu opioid receptor (MOR) ligands in this brain region has been well documented. However, the role that endogenous opioid ligands in the ...
Bellinger L L - - 2010
It is unclear what contribution food intake and metabolism have in causing weight loss after administering a dose of nicotine equivalent to smoking one to three packs of cigarettes per day because previous studies have been of a very short duration. To address this question, male Sprague Dawley rats were ...
Tallett A J - - 2010
In view of its potential advantages, drug polytherapy is currently attracting significant interest in the field of obesity research. In this context, concurrent manipulation of serotonergic and cannabinoid pathways in rodents has been found to reduce food and fluid intake in both an additive or synergistic manner. To further assess ...
Guthoff Martina - - 2010
Context: Previous data suggest a key role of central nervous insulin action in regulating energy homeostasis. Objective: We therefore investigated whether insulin modulates brain responses to food and nonfood pictures in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Design and Patients: Nine healthy, normal-weight subjects underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging ...
Su Yijing - - 2010
Nesfatin-1 is recently reported as a satiety molecule to suppress food intake via the melanocortin signaling in hypothalamus when injected centrally and peripherally. Here we report that nesfatin-1 is also anti-hyperglycemic. It was found that the intravenous injection of nesfatin-1 significantly reduced blood glucose in hyperglycemic db/db mice. This anti-hyperglycemic ...
Adamson Trinka W - - 2010
The cachexia-anorexia syndrome, in which patients suffering from chronic illness lack the desire to eat and experience weight loss, creates a serious clinical problem when patients are attempting to overcome the disease process. Endotoxin (ET) has many actions in the brain and peripheral injections can affect regulation of monoamines in ...
Barson Jessica R - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Specialized hypothalamic systems that increase food intake might also increase ethanol intake. To test this possibility, morphine and receptor-specific opioid agonists were microinjected in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats that had learned to drink ethanol. To cross-validate the results, naloxone methiodide (m-naloxone), an opioid antagonist, was microinjected with ...
Cottone Pietro P Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, Harold L Dorris Neurological Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. - - 2009
Dieting to control body weight involves cycles of deprivation from palatable food that can promote compulsive eating. The present study shows that rats withdrawn from intermittent access to palatable food exhibit overeating of palatable food upon renewed access and an affective withdrawal-like state characterized by corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist-reversible ...
Kim Eun Ran - - 2010
Central administration of neuromedins and neuromedin-related peptides suppresses food intake in rodents. Neurotensin- and neuromedin U (NMU)-induced anorexia is mainly mediated through neurotensin receptor 1 (Ntsr1) and NMU receptor 2, respectively. Xenin belongs to the neurotensin family and suppresses food intake via an unknown receptor. It has been suggested that ...
Solntseva S V - - 2009
The effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and serotonin and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists on the processes of consolidation of an associative skill consisting of refusing a particular foodstuff were studied in the common snail. When animals were trained on the background of cycloheximide, the skill was not acquired. ...
Tallett A J - - 2010
Sibutramine is one of a small number of clinically approved anti-obesity agents while naloxone not only has intrinsic anorectic efficacy but, in low doses, also produces additive/synergistic anorectic effects in combination with other compounds. In view of the potential advantages of drug polytherapy over conventional monotherapy, the present study explored ...
Shinohara Yuhei - - 2009
It has been suggested that the activation of cannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell facilitates feeding behavior. However, it remains unclear whether cannabinoid ligands enhance the palatability of food to facilitate feeding. In this study, we examined whether microinjecting an endogenous cannabinoid agonist, anandamide into the nucleus accumbens shell ...
Fedeli Amalia - - 2009
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered neurotransmitter that binds to its cognate G-protein coupled receptor, NPSR. Previous studies have shown that central administration of this peptide induces anxiolytic-like effects, promotes arousal and inhibits feeding in the same dose range. In the present study, we sought to investigate further the ...
Pratt Wayne E - - 2009
Substantial evidence suggests that pharmacological manipulations of neural serotonin pathways influence ingestive behaviors. Despite the known role of the nucleus accumbens in directing appetitive and consummatory behavior, there has been little examination of the influences that serotonin receptors may play in modulating feeding within nucleus accumbens circuitry. In these experiments, ...
Uslaner Jason M - - 2010
RATIONALE: Compounds which decrease NMDA receptor functioning, such as PCP and ketamine have abuse liability, whereas co-agonists of the NMDA receptor attenuate some of the behavioral and neurochemical effects of stimulant drugs. Here we examined the effects of a glycine transporter (GlyT1) inhibitor, which elevates glycine and hence NMDA signaling, ...
Kellert Brian A - - 2009
We examined whether estrogen negatively modulates cannabinoid-induced regulation of food intake, core body temperature and neurotransmission at proopiomelanocortin (POMC) synapses. Food intake was evaluated in ovariectomized female guinea pigs abdominally implanted with thermal DataLoggers and treated s.c. with the cannabinoid CB(1)/CB(2) receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2, the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251 ...
Kim Eun-Mee - - 2009
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with two cannulae in the VTA and one cannula in the NTS for co-administration of the micro-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO in one site and the opioid antagonist naltrexone in the other. Injection of DAMGO into the VTA or the NTS stimulated feeding. The increase in ...
Barrera Jason G - - 2009
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is a regulatory peptide synthesized in the gut and the brain that plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. Both GLP-1 and exendin (Ex)-4, a long-acting GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonist, reduce food intake when administered intracerebroventricularly, whereas Ex4 is much more potent at suppressing ...
Semple Graeme - - 2009
A series of pyrimidine analogues derived from ATC0175 were potent antagonists of human MCH-R1 in vitro. Significantly improved receptor selectivity was achieved with several analogues from this series, but no improvement in brain partitioning was noted. One example from this series was shown to inhibit food intake and decrease body ...
Hou I-Ching - - 2009
We found that beta-lactotensin (His-Ile-Arg-Leu), which has been isolated as an ileum-contracting peptide from chymotrypsin digest of bovine beta-lactoglobulin, dose-dependently suppresses food intake after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intraperitoneal administration at a dose of 40 nmol/mouse or 100mg/kg, respectively, in fasted mice. Orally administered beta-lactotensin also suppressed food intake at 500 ...
Smith Marissa L - - 2009
The role of gamma melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) in appetite regulation is controversial in mammals and to our knowledge unreported within the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered gamma2-MSH on food intake using Cobb-500 chicks as models. In Experiment 1, ...
Barson Jessica R - - 2009
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) participates in the control of both motivation and addiction. To test the possibility that opioids in the NAc can cause rats to select ethanol in preference to food, Sprague-Dawley rats with ethanol, food, and water available, were injected with two doses each of morphine, the mu-receptor ...
Moghaddam A G - - 2010
Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a peptide released from the gut and attenuates food intake by acting on hypothalamus. However, its role at the molecular level is not well studied. In the first section of this study, we analysed the effect of OXM on food intake behaviour after injecting into the lateral ...
Will Matthew J - - 2009
The present experiments were conducted to provide a more detailed behavioral analysis of the dissociable roles of the basolateral (BLA) and central nucleus (CeA) of the amygdala in mediating intra-accumbens (Acb) opioid-induced feeding of a high-fat diet. Confirming previous findings, temporary inactivation of the CeA with the GABAA agonist muscimol ...
Cline Mark A - - 2010
Although LPLRFamide was the first member of the RFamide family to be isolated from a vertebrate species, its effects on hunger and satiety-related processes are poorly documented. Thus, we intracerebroventricularly administered LPLRFamide (3.0-15.0 nmol) to both Cobb-500 (a broiler type of Gallus gallus) and Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks and ...
Salamone John D - - 2009
Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation. Accumbens DA depletions reduce the tendency of rats to work for food, and alter effort-related choice, but leave other aspects of food motivation and appetite intact. DA and adenosine receptors interact to regulate effort-related processes. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists ...
Sink K S - - 2009
RATIONALE: Drugs that interfere with cannabinoid CB1 transmission suppress food-motivated behaviors and may be useful as appetite suppressants, but there is uncertainty about the locus of action for the feeding-suppression effects of these drugs. OBJECTIVE: The present work was conducted to determine if two drugs that interfere with cannabinoid receptor ...
Feifel David - - 2010
The neurotensin-1 (NT1) receptor has been implicated in mediating a number of important neurotensin effects. We have found that PD149163, a selective, brain-penetrating, NT1 receptor agonist, produces a number of therapeutic-like preclinical effects after peripheral administration including pro-cognitive, antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects. In this study, we investigated PD149163's effect on ...
Gotoh Koro - - 2009
Menopause is one of the triggers that induce obesity. Estradiol (E2), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and hypothalamic neuronal histamine are anorexigenic substances within the hypothalamus. This study examined the interactions among E2, CRH, and histamine during the regulation of feeding behavior and obesity in rodents. Food intake was measured in rats ...
Ward Sara Jane - - 2009
RATIONALE: The cannabinoid CB1 selective antagonist SR141716A (Rimonabant) has been shown to decrease body weight in laboratory animals and humans. Furthermore, SR141716A can elicit scratching behavior in rodents, a behavior that has been hypothesized to contribute to SR141716A-induced decrease in food intake. Although childhood obesity is a rising health issue, ...
Cline M A - - 2009
Neuropeptide AF (NPAF), a member of the RFamide family, is encoded by the same gene as neuropeptide FF (NPFF), which causes short-term anorexia. However, reports on the role of NPAF on appetite-related process are lacking. Thus, i.c.v. injections of 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 nmol NPAF were administered to chicks to ...
Newmyer Brandon A - - 2009
To our knowledge appetite-associated effects of neuropeptide SF (NPSF) are unreported. Thus chicks were intracerebroventricularly injected with 3.8, 7.5 and 15.0 nmol of NPSF and they reduced both their food and water intake. Blood glucose concentration was not affected. Additionally, NPSF-treated chicks did not exhibit any behaviors that were associated ...
Turenius Christine I - - 2009
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is a site of integration for control mechanisms of feeding behavior as it has extensive reciprocal connections with multiple intrahypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain areas. Evidence suggests that blockade of ionotropric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the LH elicits eating in satiated rats. To determine whether this ...
Ando Makoto - - 2009
A series of 2-pyridone-containing imidazoline derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonists. Optimization of the 2-pyridone structure on the 2-position of the imidazoline ring led to identification of 1-(difluoromethyl)-5-[(4S,5S)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(6-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one (7m). Compound 7m displayed statistically significant inhibition of food intake in an agonist-induced food intake model in ...
Bisogno Tiziana - - 2009
Biosynthesis Inhibition: O-5596, a new inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, was synthesized and found to be potent (IC(50)=100 nM) and selective versus other proteins and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system in vitro and active in vivo at reducing food intake in mice.
Yosten Gina L C - - 2009
Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered hypothalamic peptide that was shown to suppress food intake through a melanocortin-3/4 receptor-dependent mechanism. Since nesfatin-1 mRNA is detected in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and because many peptides that alter food intake also influence cardiovascular function, we tested the ability of centrally administered ...
Nathan Pradeep J - - 2009
Endogenous opioids and μ-opioid receptors (MORs) have long been implicated in the mechanism of appetite control and, in particular, hedonic processes associated with food evaluation, consumption and orosensory reward processes. In animal models of binge eating, selective MOR antagonists suppress food consumption. In humans, non-selective opioid receptor antagonists reduce hedonic ...
Volkoff Hélène - - 2009
Apelin is a recently discovered peptide produced by several tissues including brain and adipose tissue. In mammals and zebrafish, apelin regulates cardiovascular functions. Recent evidence in mammals suggest that apelin might also regulate food intake. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding apelin and examined apelin mRNA distribution within ...
Zendehdel Morteza - - 2009
This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of bicuculline (GABA(A) receptor antagonist) and muscimol (GABA(A) receptor agonist) on glutamate-induced eating response in 24-h food-deprived (FD24) broiler cockerels. At first, guide cannula was surgically implanted in the right lateral ventricle of chickens. In experiment 1, birds ...
Moriya Minoru - - 2009
A series of 2-aminobenzimidazole-based MCH1R antagonists was identified by core replacement of the aminoquinoline lead 1. Subsequent modification of the 2- and 5-positions led to improvement in potency and intrinsic clearance. Compound 25 exhibited good plasma and brain exposure, and attenuated MCH induced food intake at 30mg/kg PO in rats.
Hansen Harald S - - 2009
Anandamide and the other N-acylethanolamines, e.g. oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), may be formed by several enzymatic pathways from their precursors, which are the N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipids. The exact enzymatic pathways involved in their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide ...
Williams Diana L - - 2009
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is both a gut-derived hormone and a neurotransmitter synthesized in the brain. Early reports suggested that GLP-1 acts in the periphery to promote insulin secretion and affect glucose homeostasis, whereas central GLP-1 reduces food intake and body weight. However, current research indicates that in fact, GLP-1 ...
Cottone Erika - - 2009
The endocannabinoid system has a well-documented pivotal role in the control of mammalian feeding response; nevertheless, some evidence is available regarding a similar role in nonmammalian vertebrates and invertebrates. As in the bonyfish Carassius auratus, CB1 cannabinoid receptors are abundant in brain regions involved in the control of food intake, ...
Li Jun-Xu - - 2009
Food restriction and experimentally-induced diabetes (streptozotocin) can modify serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission and sensitivity to drugs acting on 5-HT systems. This study examined the effects of food restriction and streptozotocin on the hypothermic effects of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), the 5-HT(2) receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine hydrochloride (DOM), the 5-HT ...
Yayou Ken-Ichi - - 2009
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are released in the brain to regulate behavioral and physiological stress responses. To elucidate the respective roles of these peptides under certain stressors, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular infusions of either AVP V1a receptor antagonist, [Pmp(1), Tyr (Me)(2)]- Arg(8)-Vasopressin (Pmp, Tyr-AVP) or ...
Riedel Gernot - - 2009
Obesity is a severe health problem in the modernized world and understanding the central nervous mechanisms underlying food-seeking behaviour and reward are at the forefront of medical research. Cannabinoid receptors have proven an efficient target to suppress hunger and weight gain by their pharmacological inactivation. A standard fasted protocol and ...
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