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Patterson M M Department of Metabolic Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, - - 2006
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviour, metabolism and reproduction. GALP is an endogenous ligand of the galanin receptors, which are widely expressed in the hypothalamus. GALP is predominantly expressed in arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones, which project to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial ...
Ohinata Kousaku - - 2006
Prostaglandin (PG) E2, a bioactive lipid produced in the brains of various mammals, decreases food intake after central administration. We examined which of four distinct subtypes of PGE2 receptors (EP1-EP4) mediated the anorexigenic action of PGE2 using highly selective ligands. PGE2 at a dose of 0.1-10 nmol/mouse decreased food intake ...
Taha Sharif A - - 2006
Endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the neural control of food intake. Opioid signaling is thought to regulate palatability, the reward value of a food item as determined by orosensory cues such as taste and texture. The reward value of a food reflects not only these sensory properties but also the ...
Lewis Sarah R - - 2006
The feeding response following administration of the free fatty acid oxidation inhibitor, mercaptoacetate (MA) is conceptualized as an experimental model of lipoprivation, which may contribute to the understanding of inter-individual differences in the modulation of this homeostatic response. Although variation in the intake of food, water and glucoprivation as well ...
Xin Zhili - - 2006
The discovery and pharmacological evaluation of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonists are reported. Previously, 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-based GHS-R antagonists reported from our laboratories have been shown to be dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors. By comparing the X-ray crystal structure of DHFR docked with our GHS-R antagonists and ...
Brandt Karsten - - 2006
Peripherally administered beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) agonists stimulate lipolysis and inhibit food intake. To test the hypothesis that this inhibition of feeding is due to a substrate-driven increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO), we assessed the ability of the FAO inhibitor mercaptoacetate (MA) to reverse the feeding-inhibitory effect of the ...
Ward Heather G - - 2006
Acute pharmacological studies implicate mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of the brainstem in modulating eating. The long-term effects of preventing the cellular function of parabrachial MORs on food consumption remain to be elucidated. To determine whether (1) chronic inhibition of MOR-mediated G-protein coupling in the PBN of ...
Le Merrer Julie - - 2006
Repeated administration of abused drugs sensitizes their stimulant effects and results in a drug-paired environment eliciting conditioned activity. We tested whether food induces similar effects. Food-deprived male mice were given novel food during 30 min tests in a runway (FR group) that measured locomotor activity. Whereas the activity of this ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2006
We investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on food intake in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Cumulative food intake was significantly decreased by ICV injection of PACAP or VIP. Similarly, IP administration of PACAP or VIP ...
Yang Chun - - 2006
Haploinsufficency of Sim1, which codes for a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) transcription factor, causes hyperphagia in mice and humans, without decrease in energy expenditure. Sim1 is expressed in several areas of the brain, including the developing and postnatal paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a region of the hypothalamus that controls food intake. We ...
Cabrera M C - - 2006
This work was performed to investigate the effect of duration of fasting in the responses of chickens peripherally injected with histamine on the regulation of food intake. The animals were 16-week-old male chickens from layer-strain and the doses of histamine used were 500 and 1000 microg/kg of body weight. The ...
McGowan B M BM Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, 6th Floor Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, - - 2006
The effects of acute and repeated intraparaventricular (iPVN) administration of human relaxin-3 (H3) were examined on food intake, energy expenditure, and the hypothalamo-pituitary thyroid axis in male Wistar rats. An acute high dose iPVN injection of H3 significantly increased food intake 1 h post-administration [0.4+/-0.1 g (vehicle) vs 1.6+/-0.5 g ...
O'Hare E - - 2006
RATIONALE: A recent review paper by Cooper (Appetite 44:133-150, 2005) has pointed out that a role for benzodiazepines as appetite stimulants has been largely overlooked. Cooper's review cited several studies that suggested the putative mechanism of enhancement of food intake after benzodiazepine administration might involve increasing the perceived pleasantness of ...
Astarita Giuseppe - - 2006
Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator that reduces food intake, promotes lipolysis, and decreases body weight gain in rodents by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha). The biological effects of OEA are terminated by two intracellular lipid hydrolase enzymes, fatty-acid amide hydrolase and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase. In the present study, ...
Beck Bernard - - 2006
Insulin and C-peptide are released in equimolecular concentrations in the circulation after food ingestion as they result from the enzymatic cleavage of proinsulin. In the brain, insulin inhibits food intake through hypothalamic receptors. In the present study, we tested the ability of C-peptide to modulate food intake when injected in ...
Irigaray Philippe - - 2006
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a common food pollutant that causes DNA adduct formation and is carcinogenic. The report of a positive correlation between human plasma B[a]P levels and body mass index, together with B[a]P's lipophilicity, led us to test for possible adverse effects of B[a]P on adipose tissue. In ex vivo ...
Smith Kirsty L KL Department of Metabolic Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, 6th Floor Commonwealth Building, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United - - 2006
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered peptide shown to be involved in the modulation of arousal and fear responses. It has also been shown that lateral ventricle administration of NPS causes a significant decrease in food intake. Neuropeptides involved in the modulation of arousal have been shown to be ...
Pecchi E - - 2006
In response to infection or inflammation, individuals develop a set of symptoms referred to as sickness behavior, which includes a decrease in food intake. The characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying this hypophagia remains critical, because chronic anorexia may represent a significant health risk. Prostaglandins (PGs) constitute an important inflammatory ...
Maruyama Keisuke - - 2006
Our recent research has indicated that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) suppresses food intake and locomotor activity in the goldfish. However, the anorexigenic mechanism of PACAP has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the anorexigenic action of ...
López-Olmeda J F - - 2006
Melatonin has several known physiological functions, the main one being synchronization of daily and seasonal rhythms. In addition, melatonin has been reported to influence food intake and behavioral rhythms with varying results depending on the species. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of intraperitoneal melatonin injection ...
Overton Hilary A - - 2006
The endogenous lipid signaling agent oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has recently been described as a peripherally acting agent that reduces food intake and body weight gain in rat feeding models. This paper presents evidence that OEA is an endogenous ligand of the orphan receptor GPR119, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed predominantly ...
McLaughlin Peter J - - 2006
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonists are becoming increasingly recognized for their potential therapeutic utility as appetite suppressants. In the current paper we characterize the biochemical and behavioral effects of AM 1387, which is a novel CB1 antagonist. AM 1387 exhibited binding affinity and selectivity for the CB1 over the CB2 ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2006
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamo-pituitary peptide, which was first identified in the salmon pituitary as a hormone affecting body color. Recently, MCH has been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in mammals. Despite a growing body of knowledge concerning MCH in mammals, however, there is ...
Gessa Gian Luigi - - 2006
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Previous work indicated that tolerance to the anorectic effect of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant, developed rather rapidly in rats and mice given access to a standard rodent chow. The present study was designed to investigate whether the reducing effect of rimonabant on intake of ...
Li Muyao - - 2006
Administration of cobaltic protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) into the third ventricle of the brain by intracerebroventricular injection in rodents is known to result in transient hypophagia and remarkably prolonged weight loss. The mechanism of action of CoPP in eliciting these effects is unknown. It is known that nitric oxide plays a ...
Tsushima Hiromi - - 2006
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is one member of the TRP superfamily of nonselective cation channels. Recently, the possibility has been raised that TRPV4 is an osmoreceptor, because it is found in the circumventricular organs where osmoreceptors are supposed to be distributed and because it is sensitive to osmotic ...
Chen Scott A - - 2006
The goal of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of unlimited access to intravenous heroin self-administration combined with responding for food and water to characterize the transition to drug dependence. Male Wistar rats were allowed to lever press for heroin (60 microg/kg/0.1 ml infusion/s; fixed ...
Chambers Adam P - - 2006
The cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) receptor has been implicated in the regulation of food intake. Here, we examine the effect of the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM 251 on food intake and body weight over a prolonged period. Further, we examine whether AM 251 produces conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and if sustained ...
Peciña Susana S Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. - - 2005
Mu-opioid systems in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens contribute to hedonic impact ("liking") for sweetness, food, and drug rewards. But does the entire medial shell generate reward hedonic impact? Or is there a specific localized site for opioid enhancement of hedonic "liking" in the medial shell? And how ...
Weitemier A Z - - 2006
The midbrain-localized Edinger-Westphal nucleus is a major site of production of urocortin 1. Urocortin 1 is a neuropeptide related to corticotropin-releasing factor that has high affinity for corticotropin-releasing factor type-1 and corticotropin-releasing factor type-2 receptors. In several mouse models, the amount of urocortin 1 neurons within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is ...
Foltin Richard W - - 2005
This study examined how the GABA(b) agonist baclofen (0.5-5.6 mg/kg, p.o.), reported to increase food intake in rodents, affected the appetitive and consummatory aspects of feeding of non-human primates. Baboons had access to food 24 h each day, but they had to complete a two-phase operant procedure in order to ...
Pratt Wayne E - - 2005
Cholinergic interneurons of the striatum respond to motivationally relevant stimuli and are involved in appetitive learning. However, there has been relatively little inquiry into the role of striatal acetylcholine in food motivation. Here we show in rats that a single infusion of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (0, 5.0 or ...
Nordheim Ulrich - - 2006
In the present studies, we used a non-selective melanocortin MC3/4 receptor agonist (HP228) and a novel selective melanocortin MC4 receptor (MC4-R) agonist (MK-cpd1) to study the cardiovascular, temperature, locomotor and feeding responses to melanocortin receptor stimulation in comparison to sibutramine in rats instrumented with a telemetry transmitter. Moreover, norepinephrine turnover ...
Hung Chun-Yi - - 2006
Hindbrain administration of MK-801, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel blocker, increases meal size, suggesting NMDA receptors in this location participate in control of food intake. However, dizocilpine (MK-801) reportedly antagonizes some non-NMDA ion channels. Therefore, to further assess hindbrain NMDA receptor participation in food intake control, we measured deprivation-induced intakes ...
Solinas Marcello - - 2005
Strong functional interactions exist between endogenous cannabinoid and opioid systems. Here, we investigated whether cannabinoid-opioid interactions modulate motivational effects of food reinforcement. In rats responding for food under a progressive-ratio schedule, the maximal effort (break point) expended to obtain 45 mg pellets depended on the level of food deprivation, with ...
Cedraz-Mercez P L - - 2005
We investigated the role of 5-HT2C receptors and serotonergic transmission in the feeding behavior control of quails. Administration of serotonin releaser, fenfluramine (FEN) and 5-HT2C agonists, mCPP and MK212, 1.0 and 3.3 mg/Kg induced significant inhibition of food intake in previously fasted fowls (0.71 +/- 0.18 g and 0.47 +/- ...
Morens Céline - - 2005
Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is a regulator of ingestive behavior, but several issues regarding its effects on specific components of ingestive behavior remain to be elucidated. Therefore, we injected, in the 3rd ventricle of male Wistar rats, saline, MCH (5 microg), MCH (5 mug) together with a MCH1-R antagonist (A, ...
Barbano Maria Flavia - - 2006
Various aspects of feeding behavior (eg consumption, motivation and anticipation) are regulated by homeostatic and hedonic systems, and are modulated by dopaminergic and opioid brain systems. Here, we have studied the modulation of these aspects of feeding behavior by opioid and dopaminergic neurotransmission while taking into account food palatability and ...
Aydin Mustafa Asim - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In lymphoscintigraphies of the head and neck, multiple injections around a tumor result in variable drainage to multiple nodal basins. We undertook this study in healthy subjects to test whether single injections at specified points in the auricle display single predictable pathways and predict visualization of parotid sentinel lymph ...
Amer Ahmed - - 2005
Food intake is normally influenced by a multitude of complex endogenous neurochemical systems, in addition to numerous external environmental stimuli, including olfaction. Since most olfactory neurons process odorant exposures through Ca2+-mediated mechanisms via Ca2+ channels, a novel approach at influencing the ingestive behaviors of animals might therefore involve altering olfactory ...
Bhattacharjee Manasi - - 2005
Sucrose ingestion has been shown to alleviate pain and distress in rats, human infants as well as adults. Sucrose induced analgesia is related to the reward value associated with its sweet taste. The sweet taste of sucrose is a stimulus for the activation of endogenous opioid pool. The opioids in ...
Polidori Carlo - - 2006
It has been recently reported that acute intracerebroventricular injection of 1 nmol/rat of the non-selective melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3/4) agonist MTII reduces ethanol intake in female AA alcohol-preferring rats and alters opioid peptide levels in the ventral tegmental area of rats. To better understand the role of the ...
Shousha Saad - - 2006
Neuromedin S (NMS) was recently isolated from the brains of humans, mice and rats as an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptors FM-3 and FM-4, which have been identified as neuromedin U (NMU) receptors 1 and 2, respectively. To investigate the role of NMS in avian species, we ...
Aja Susan - - 2006
Central administration of both CART and GLP-1 reduces feeding and increases c-Fos in brain areas associated with food intake. To determine whether aspects of CART's effects were mediated through GLP-1's action, we examined whether the GLP-1 receptor antagonist des-His1-Glu9-exendin-4 (EX) blocked CART-induced feeding inhibition, and c-Fos activation. An i.c.v. dose ...
Valenti M - - 2005
Cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol have been suggested to regulate food intake in several animal phyla. Orthologs of the mammalian cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors have been identified in fish. We investigated the presence of this endocannabinoid system in the brain of the goldfish Carassius auratus and ...
Apelbaum A F - - 2005
The mitral cells (MCs) of the olfactory bulb (OB) are relay neurons between the periphery and the central nervous structures. MCs receive in turn a centrifugal control from several higher brain centers that depends on the nutritional state. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin A (ORX), a ...
Scott V - - 2005
Systemic injection of peptide YY3-36 reduces food intake in rodents and humans, although some groups have reported a lack of response. PYY3-36 is thought to act via the Y2 receptor to presynaptically inhibit the release of neuropeptide Y and GABA from hypothalamic arcuate neurones. Due to the controversy surrounding its ...
Maiorov V I - - 2005
Experiments were performed on cats to study the effects of systemic administration of antagonists of dopaminergic transmission on food-related and defensive (an escape response) operant conditioned reflexes acquired on the basis of the innate response of placing the forepaw on a support. Selective blockade of D1 receptors with SCH23390 (0.005-0.1 ...
Mannucci Carmen - - 2005
We studied the long-term effects of repeated doses of nicotine, causing dependence, 120 days after its withdrawal on feeding behavior and on brain nitric oxide (NO) formation in female mice. Nicotine dependence was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) nicotine injection (2 mg/kg, four injections daily) for 14 days. Daily food intake ...
Bernier Nicholas J - - 2005
Hypoxia stress suppresses appetite in a variety of fish species, but the mechanisms mediating this response are not known. Therefore, given their anorexigenic and hypophysiotropic properties, we investigated the contribution of forebrain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin I (UI) to the regulation of food intake and the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) stress ...
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