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Results 301 - 350 of 1248
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Ward Sara Jane - - 2009
RATIONALE: The cannabinoid CB1 selective antagonist SR141716A (Rimonabant) has been shown to decrease body weight in laboratory animals and humans. Furthermore, SR141716A can elicit scratching behavior in rodents, a behavior that has been hypothesized to contribute to SR141716A-induced decrease in food intake. Although childhood obesity is a rising health issue, ...
Cline M A - - 2009
Neuropeptide AF (NPAF), a member of the RFamide family, is encoded by the same gene as neuropeptide FF (NPFF), which causes short-term anorexia. However, reports on the role of NPAF on appetite-related process are lacking. Thus, i.c.v. injections of 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 nmol NPAF were administered to chicks to ...
Newmyer Brandon A - - 2009
To our knowledge appetite-associated effects of neuropeptide SF (NPSF) are unreported. Thus chicks were intracerebroventricularly injected with 3.8, 7.5 and 15.0 nmol of NPSF and they reduced both their food and water intake. Blood glucose concentration was not affected. Additionally, NPSF-treated chicks did not exhibit any behaviors that were associated ...
Turenius Christine I - - 2009
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is a site of integration for control mechanisms of feeding behavior as it has extensive reciprocal connections with multiple intrahypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain areas. Evidence suggests that blockade of ionotropric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the LH elicits eating in satiated rats. To determine whether this ...
Ando Makoto - - 2009
A series of 2-pyridone-containing imidazoline derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonists. Optimization of the 2-pyridone structure on the 2-position of the imidazoline ring led to identification of 1-(difluoromethyl)-5-[(4S,5S)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(6-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one (7m). Compound 7m displayed statistically significant inhibition of food intake in an agonist-induced food intake model in ...
Bisogno Tiziana - - 2009
Biosynthesis Inhibition: O-5596, a new inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, was synthesized and found to be potent (IC(50)=100 nM) and selective versus other proteins and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system in vitro and active in vivo at reducing food intake in mice.
Yosten Gina L C - - 2009
Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered hypothalamic peptide that was shown to suppress food intake through a melanocortin-3/4 receptor-dependent mechanism. Since nesfatin-1 mRNA is detected in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and because many peptides that alter food intake also influence cardiovascular function, we tested the ability of centrally administered ...
Nathan Pradeep J - - 2009
Endogenous opioids and μ-opioid receptors (MORs) have long been implicated in the mechanism of appetite control and, in particular, hedonic processes associated with food evaluation, consumption and orosensory reward processes. In animal models of binge eating, selective MOR antagonists suppress food consumption. In humans, non-selective opioid receptor antagonists reduce hedonic ...
Volkoff Hélène - - 2009
Apelin is a recently discovered peptide produced by several tissues including brain and adipose tissue. In mammals and zebrafish, apelin regulates cardiovascular functions. Recent evidence in mammals suggest that apelin might also regulate food intake. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding apelin and examined apelin mRNA distribution within ...
Zendehdel Morteza - - 2009
This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of bicuculline (GABA(A) receptor antagonist) and muscimol (GABA(A) receptor agonist) on glutamate-induced eating response in 24-h food-deprived (FD24) broiler cockerels. At first, guide cannula was surgically implanted in the right lateral ventricle of chickens. In experiment 1, birds ...
Moriya Minoru - - 2009
A series of 2-aminobenzimidazole-based MCH1R antagonists was identified by core replacement of the aminoquinoline lead 1. Subsequent modification of the 2- and 5-positions led to improvement in potency and intrinsic clearance. Compound 25 exhibited good plasma and brain exposure, and attenuated MCH induced food intake at 30mg/kg PO in rats.
Hansen Harald S - - 2009
Anandamide and the other N-acylethanolamines, e.g. oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), may be formed by several enzymatic pathways from their precursors, which are the N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipids. The exact enzymatic pathways involved in their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide ...
Williams Diana L - - 2009
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is both a gut-derived hormone and a neurotransmitter synthesized in the brain. Early reports suggested that GLP-1 acts in the periphery to promote insulin secretion and affect glucose homeostasis, whereas central GLP-1 reduces food intake and body weight. However, current research indicates that in fact, GLP-1 ...
Cottone Erika - - 2009
The endocannabinoid system has a well-documented pivotal role in the control of mammalian feeding response; nevertheless, some evidence is available regarding a similar role in nonmammalian vertebrates and invertebrates. As in the bonyfish Carassius auratus, CB1 cannabinoid receptors are abundant in brain regions involved in the control of food intake, ...
Li Jun-Xu - - 2009
Food restriction and experimentally-induced diabetes (streptozotocin) can modify serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission and sensitivity to drugs acting on 5-HT systems. This study examined the effects of food restriction and streptozotocin on the hypothermic effects of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), the 5-HT(2) receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine hydrochloride (DOM), the 5-HT ...
Yayou Ken-Ichi - - 2009
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are released in the brain to regulate behavioral and physiological stress responses. To elucidate the respective roles of these peptides under certain stressors, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular infusions of either AVP V1a receptor antagonist, [Pmp(1), Tyr (Me)(2)]- Arg(8)-Vasopressin (Pmp, Tyr-AVP) or ...
Riedel Gernot - - 2009
Obesity is a severe health problem in the modernized world and understanding the central nervous mechanisms underlying food-seeking behaviour and reward are at the forefront of medical research. Cannabinoid receptors have proven an efficient target to suppress hunger and weight gain by their pharmacological inactivation. A standard fasted protocol and ...
Taha S A - - 2009
Mu opioid receptor (MOR) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) elicits marked increases in the consumption of palatable tastants. However, the mechanism and circuitry underlying this effect are not fully understood. Multiple downstream target regions have been implicated in mediating this effect but the role of the ventral pallidum (VP), ...
Lievens Sylvia - - 2009
Simmondsin, a cyanoglycoside from jojoba meal, reduces food intake after oral administration. To diagnose if it acts by inducing satiation or by creating abnormal physiological effects, an observational study was undertaken to investigate the effects of simmondsin on feeding and other behaviors. Particular attention was paid to the behavioral sequence ...
Cline Mark A - - 2009
The central mechanism that mediates stresscopin (SCP)-induced satiety is poorly understood, and its effect on avian appetite is not documented. Thus, this study was conducted to elucidate some of the central and behavioral mechanisms that are associated with SCP-induced satiety using broiler- and layer-type chicks (Gallus gallus) as model organisms. ...
Ohinata Kousaku - - 2009
Novokinin (Arg-Pro-Leu-Lys-Pro-Trp), having affinity for the AT(2) receptor, is a potent vasorelaxing and hypotensive peptide designed based on the structure of ovokinin(2-7), a bioactive peptide derived from ovalbumin. Here we show that intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered novokinin dose-dependently suppresses food intake at a dose of 30-100 nmol/mouse in fasted conscious mice. ...
Kim Dong-Hoon - - 2009
A wide range of evidence points to a role for GLP-1 to regulate food intake. Anorectic effects of GLP-1 are most apparent when the peptide is administered directly into the central nervous system (CNS), but suppression of food intake has also been noted in some cases with peripheral administration. It ...
Hayes Matthew R - - 2009
Exogenous activation of central nervous system glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces food intake. Experiments addressed whether endogenous central GLP-1R activity is involved in the control of normal feeding and examined which gastrointestinal satiation signals contribute to this control. Given that nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons are the source of ...
Jethwa Preeti H - - 2009
Siberian hamsters develop hypophagia and increase catabolism of fat reserves in response to short photoperiods resulting in a natural loss of body weight in winter. We previously found that histamine 3 receptor (H3R) mRNA in the posterior hypothalamus is significantly decreased in short photoperiods. We hypothesized that this lower expression ...
Merroun Ikram - - 2009
The effect of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal administration of cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 or inverse agonist AM 251 on food intake and extracellular levels of serotonin and acetic acid 5-hydroxy-indol from presatiated rats was studied. Compared to the vehicle-injected control, the intracerebroventricular administration of WIN 55,212-2 was associated with a ...
Tachibana Tetsuya - - 2009
The present study was designed to investigate the role of brain adrenergic alpha-2-receptors on feeding regulation of layer-type chicks. Intracerebroventricular injection of the adrenergic alpha-2-receptor agonist, clonidine, stimulated food intake. This effect was blocked by co-injection of the alpha-2-receptor antagonist, yohimbine, demonstrating that the alpha-2-receptor is related to stimulation of ...
Khan Md Sakirul Islam - - 2009
Metastin, an RFamide peptide, has been isolated from human placenta and possesses several physiological actions in mammals. However, little is known about this bioactive peptide in avian species. This study was conducted to assess the effect of metastin on feeding behavior of chicks (Gallus gallus). The food intake of chicks ...
Cooke Jennifer H - - 2009
Xenin is a 25-amino acid peptide highly homologous to neurotensin. Xenin and neurotensin are reported to have similar biological effects. Both reduce food intake when administered centrally to fasted rats. We aimed to clarify and compare the effects of these peptides on food intake and behavior. We confirm that intracerebroventricular ...
Layne Jessica E - - 2009
Calcitonin (CT) causes satiety in mammals, but the mechanisms that mediate this effect are poorly understood. Additionally, there are no reports on CT-induced satiety within the avian class. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate some of the central mechanisms regulating CT-induced satiety in a non-mammalian vertebrate, the ...
Mott Allison M - - 2009
Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Research involving choice tasks has shown that rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work ...
Yamanushi Tomoko T - - 2009
Water soluble beta-carotene (WS-BC) is a carotenoid form that has been developed as a food colorant. WS-BC is known to contain 10% of all-trans beta-carotene (AT-BC). The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo tissue uptake of AT-BC after the administration of WS-BC into rats. Seven-week-old male ...
Weyermann Philipp - - 2009
Cachexia is among the most debilitating and life-threatening aspects of cancer. It represents a metabolic syndrome affecting essential functional circuits involved in the regulation of homeostasis, and includes anorexia, fat and muscle tissue wasting. The anorexigenic peptide alpha-MSH is believed to be crucially involved in the normal and pathologic regulation ...
Martínez-Alvarez R M - - 2009
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the possible role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (AM) and adrenomedullin-2/intermedin (IMD) on food intake regulation in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of these related hormones on food intake. Food-deprived goldfish were subjected to ...
Foster Michelle T - - 2009
Previous studies have shown reduced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to both acute and chronic restraint stressors in rats allowed to ingest highly palatable foods (32% sucrose +/- lard) prior to restraint. In this study we tested the effects of prior access (7 d) to chow-only, sucrose/chow, lard/chow, or sucrose/lard/chow diets on central ...
Skinner Gregory W - - 2009
Although fever and sickness behavior are common responses to infection, it has been proposed that the sickness behaviors associated with infection, in particular lethargy and fatigue, may be more valuable clinical markers of illness and recovery in patients, than is body temperature alone. Measuring abdominal temperature, food intake and wheel ...
Barbano M Flavia - - 2009
RATIONALE: Motivation for food depends on several variables including food palatability, the homeostatic state of the organism, and the nature of the behavior required to obtain the reward. However, few studies to date have tried to evaluate motivation for food considering all these variables at the same time. Since dopamine ...
Pratt Wayne E - - 2009
Separate groups of food-deprived rats were given 2h access to food after receiving bilateral nucleus accumbens infusions of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine methyl bromide (at 0, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/side), the M2-preferring agonist oxotremorine sesquifumarate (Oxo-S; at 0, 1.0, or 10.0 microg/side) or the M2 antagonist AFDX-116 (at 0, 0.2, ...
Patel Sunit M - - 2008
This study was undertaken to examine the effects of acute repeated administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats. In Experiment 1, the effects of repeated intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (1 and 2 mg/kg) at 2 h intervals were investigated on ...
Schjolden Joachim - - 2009
In this study, we investigated the effects of one melanocortin receptor (MCR) agonist and two antagonists on food intake in juvenile rainbow trout. Baseline food intake was established prior to 1 microl intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) of the non-specific agonist MTII, the MC4R antagonist HS024 and the MC3/4R antagonist SHU9119 at ...
Leckstrom Arnold - - 2009
Xenin, a 25-amino acid peptide, was initially isolated from human gastric mucosa. Plasma levels of xenin rise after a meal in humans, and administration of xenin inhibits feeding in rats and chicks. However, little is known about the mechanism by which xenin regulates food intake. Signaling pathways including leptin and ...
dos Santos Rúbia Lima Dias - - 2009
The present study examined the effects of local injections of adrenaline (AD) or noradrenaline (NA) in equimolar doses (6, 20, and 60 nmol) into the median raphe nucleus (MRN) on ingestive and non-ingestive behaviors of free-feeding rats. The results showed that the treatment with AD at doses of 20 and ...
Onaivi E S - - 2008
Consumers of marijuana typically feel a strong, compulsive desire to consume food. Although past research revealed that the CB1 cannabinoid receptor is a potent regulator of food intake, the functional presence of neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain has been controversial. The role of CB2 receptors in food and ...
Saadoun A - - 2008
The effects of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT on food and water intake in male broiler chickens were investigated. The injection of 25 or 50 microg/kg of 8-OH-DPAT 15 min before refeeding in fasted animals produced a decrease in food intake. No effect was observed in drinking. The injection of ...
Anton Stephen D - - 2008
Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been shown to attenuate weight gain, but the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. We assessed the effect of CrPic in modulating food intake in healthy, overweight, adult women who reported craving carbohydrates (Study 1) and performed confirmatory studies in Sprague-Dawley rats (Study 2). Study 1 ...
DiPatrizio Nicholas V - - 2008
The endocannabinoid system is emerging as an integral component in central and peripheral regulation of feeding and energy balance. Our investigation analyzed behavioral roles for cannabinoid mechanisms of the pontine parabrachial nucleus (PBN) in modulating intake of presumably palatable foods containing fat and/or sugar. The PBN serves to gate neurotransmission ...
Cline Mark A - - 2009
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is released from the gastrointestinal tract following ingestion and causes satiety in mammals. Its effects on appetite in non-mammalian vertebrates are unreported. In Experiment 1, fasted chicks reduced food and water intake after central injection of CGRP. These effects were not associated with increased plasma corticosterone ...
Moon Bo-Hyun - - 2008
The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes ...
Aikawa Shizu - - 2008
Decrease in food intake is commonly seen in the mammalian response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a factor that modulates feeding behavior under these stressful conditions. We previously reported that neuropeptide B (NPB) exerts strong synergistic anorectic effects in mice when co-administered with CRF. Tissue distributions of neuropeptide B/W ...
Perry Michelle L - - 2009
Intra-nucleus accumbens (Acb) infusion of cholinergic muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine (10 microg/0.5 microl), markedly reduced fat intake elicited by intra-Acb treatment of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, with 30 min and 4h pretreatment intervals. Intra-Acb scopolamine infusions also reduced food intake in food-deprived rats, but not water intake in water-deprived rats. ...
Durazzo Alfredo - - 2008
A wide range of physiological and behavioral alterations occur in response to sickness. Sickness behaviors, rather than incidental by-products or side-effects of acute illness, serve as adaptive functional responses that allow animals to cope with a pathogenic challenge. Among the more salient sickness behaviors is a reduction in food intake; ...
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