Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1248
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Polidori Carlo - - 2006
It has been recently reported that acute intracerebroventricular injection of 1 nmol/rat of the non-selective melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3/4) agonist MTII reduces ethanol intake in female AA alcohol-preferring rats and alters opioid peptide levels in the ventral tegmental area of rats. To better understand the role of the ...
Shousha Saad - - 2006
Neuromedin S (NMS) was recently isolated from the brains of humans, mice and rats as an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptors FM-3 and FM-4, which have been identified as neuromedin U (NMU) receptors 1 and 2, respectively. To investigate the role of NMS in avian species, we ...
Aja Susan - - 2006
Central administration of both CART and GLP-1 reduces feeding and increases c-Fos in brain areas associated with food intake. To determine whether aspects of CART's effects were mediated through GLP-1's action, we examined whether the GLP-1 receptor antagonist des-His1-Glu9-exendin-4 (EX) blocked CART-induced feeding inhibition, and c-Fos activation. An i.c.v. dose ...
Valenti M - - 2005
Cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol have been suggested to regulate food intake in several animal phyla. Orthologs of the mammalian cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors have been identified in fish. We investigated the presence of this endocannabinoid system in the brain of the goldfish Carassius auratus and ...
Apelbaum A F - - 2005
The mitral cells (MCs) of the olfactory bulb (OB) are relay neurons between the periphery and the central nervous structures. MCs receive in turn a centrifugal control from several higher brain centers that depends on the nutritional state. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin A (ORX), a ...
Scott V - - 2005
Systemic injection of peptide YY3-36 reduces food intake in rodents and humans, although some groups have reported a lack of response. PYY3-36 is thought to act via the Y2 receptor to presynaptically inhibit the release of neuropeptide Y and GABA from hypothalamic arcuate neurones. Due to the controversy surrounding its ...
Maiorov V I - - 2005
Experiments were performed on cats to study the effects of systemic administration of antagonists of dopaminergic transmission on food-related and defensive (an escape response) operant conditioned reflexes acquired on the basis of the innate response of placing the forepaw on a support. Selective blockade of D1 receptors with SCH23390 (0.005-0.1 ...
Mannucci Carmen - - 2005
We studied the long-term effects of repeated doses of nicotine, causing dependence, 120 days after its withdrawal on feeding behavior and on brain nitric oxide (NO) formation in female mice. Nicotine dependence was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) nicotine injection (2 mg/kg, four injections daily) for 14 days. Daily food intake ...
Bernier Nicholas J - - 2005
Hypoxia stress suppresses appetite in a variety of fish species, but the mechanisms mediating this response are not known. Therefore, given their anorexigenic and hypophysiotropic properties, we investigated the contribution of forebrain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin I (UI) to the regulation of food intake and the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) stress ...
Levine Allen S - - 2005
Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an endogenous ligand for G protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7). There are two forms of the peptide, designated as neuropeptide W-23 (NPW23) and neuropeptide W-30 (NPW30). In the current study we found that intracerebroventricular administration of NPW23 increased c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) in a variety of brain sites, ...
Wiley Jenny L - - 2005
1 Marijuana's appetite-increasing effects have long been known. Recent research suggests that the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A may suppress appetite. This study represents a further, systematic investigation of the role of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors in the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids on food intake. 2 Mice were food-restricted for 24 ...
Reis L C - - 2005
We investigated participation of the brain serotonergic system in food intake control by using oral and systemic administration of serotonin precursors in quails (Coturnix japonica). Dietary supplemental tryptophan (0.1-50.0 g/kg) provoked a dose-dependent inhibition of food intake during a 5-h observation period, which persisted up to 24 h for doses ...
Ortega Van A - - 2005
To assess whether the brain's monoaminergic and/or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems may be involved in mediating the appetite-suppressing effects of high environmental ammonia levels, we exposed rainbow trout to one of four NH4Cl treatments (0, 500, 750, 1000 micromol l(-1)) for 24 or 96 h and monitored changes in food ...
McGowan B M C - - 2005
Relaxin-3 (INSL-7) is a recently discovered member of the insulin superfamily. Relaxin-3 mRNA is expressed in the nucleus incertus of the brainstem, which has projections to the hypothalamus. Relaxin-3 binds with high affinity to the LGR7 receptor and to the previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPCR135. GPCR135 mRNA is expressed ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2005
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a similar structure to that of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and both the polypeptides belong to the same molecular group, the secretin-glucagon superfamily. PACAP and VIP have possible potency as hypothalamic factors mediating the release of pituitary hormones in the fish pituitary. However, the ...
Baert K - - 2005
A study was conducted to determine the influence of sodium salicylate on the behaviour and the food and water consumption of broiler chickens after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. An oral dose of 100 mg/kg sodium salicylate was given and an acute phase reaction in broiler chickens was provoked through the intravenous ...
McLaughlin P J - - 2005
RATIONALE: A growing body of evidence suggests that cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic utility as appetite suppressants. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the reduction in food intake produced by these drugs are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: Considering the known antiemetic and motor-suppressive effects of CB1 agonists, the present ...
Karádi Zoltán - - 2005
To elucidate the homeostatic consequences of direct pallidal administration of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), short- (2 h) and long-term (12 h) food intakes, water intake and body temperature were measured after bilateral microinjection of IL-1beta (with or without paracetamol/PAR/pretreatment) into the ventro-medial part of the globus pallidus (GP). The effects were compared ...
Pyter L M - - 2005
Rodents that live in changing environments display different immune responses mediated in part by photoperiod (day length) cues. Siberian hamsters maintained in winter-like (short) photoperiods display smaller physiological and behavioral responses to immune challenges as compared with hamsters housed in summer-like (long) photoperiods. We hypothesized that these different response patterns ...
Menani J V - - 2004
It has been shown that central or peripheral injections of the peptide relaxin induces water intake, not sodium intake in rats. Important inhibitory mechanisms involving serotonin and other neurotransmitters in the control of water and NaCl intake have been demonstrated in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). In the present study, ...
Tsushima Hiromi - - 2005
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of bombesin (BN) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) dose-dependently decreased food intake in male Wistar rats fasted for 17 h. Neuromedin B (NMB) did not show any effect on food intake. After BN administration, locomotor activity did not significantly change, compared with a vehicle-injected group. The anorexia induced ...
Shousha Saad - - 2005
Neuromedin U (NMU), which is a brain-gut peptide, was first isolated as a smooth-muscle-contracting peptide from the porcine spinal cord in 1985. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of NMU into rats significantly reduced the food intake during dark period, and increased oxygen consumption, locomotor activity, and body temperature suggested that NMU is ...
Bradbury Margaret J MJ Department of Pharmacology, RY80Y-145, Merck Research Labs, Box 2000, Rahway, NJ 07065, - - 2005
The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGlu5 modulates central reward pathways. Many transmitter systems within reward pathways affect feeding. We examined the potential role of mGlu5 in body weight regulation using genetic and pharmacological approaches. Adult mice lacking mGlu5, mGluR5-/-, weighed significantly less than littermate controls (mGluR5+/+, despite no difference in ...
Lewis Michael J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide galanin increases food intake. Chronic ethanol (EtOH) increases the expression of galanin in the hypothalamus. The research presented here examines the effects of microinjection of galanin in the third ventricle on voluntary alcohol intake. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats with a cannula in the third ventricle were ...
Ohinata Kousaku - - 2004
Neurotensin (NT), a tridecapeptide found in the mammalian brain and peripheral tissues, induces a decrease in food intake after central administration. In this investigation, we examine whether the histaminergic system is involved in NT-induced suppression of feeding. Intracerebroventricular injection of NT (0.1-1 nmol/mouse) led to dose-dependent inhibition of food intake ...
Soderstrom Ken - - 2004
Singing by adult male zebra finches is a learned behavior important for courtship, kin recognition, and nest defense (Zann, 1996) and is inhibited by both brief periods of limited food availability and systemic injection of cannabinoids. These similar effects on singing, combined with increasing evidence for endocannabinoid involvement in feeding ...
Patel Sunit M - - 2004
In order to test the hypothesis that endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting at central GABAB receptors, plays a physiological role in the control of feeding behaviour, it was reasoned that blocking these receptors with a centrally active GABAB receptor antagonist should reduce food intake in hungry rats. In the present ...
Hayashi Aska - - 2005
RATIONALE: Food intake and energy expenditure are the two main determinants of body weight. Given that 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists are reported to have effects on both energy expenditure and food intake, this strongly suggests that 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists have excellent potential for development as antiobesitiy drugs. One important issue in ...
Chambers Adam P - - 2004
Cannabinoid (CB)(1) receptors are present throughout the nervous system, including several areas implicated in the control of food intake. Central and peripheral administration of CB(1) agonists increase food intake while CB(1) receptor antagonists reduce food intake. However, in some previous studies, tolerance to the anorectic effects of CB(1) antagonists develops ...
Thompson Emily L - - 2004
Hypothalamic neuromedin U (NMU) appears to have a role in the regulation of appetite and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Acute administration of NMU into the paraventricular nuclei (iPVN) increases plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone, and inhibits food intake in fasted rats. No studies have as yet investigated the chronic effects ...
Miguelez M M School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, K1N 6N5, - - 2004
In the present work, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of a single systemic injection of rat recombinant interleukin-2 on weight, food intake, and brain stimulation reward thresholds elicited from the ventral tegmental area. An inverted U-shaped dose-function was obtained with 0.5 microg producing the greatest increases in the ...
Ebenezer I S - - 2004
It has previously been demonstrated that central administration of the GABAB agonist baclofen increases food intake in non-deprived or satiated animals by action at the central GABAB receptors. It has also been shown that systemic administration of baclofen increases food intake in non-deprived rats. Although baclofen crosses the blood brain ...
Cooper Steven J - - 2004
The endocannabinoid system consists of several endogenous lipids, including anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), and constitute a retrograde signalling system, which modulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. Specific brain-type cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)) are widely distributed in the central nervous system, and are localized presynaptically. Mounting evidence, reviewed here, indicates that cannabinoids ...
Pal G K - - 2004
Serotonin is known to inhibit food and water intake. However, the effect of its injection into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake is not known. In the present study, serotonin hydrochloride, buspirone (the serotonin 5-HT1A agonist) and ondensetron (the 5HT3 antagonist) were injected into nucleus caudatus through stereotaxically implanted ...
Ohata Hisayuki - - 2004
Urocortin 2 (Ucn 2) and Ucn 3 are new members of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family and bind selectively to the CRF type 2 receptor (CRF2). The effects of these peptides on behavioral changes induced by CRF were examined in rats. In a familiar environment, intracerebroventricular injection of Ucn 2 ...
Aiello Lloyd P - - 2004
Intravitreous (i.v.t.) injection is increasingly being incorporated into the management of ocular diseases. While only fomivirsen sodium (Vitravene) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an i.v.t. injection, the number of approved i.v.t. injections indications is anticipated to grow on the basis of promising results from ongoing ...
Bungo Takashi - - 2004
The effect of chicken motilin on food intake was investigated in meat-type chicks under ad libitum feeding, refeeding, and fasting conditions. We found that the intracerebroventricular injection of chicken motilin (0.1 and 0.2 microg) tended to increase food intake under ad libitum feeding and refeeding conditions at 60 min postinjection, ...
Viggiano An - - 2004
AIM: Hypocretin 1 is an hypothalamic neuropeptide that induces an increase in food intake when administered into the cerebral lateral ventricle. As it is well known that the medial hypothalamus (MH) is involved in the feeding behaviour also through GABAergic circuits, the aim of this experiment was to investigate the ...
Rutkowska Maria - - 2004
The anorectic effect of AM 251 (N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-di-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide), a CB1 receptor antagonist, was studied in rats. AM 251 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg i.p.) significantly and dose-dependently reduced food intake in both free-feeding and food-deprived rats. The obtained results support the anorectic activity of CB1 receptors antagonists.
Verty A N A - - 2004
Oxytocin and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors independently modulate food intake. Although an interaction between oxytocin and cannabinoid systems has been demonstrated with respect to the cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome, the interaction between these systems in modulating food intake has not yet been examined. The present study had three primary purposes: (1) to ...
Magrani Janeide - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors located within the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) on overnight food and water intake and on water intake elicited by two physiological stimuli: hyperosmolarity induced by an acute intragastric salt load ...
Will Matthew J - - 2004
Endogenous opioid peptides within the nucleus accumbens are thought to mediate the hedonic aspects of food intake, particularly foods such as fat and sugar. In view of evidence that the amygdala also regulates positive affect, we hypothesized this brain region participates in the control of opioid-mediated food intake. The robust ...
MacDonald Amy F - - 2004
Reward is an important factor motivating food intake in satiated animals. Two sites involved in the reward response are the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens shell region (sNAcc), between which communication is partially regulated by opioids and dopamine (DA). Previous studies have shown that the mu-opioid agonist ...
Ikemura Ryota - - 2004
It is known that water deprivation or injection of hypertonic saline induces anorexia. The present study examined the possible involvement of vasopressin in the suppression of food intake during high plasma osmolality. Intraperitoneal injection of vasopressin (20 microg/kg) into male rats significantly suppressed food intake for 1 hr. This anorectic ...
Schuhler Sandrine - - 2004
Siberian hamsters accumulate fat reserves in long photoperiods, but show a long-term decrease in food intake and body weight when exposed to a short winter photoperiod. The aim of this study was to determine the role of central melanocortin 3/4 receptors (MC3/4-R) in generating this chronic catabolic state by investigating ...
Martínez-González Dolores - - 2004
Oleamide is a lipid with diverse properties, including cannabinoid-like activity. For example, it induces the classic triad of effects attributable to these molecules: decrease in core temperature, hypolocomotion, and reduction in pain perception. However, as it binds to the cannabinoid receptors (CB1) only at high concentrations, it is not considered ...
Sindelar Dana K - - 2004
The central histamine 3 receptor (H3R) is a presynaptic autoreceptor that regulates neuronal release and synthesis of histamine, and is thought to play a key role in controlling numerous central nervous system (CNS)-mediated parameters, including energy homeostasis. Thioperamide, the prototypical selective H3R antagonist, was used to examine the role that ...
Duarte Christine - - 2004
It has been shown previously that the selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant (SR141716), reduced the intake of palatable food as well as the self-administration of several drugs of abuse, suggesting that endocannabinoid systems play a role in brain reward function. The present study investigated whether a cannabinoid step was ...
Guan Guoqiang - - 2004
Previous studies have shown nicotine (NIC) administration leads to decreased food intake, while other investigations have reported that NIC stimulates c-Fos expression in the brainstem. Whether there is a causal relationship between NIC effects on ingestion and its effect on brainstem neurons is uncertain, however we hypothesized that blocking NIC ...
Sekino Azusa - - 2004
RATIONALE: Stress-induced inhibition of food intake is reportedly blocked by a selective corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist, suggesting the involvement of CRF1 in the inhibitory mechanism. CRF1 and CRF2 are considered to function in the inhibition of food intake by CRF-related peptides with different time courses. OBJECTIVES: ...
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