Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1296
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Mizoguchi Hirokazu - - 2004
The involvement of putative mu(1)-opioid receptors in the antinociception induced by the dermorphin tetrapeptide analogues Try-D-Arg-Phe-beta-Ala (TAPA) and Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-beta-Ala-NH(2) (TAPA-NH(2)) was determined in mice, using a tail-pressure test and a formalin test. TAPA and TAPA-NH(2) injected i.c.v. and i.t. produced dose-dependent antinociception in both assays. In the tail-pressure test, the ...
Landys Meta M - - 2004
Plasma corticosterone increases during spring migration in a variety of bird species, including the Gambel's white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii. Corticosterone is elevated specifically in association with migratory flight, suggesting that corticosterone may promote processes such as energy mobilization and/or migratory activity. General effects of glucocorticoids support such a prediction. ...
Tachibana Tetsuya - - 2004
The present study was carried out to investigate whether the hypothalamus is involved in the anorexic effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in chicks. To examine this, Fos expression in the chick hypothalamus were immunohistochemically detected after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 30-pmol GLP-1. ICV injection of GLP-1 stimulated the expression of ...
Sunter David - - 2003
Apelin is a peptide recently identified as a ligand for the APJ receptor, a receptor located in tissues such as the small intestine and in the hypothalamus. Apelin has been detected in adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, heart and stomach. Recent reports suggest a role for apelin in the regulation of ...
Bungo Takashi - - 2003
This study was designed to compare the effects of muscimol (GABA(A) agonist), baclofen (GABA(B) agonist) and nipecotic acid (GABA uptake inhibitor) on food intake in two chicken strains (meat-type and layer-type chicks). The intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of all GABA agents induced hyperphagia in layer-type chicks. However, in broiler chicks, there ...
McLaughlin P J - - 2003
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta 9-THC) (the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana) have been shown to increase feeding in rats and humans. Conversely, it has been reported that acute administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A reduces food intake in rats. Based upon this observation, it has ...
Wilson John D - - 2003
The pontine parabrachial nucleus (PBN) has been implicated in regulating ingestion and contains opioids that promote feeding elsewhere in the brain. We tested the actions of the selective mu-opioid receptor (mu-OR) agonist [d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) in the PBN on feeding in male rats with free access to food. Infusing DAMGO (0.5-4.0 ...
Nicklous Danielle M - - 2003
Neurons that synthesize the morphine modulatory peptide neuropeptide FF (NPFF; Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH2) densely innervate the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), an area implicated in regulating food intake. We analyzed opioid-related actions of NPFF in feeding in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Unilateral infusion of 2 nmol/0.5 microl of the mu-opioid receptor agonist [d-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,glycinol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) ...
Benoit Stephen C - - 2003
The central melanocortin system is critically involved in the control of food intake and body weight. Administration of melanocortin agonists reduces food intake and adiposity, and the central melanocortin system is demonstrated to mediate the anorexic effects of both leptin and insulin. An important unanswered question has been whether melanocortin ...
Lawrence Catherine B CB School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United - - 2004
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) reduces food intake and body weight and modifies body temperature when administered centrally in rats, suggesting a role in energy homeostasis. However, the mediators of PrRP's actions are unknown. The present study, therefore, first examined the possible involvement of the anorectic neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the ...
Day Diane E - - 2004
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), an endogenous melanocortin 3/4 receptor antagonist, appears to play an important role in the control of food intake and energy balance because exogenous administration in rats and overexpression in mice result in hyperphagia and body mass gain. Furthermore, arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA is increased with fasting in ...
MacDonald Amy F - - 2003
The nucleus accumbens shell region (sNAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are two major nodes in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which mediates reward for various survival behaviors, including feeding. Opioids increase and maintain food intake when injected peripherally and centrally. Opioids in the VTA cause increased release of dopamine ...
Cross-Mellor Shelley K - - 2003
Traditional intake measures of voluntary consumption of food or fluid from a specific location involve both appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Appetitive behaviors are food finding behaviors displayed by an animal prior to the consumption of the food, whereas consummatory behaviors are the behaviors involved in the actual consumption of the ...
Aziz Alfred - - 2003
This study investigated the hypotheses that dietary proteins suppress food intake partly through the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, and that this effect is mediated by products of protein digestion. The GLP-1 receptor agonist, Exendin-4 (Ex-4) (0.5 micro g/rat), was given intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats, and food intake was ...
Tachibana Tetsuya - - 2003
We examined whether the brain beta 3-adrenergic receptor (B3-AR) is involved in the feeding regulation of chicks. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of BRL37344, a B3-AR agonist, reduced food intake of chicks under ad libitum, but not fasting, feeding conditions. The ICV injection of BRL37344 did not affect chick posture or locomotion ...
Mikhailova M O - - 2003
The effects of blockade of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens on changes in glutamate levels in the intercellular space of this structure during food consumption were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats by intracerebral microdialysis combined with HPLC. These experiments showed that food consumption was accompanied by decreases ...
O'Shea Marie - - 2003
Apelin, the endogenous peptide ligand of the APJ receptor, is expressed in brain regions implicated in food and water intake. This study reports for the first time, the effect of apelin-12, one of the most potent apelin peptides, on spontaneous (nocturnal) feeding. Randomised intracerebroventricular injection of 1, 3 and 10 ...
Schick Rafael R - - 2003
Glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) potently inhibits rat feeding behavior after central administration. Because third ventricular injection of GLP-1 appeared to be less effective than lateral ventricular injection, we have reexamined this issue. In addition, we attempted to identify brain regions other than the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that ...
Covasa Mihai - - 2003
MK-801, a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, enhances gastric emptying while increasing food intake. Although our previously reported results implicate the vagus in MK-801's effect on feeding, it is not clear whether vagal motor fibers participate in the feeding response. Control of gastric emptying is exerted, in part, by cholinergic ...
Verty Aaron N A - - 2003
RATIONALE: Considerable interplay exists between the brain's opioid and cannabinoid systems. These systems are both involved in the control of appetite and research supports the notion that the opioid system modulates the role of the cannabinoid system on appetite. However, the ability of the cannabinoid system to modulate the opioid ...
Steward Carolyn A - - 2003
Centrally acting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), independent of endocrine action, has been shown to regulate several metabolic and behavioral parameters in rats, including food intake and locomotor activity. The present study investigated and compared the effects of central TRH on feeding behavior in Siberian hamsters exposed to long (LP) or ...
Dhillo Waljit S - - 2003
Calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP) inhibits food intake and stimulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis after intracerebroventricular injection in rats. However, the hypothalamic site and mechanism of action are unknown. We investigated the effects of intraparaventricular nucleus administration (iPVN) of CGRP on food intake and the HPA axis in rats and the ...
Meade Sharonda - - 2003
An experiment was conducted to investigate if bombesin (BM) elicits its effects on feeding through the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) and broiler cockerels were stereotaxically implanted with a 23-gauge stainless steel cannula in the right lateral ventricle. Birds were infused with 0 or 0.5 ...
Zhang Min - - 2003
The current studies were designed to evaluate whether incentive motivation for palatable food is altered after manipulations of opioid, GABAergic, and dopaminergic transmission within the nucleus accumbens. A progressive ratio schedule was used to measure lever-pressing for sugar pellets after microinfusion of drugs into the nucleus accumbens in non-food-deprived rats. ...
Will M J - - 2003
Endogenous opioid peptides within the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain site critical for the regulation of reward-related behavior, are believed to play an important role in the control of appetite. In particular, this system is thought to mediate the hedonic aspects of food intake, governing the positive emotional response to highly ...
Talke P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: When administered intrathecally, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists produce spinally mediated antinociception, but also rapidly redistribute to supraspinal sites. This investigation the compared EMG effects of intrathecally administered dexmedetomidine, MPV-2426 (fadolmidine), and tizanidine in Sprague-Dawley rats, which has not been previously described. METHODS: We studied electromyographic (EMG) responses of the head ...
Kastin A J AJ VA Medical Center and Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112-1262, - - 2003
Peripherally administered exendin-4 is in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Since its effects on food intake are mediated centrally, we determined the degree and type of its blood-to-brain penetration of the mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB). High-performance liquid chromatography showed that exendin-4 was stable in blood, ...
Olszewski Pawel K - - 2003
Peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) and VIP are derived from the same precursor. While central VIP decreases food intake, potential effects of PHI on feeding have not been studied. In the current study, we found that PHI administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV) or into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or central nucleus of ...
Tachibana Tetsuya - - 2003
The present study was done to clarify whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) affects feeding in chicks. ICV injection of CART significantly inhibited fasting-induced feeding of broiler chicks. In layer chicks, on the other hand, CART inhibited food intake in birds with ad libitum access to ...
González-Mariscal Gabriela - - 2003
Fluctuations in the plasma concentration of estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin across pregnancy regulate maternal nest-building (digging, straw-carrying, and hair-plucking) and food intake in rabbits. Because testosterone levels also change through pregnancy, we investigated if the injection of testosterone propionate (TP; 1 or 5 mg/day) or 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate (5 or 10 ...
Kas M J H - - 2003
Food restriction leads to a paradoxical increase in physical activity and further suppression of food intake, such as observed in anorexia nervosa.(1,2) To understand this pathophysiological process, we induced physical hyperactivity and self-starvation in rats by restricting food in the presence of running wheels. Normally, decreased melanocortin receptor activity will ...
Strader April D - - 2003
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) is an important mediator of the effects of two melanocortin system ligands, alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP), on feeding behavior and energy balance in mammals. Although an avian homologue of the mammalian MC4-R has recently been identified, there is little information on ...
Ahn S - - 2003
Interactions of the central and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala with the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system are implicated in the acquisition and performance of conditioned responses for food reward. This study investigated whether dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat is influenced by the ...
Samarghandian S - - 2003
Several kinds of stress such as psychological stress, restraint, and foot shock inhibit feeding behavior through corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). In contrast, a mild tail pinch increases food intake in rats. Although dopamine and opioid are thought to be involved in tail-pinch-induced food intake, it is unknown whether CRF participates in ...
Teschemacher H - - 2003
During the last two decades a variety of food protein fragments has been demonstrated to elicit biological effects in various in vitro or in vivo test systems. A considerable part of these bioactive peptides are opioid receptor ligands, which may be regarded as exogenous supplements to the endogenous opioidergic systems ...
Ogawa A - - 2003
The effect of food hardness during mastication on nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord was studied by analyzing complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced nocifensive behavior and Fos expression. The behavioral study showed that the shortening of the withdrawal latency following CFA injection into the hind paw was depressed after a ...
Richardson Ralph D - - 2002
Intraventricular corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) suppresses food intake and body weight as a stress response. Insulin, acting within the brain, also suppresses food intake and body weight, and this suppression is related to caloric homeostasis. We determined if increased insulin within the brain potentiates the anorexic effects of intraventricular CRH. ...
Sipols A J - - 2002
The hormone insulin acts in the central nervous system (CNS) as a regulator of body adiposity and food intake. Recent work from our laboratory has provided evidence that one way by which insulin may decrease food intake is by decreasing the rewarding properties of food. Evidence from others suggests that ...
Kinzig Kimberly P - - 2002
Intracerebroventricular administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) reduces food intake and produces symptoms of visceral illness, such as a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The central hypothesis of the present work is that separate populations of GLP-1 receptors mediate the anorexia and taste aversion associated with GLP-1 administration. To test ...
Patel S M - - 2002
The effects of the benzodiazepine receptor ligand 3-(methoxycarbonyl) amino-beta-carboline (beta-CMC) were investigated on food intake in rats that had been fasted for 22 h, and on water intake in rats that had been deprived of water for 16 h. beta-CMC (2-8 mg/kg i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of food intake. ...
Fekete Eva - - 2002
Bombesin (BN)-like peptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are known to inhibit feeding. In the amygdaloid body BN receptors have been found in moderate to high densities. The central part of the amygdala (ACE) is essentially involved in the regulation of feeding and body weight. In the present experiments GRP was ...
Vergoni Anna Valeria - - 2002
Prolactin releasing peptide (PrRP) has been reported to reduce food intake in rats. We tested the effect of i.c.v. administration of PrRP-31 on food intake in both food deprived and free-feeding rats. We did not find any effect of PrRP-31 on food intake after single injections of up to an ...
Gómez Raquel - - 2002
Recent studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system modulates feeding. Despite the existence of central mechanisms for the regulation of food intake by endocannabinoids, evidence indicates that peripheral mechanisms may also exist. To test this hypothesis, we investigated (1) the effects of feeding on intestinal anandamide accumulation; (2) the effects of ...
Clegg Deborah J - - 2002
Mice respond to fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors by profoundly reducing their food intake and body weight. Evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) may be the critical site of action; however, a peripheral contribution cannot be ruled out. We compared doses of the FAS inhibitor C75 in the ...
Reichenberg A - - 2002
This study examined the effects of endotoxin administration on food and water consumption in humans, and the associations between these changes and endotoxin-induced secretion of cytokines, cortisol, and fever. Twenty healthy male volunteers received an i.v. injection of Salmonella abortus equi endotoxin (0.8 ng/kg) or saline in two experimental sessions. ...
Lawrence C B CB School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, - - 2002
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a recently identified neuropeptide that shares sequence homology with the orexigenic neuropeptide, galanin. In contrast to galanin, GALP is reported to bind preferentially to the galanin receptor 2 subtype (GalR2) compared to GalR1. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of GALP on ...
Harrold Joanne A - - 2002
Agonists at cannabinoid-1 (CB-1) receptors stimulate feeding and particularly enhance the reward aspects of eating. To investigate whether endogenous cannabinoids might influence appetite for palatable food, we compared CB-1 receptor density in the forebrain and hypothalamus, between rats fed standard chow (n=8) and others given palatable food (n=8) for 10 ...
Miller Cheryl C - - 2002
2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) inhibits glycolysis and stimulates food intake. Previous work suggests that fructose may attenuate the hyperglycemic and hypothermic effects of 2DG. The current study examined the effect of intracerebroventricular fructose on 2DG-induced feeding. We found that concentrated fructose injected into the cerebroventricles enhanced food intake both in the presence ...
Schuhler Sandrine - - 2003
We investigated the role of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in the regulation of food intake in the Siberian hamster, which shows a profound seasonal decrease in food intake and body weight in short photoperiod (SP). In male hamsters maintained in long photoperiod (LP), intracerebroventricular injection of melanotan II (MTII) just ...
Choi Yang-Ho - - 2002
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a key regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, which plays an important role in energy homeostasis and is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic TRH treatment on water intake, body temperature and feeding behavior ...
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