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Results 251 - 300 of 1292
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Lecour S - - 2011
With more than 8000 polyphenols found in food (mainly, wine, tea, coffee, cocoa, vegetables and cereals), many epidemiological studies suggest that the intake of polyphenol-rich foods has a beneficial effect on a large number of cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, obesity, diabetes and smoking. ...
Milošević Jasna - - 2011
Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food ...
Frederiksen P D - - 2011
The aim of the present investigation was to study the underlying causes of noncoagulating (NC) milk. Based on an initial screening in a herd of 53 Danish Holstein-Friesians, 20 individual Holstein-Friesian cows were selected for good and poor chymosin-induced coagulation properties; that is, the 10 cows producing milk with the ...
Atobatele Oluwatosin Ebenezer - - 2011
Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and C. auratus are important, highly valued and threatened freshwater species. To contribute with their ecological knowledge, the condition factor and diet of these two congeneric species were studied between April 2005 and April 2006. Food items of fish were evaluated by occurrence and numerical abundance methods, and ...
Gormley F J - - 2011
SUMMARYThe food service sector continues to be the most common setting for reported foodborne disease outbreaks in England and Wales. Using restaurant-associated foodborne outbreaks reported in England and Wales from 1992 to 2009, cuisine-specific risk factors were examined. Of 677 restaurant outbreaks, there were 11 795 people affected, 491 hospitalizations, ...
Lachat Carl - - 2011
Eating out of home (OH) is nutritionally important in some developing countries. This study identifies the factors associated with eating OH in Vietnamese adolescents. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional cluster survey of 502 adolescents in rural and urban areas in Vietnam. Factors associated with eating OH were recorded with ...
McClain Arianna D - - 2011
The aim of this study is to present the development of the Meanings of Eating Index (MEI) in a diverse sample of children. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on MEI items. Factors with eigenvalues above 1.0 were retained. Items that loaded on multiple factors or with item-total correlations below 0.50 ...
Tan T H-T - - 2011
Food allergy is a growing clinical and public health problem world-wide. The rising incidence is occurring more rapidly than changes to the genome sequence would allow, but it is yet to be determined whether environmental factors might act in interaction with genetic risk. That is to say, are environmental factors ...
Kaindi D W M - - 2011
This study assesses risk factors for food-borne gastrointestinal illness indicated by diarrhoea and/or vomiting using 14-day recalls among children and young adults. The study was set in Isiolo, a rural town of Kenya, inhabited mainly by pastoralists of different ethnic groups. The preparation methods of milk at the household level ...
Koplin Jennifer J - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to describe the epidemiology of food-induced, medication-induced, drug-induced, and insect sting-induced anaphylaxis; to summarize recent changes in the incidence of anaphylaxis internationally; and to discuss recent insights into potential risk factors for anaphylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies confirm that the ...
Beaver Kevin M - - 2011
Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add ...
Gutierrez Ranier - - 2011
Although the act of eating is voluntary, its initiation depends on several factors including its taste and the animal's internal state as related to hunger or satiety. These factors together with the food's hedonic value will determine whether food will be ingested. The taste of food will depend on the ...
Kibayashi Kazuhiko - - 2011
We analysed forensic autopsies of 536 consecutive adults to determine the relationship between the presence of stomach contents and the manner of death. Stomach contents were identified in 27 (79.4%) of 34 accidental drownings and in 22 (43.1%) of 51 suicidal drownings (P < 0.01). Accidental drowning was the manner ...
Kikulwe Enoch M - - 2011
Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana ...
Shanthi G - - 2011
It is necessary to obtain the transfer factor (TF) of long-lived radionuclides because soil type and vegetation can affect TF. We studied the food crops commonly consumed by the general public of Kanyakumari district of south India. The main focus was on rice, fruits, vegetables and tapioca because the consumption ...
Bennett Kevin J - - 2011
Little research has investigated the relationship between county-level poverty and obesity rates. We examined the factors related to obesity among residents of Rural Persistent Poverty counties, finding that these counties had a larger proportion of obese residents (34.5%) than Other Rural (28.4%) or Urban counties (24.9%). In adjusted analysis, the ...
Nicklaus Sophie - - 2011
Weaning (i.e. introduction of complementary foods) is a transitional process between the consumption of a unique food, milk, and family foods. This review of existing literature regarding factors favouring the development of food acceptance at the beginning of weaning underlines in particular the roles of repeated exposure, of introduction of ...
Cropley Mark - - 2012
Inability to unwind about work during leisure time has been associated with a number of negative health outcomes. This study was concerned with a possible behavioural pathway between unwinding and disease and examined the relationship between work-related rumination and food choice. Work-related rumination is arguably a core to understanding the ...
Choi Mi Kyung - - 2011
This study examined the relationship among socioeconomic factors, frequency of food away from home (FAFH) and food-consumption patterns of 1,070 housewives, and the association of those factors with obesity, using data from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although lower intakes of fruits, meats, and fast foods ...
Montemurro Genevieve R - - 2011
Resident perceptions of neighbourhood walkability, physical activity opportunities, food choice and factors influencing choice of neighbourhood were examined through focus group discussion in higher and lower walkability neighbourhoods. Almost all participants perceived their neighbourhoods as very or reasonably walkable with high food choice. Walking was described as primarily leisure or ...
Sonntag Bettina - - 2011
The recurrent depth preference of three ciliate species (two prostomatids and one haptorid) in a transparent alpine lake indicates the existence of niche partitioning among them involving potential factors such as avoidance of high ultraviolet radiation levels and zooplankton predation, as well as competition for food resources.
Tang Brian - - 2011
CASE:: Leanna, a 10-year-old girl with autism, was hospitalized for severe malnutrition and 20 pound weight loss secondary to reduced intake over 4 months. Her food choices became increasingly restrictive to the point where she only ate certain types and brands of foods. She gradually stopped drinking and developed severe ...
Mahadevan Meena - - 2011
This study was conducted to understand the factors influencing the food habits of restaurant chefs in northern New Jersey. Data was collected from participants (N = 12) using dietary recalls, and semi-structured interviews based on the socio-ecological model. Dietary recall analysis revealed multiple nutritional intake hazards including skipping meals, and ...
Yoshida Sallie C - - 2011
To understand factors that build youth leadership through the Healthy Eating, Active Communities Program. In Fall 2007, six focus groups were conducted with 36 youth. Leadership capacity was facilitated through teamwork, community assessments, and policy work. Youth gained leadership confidence while successfully advocating for community-level change.
McGowan B M C - - 2010
Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone involved in pregnancy and lactation. It is mainly secreted by the corpus luteum and placenta, but is expressed in a number of other tissues, including heart and brain. Within the brain, relaxin is expressed in the olfactory and limbic systems, the cortex and the hypothalamic ...
Oraman Yasemin - - 2010
This article examines the influences on the purchasing decisions of fruit and vegetable consumers and presents findings from a survey conducted with 385 respondents living in urban areas in Istanbul, Turkey. It uses a binary logistic model to estimate factor effects in organic fruit and vegetable purchasing in Turkey. The ...
Cifani Carlo - - 2011
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is the endogenous ligand for the previously orphan G-protein-coupled-receptor, now termed NPS receptor (NPSR). NPS has both anxiolytic and pro-arousal properties and decreases food intake. In this work we use a rat model of palatable food intake to test in vivo different analogs of human NPS developed ...
Atsuchi Kaori - - 2010
Nesfatin-1 was recently identified as a peptide with anorexigenic effects that is localized in the hypothalamus and adipocytes. Not much is known about the effect of nesfatin-1 on gut motility. Food intake was measured after intracerebroventricular administration of nesfatin-1 in food-deprived mice. Antral and duodenal motility was assessed by using ...
Gallace Alberto - - 2011
We investigated whether there are reliable crossmodal associations between foods/flavours and words in neurologically normal individuals. Participants were given a range of foods to taste, and had to rate each one along a number of dimensions. These included scales anchored with the words "takete/maluma" and "bouba/kiki". The results highlight the ...
Nair Sunila G - - 2011
In humans, relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. In rats, the anxiogenic drug yohimbine, which causes stress-like responses in both humans and nonhumans, reinstates food seeking in a relapse model. In this study, we examined the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine D1-family ...
Wang Lixin - - 2011
The orexigenic effect of urocortins (Ucns), namely Ucn 1, Ucn 2 and Ucn 3 through activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors, has been well characterized after injection into the brain but not in the periphery. We examined the role of CRF receptor subtype 2 (CRF(2)) in the regulation of food ...
Goebel Miriam - - 2011
Nesfatin-1 is well established to reduce food intake upon brain injection in rats, while in mice its anorexigenic action and brain expression are largely unexplored. We characterized the influence of intracerebroventricular (icv) and peripheral (intraperitoneal, ip, subcutaneous, sc) injection of nesfatin-1 on dark phase ingestive behavior using an automated feeding ...
Cluny N L - - 2010
Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight, but clinical use in humans is limited by effects on the CNS. We have evaluated a novel cannabinoid antagonist (AM6545) designed to have limited CNS penetration, to see if it would inhibit food intake in rodents, without aversive effects. Cannabinoid ...
Peng Ya-Li - - 2010
Neuropeptide S (NPS), the endogenous ligand of NPS receptor (NPSR), can regulate a variety of biological functions, including arousal, anxiety, locomotion, memory and drug abuse. Previous studies have shown that central NPS inhibited food intake in rats and chicks. In the present study, we investigated the role of central NPS ...
Francis H M - - 2011
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abuse is a substantial problem in young adults. Due to a high focus on body image in this population, two main factors that may encourage MDMA use are the appetite suppressant and locomotor stimulant effects of this drug. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain region associated with ...
Tachibana Tetsuya - - 2010
Neuromedin B (NMB) and neuromedin C (NMC) are homologs of bombesin and are distributed throughout both the brain and gastrointestinal tract. The physiological roles of these bombesin-like peptides in chicks (Gallus gallus) have not been documented. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to measure the effects of these ...
Randall P A - - 2010
Drugs that interfere with cannabinoid CB1 transmission suppress food-motivated behaviors, and may be useful clinically as appetite suppressants. However, there may also be undesirable side effects (e.g., nausea, malaise, anxiety, and depression) that are produced by the current generation of CB1 inverse agonists such as rimonabant and taranabant. For that ...
Schwartz Ann - - 2010
The release of small intestinal hormones by constituents of ingested food, such as fatty acids, is integral to post-prandial responses that reduce food intake. Recent evidence suggests that small intestinal electrical stimulation reduces food intake, although the mechanism of action is debated. To test the hypothesis that intestinal stimulation directly ...
Shin A C AC Neurobiology of Nutrition Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, - - 2010
Overindulgence in easily available energy-dense palatable foods is thought to be an important factor in the current obesity epidemic but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that mu-opioid receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens may be important. Protracted suppression of endogenous mu-opioid receptor signaling focused ...
Ploj Karolina - - 2010
The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been suggested to modulate energy balance. For example, mGluR5 antagonists inhibit food intake in rodents and mGluR5 knockout mice resist diet-induced obesity. However, nonspecific effects can reduce food intake. Thus, to further support the role of mGluR5 in feeding behaviour, we evaluated if ...
Popik Piotr - - 2011
Excessive consumption of highly palatable food has been linked to the development of eating disorders and obesity, and can be modeled in non-food-deprived rats by offering them a limited (2-h daily) access to an optional dietary fat. Since the glutamatergic system has recently emerged as a viable target for binge-eating ...
Li Jiang-Bo - - 2010
The objective of this study was to clarify the role of a novel agonist with high selectivity and affinity for Y4 receptors in the regulation of food intake. The Y4 receptor agonist BVD-74D was administered to C57BL/6J mice that were fed with a normal or high-fat diet, and to fatty ...
Wirtshafter David - - 2010
Microinjections of the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol into the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) have been reported to induce large increases in food intake, but the effect of these injections on motivational processes is less clear. In the current study, bilateral injections of saline, muscimol (50ng/side) or ...
Bello Nicholas T - - 2010
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and amylin mediate the feedback control of eating by seemingly separate, but overlapping mechanisms. This study examined the effects of combined doses of the GLP-1 agonist, exendin-4 (Ex-4), and the amylin analog, salmon calcitonin (sCT), on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus monkeys. Monkeys ...
Pulman K G T - - 2010
Intra-accumbens stimulation of GABA receptors results in a robust increase in food intake. However the differential consequences of stimulating GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in the nucleus accumbens have not been extensively explored with respect to feeding behaviour. Here we compare the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen and GABA(A) ...
Kang Ki Sung - - 2011
Although spice compounds have several pharmacological and biochemical actions such as antioxidant activity, their physiological effects on neuropeptides related to feeding regulation are not well known. The aim of the present study was to identify the pharmacological activities of spice compounds on appetite regulation using a goldfish (Carassius auratus) model ...
Kim Byung-Joon - - 2010
Fusion proteins made up of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and exendin-4 (EX-4) fused to a nonglycosylated form of human transferrin (GLP-1-Tf or EX-4-Tf) were produced and characterized. GLP-1-Tf activated the GLP-1 receptor, was resistant to inactivation by peptidases, and had a half-life of approximately 2 days, compared with 1 to ...
Cline Mark A - - 2010
Effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of calcitonin (CT) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on food and water intake were measured in two lines of White Plymouth Rock chickens from a common base population that have undergone long-term divergent selection for either low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight. These ...
Roitman Mitchell F - - 2010
Many therapies designed to reduce food intake and body weight act, in part, by blocking the dopamine transporter (DAT) - a protein responsible for clearing extracellular dopamine (DA) after release thereby terminating its action. Here, we found that a single injection of the drug trodusquemine (MSI-1436) decreased food intake in ...
Washington Martha C MC Gastroenterology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama 36088, - - 2010
Exenatide is a synthetic agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, which has also been shown to reduce food intake. The goal of this work is to test the hypothesis that exenatide reduces food intake and activates the enteric nervous system (ENS; myenteric and submucosal plexuses) of the gastrointestinal (GI) ...
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