Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 772
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Wylie M J - - 2000
An experiment was conducted to investigate the compartmental mean residence time, (CMRT) of feed residues in segments of gastrointestinal digesta of mature Holstein steers. The objective was to evaluate assumptions that feed residues flow through ruminal digesta as sequential mixing pools having age-dependent (GN) and age-independent (G1) distributed residence times ...
Holmes M M - - 2000
The BALB/c mouse was evaluated as a model for the study of entrainment of circadian rhythms by feeding schedules. Mice were housed in a 12:12-h light-dark (LD) environment with food available for 3-5 h/day (5 h before dark onset). Food anticipatory activity (FAA) rhythms were evident in all mice, ranging ...
Erkert H G - - 2000
In the free-running circadian locomotor activity rhythm of a 7-year-old male owl monkey (Aotus lemurinus griseimembra) kept under constant light and climatic conditions (LL 0.2 lux, 25 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C, 60 +/- 5% relative humidity [RH]), a second rhythm component developed that showed strong relative coordination with ...
Proctor C J - - 2000
Many species of animals have to perform two contradictory tasks: feeding, and avoiding becoming food for others. A large number of theoretical and empirical studies have investigated the trade-off between feeding and antipredator vigilance, especially in birds. An important factor which has been neglected in these studies is that of ...
Hinton A A - - 2000
Trials were conducted to determine the effect of feed withdrawal on the weight, pH, native bacterial flora, and Salmonella typhimurium persistence in crops of broilers. Six-week-old broilers were provided medicated or unmedicated feed and were subjected to feed withdrawal for 0 to 24 h in transportation crates or on litter. ...
Neuhäusser-Wespy F - - 2000
In many studies with animals kept in groups, scientists need information about each individual's food access without disturbance or separation of the animals. We developed an automatic feeding device that allows measurement of individual food consumption and experimental manipulation of individual food availability in small social mammals, such as house ...
Li S - - 2000
Molds are widely distributed in nature and cause deterioration of foods and feeds. Their mycotoxins can adversely affect human and animal health. Suitable assays for molds, therefore, are required to implement control and regulatory strategies and to develop appropriate feeding regimens for mold-infested feeds. Many different types of mold assays ...
Fitt W K - - 2000
The hydroid Myrionema ambionense, a fast-growing cnidarian (doubling time = 8 days) found in shallow water on tropical back-reefs, lives in symbiosis with symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium (hereafter also referred to as zooxanthellae). The symbionts live in vacuoles near the base of host digestive cells, whereas unhealthy looking ...
Takase L F - - 2000
Involvement of the caudal raphe nuclei (raphe pallidus, RPa; raphe magnus, RMg, and raphe obscurus, ROb) in feeding behavior of adult rats was studied by measuring c-Fos protein expression, in animals submitted to the "meal-feeding" model of food restriction in which the rats were fed ad libitum only from 7:00 ...
McGaw I J - - 2000
The passage of a barium meal (15 % by mass) was followed through the digestive system of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus by flash-freezing crabs at set intervals, followed by radiography of specimens. Food moved from the oesophagus into the stomach region within 15 min. After 1-2 h, food was ...
Kornreich L - - 1999
Distinct chemical cues acting on chemosensory structures on the dorsal lip of bloodsucking leeches activate the entire complement of appetitive and ingestive feeding behaviors. However, it is not known whether the maintenance of ingestion depends on continuous stimulation of these peripheral chemosensors. Leeches of the species Hirudo medicinalis and Macrobdella ...
Walker SE - - 1999
We compared the influence of recent feeding history on locomotory behaviour in two species of wolf spiders, Hogna helluo (Walckenaer) and Pardosa milvina Hentz, in the laboratory. Both species are cursorial hunters. We maintained the spiders in the laboratory on satiation and stringent feeding regimes and measured their locomotory activity ...
Kelly G - - 1999
Nasogastric tube placement is desirable for the short-term administration of calories when oral feeding is not possible. Enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition. In some patients this method of feeding is impossible because of repeated failure of nasogastric tube placement, necessitating either general anaesthesia for enteral access, or total ...
Lax P - - 1999
The effect of 4-h feeding cycles on the feeding pattern of rats kept under constant light and constant darkness, was analysed. In both cases, the scheduled pattern of food-approach behavior elicited dissociation of the feeding activity into several components associated to the feeding times (CAFT), which coexisted with the previous ...
Windhauser M M - - 1999
Participants in controlled feeding studies must consume all study foods and abstain from all other foods. In outpatient studies in which adherence may be compromised by free-living conditions, promoting, documenting, and monitoring dietary adherence are necessary. In the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial, a thorough participant screening process, ...
Faverdin P - - 1999
The purpose of the present review is to examine the role played by nutrients in controlling feed intake in ruminants, in light of their particular anatomical, physiological, nutritional and behavioural characteristics. The ration is first digested in the rumen for several hours by microbial fermentation. Volatile fatty acids, which constitute ...
Davis J D - - 1999
Most sham feeding studies show that about three sham feeding tests are required for intake to reach maximum. One study, however, using a dilute solution, reported maximum sham intake in the first sham feeding test, suggesting that the progressive rise in sham intake may be concentration dependent. We tested this ...
Rahminiwati M - - 1999
The present trial examined the possibility that diazepam (DZP, 1 mg/kg) induces hyperphagia by acting on the dopaminergic system. Quinpirole (QP), dopamine D-2 receptor agonist, was used for this purpose. Mice fasted for 24 hr were treated with QP 1 (QP-1) or 2 (QP-2) mg/kg 30 min prior to termination ...
Lax P - - 1999
It has been suggested that two endogenous timekeeping systems, a light-entrainable pacemaker (LEP) and a food-entrainable pacemaker (FEP), control circadian rhythms. To understand the function and interaction between these two mechanisms better, we studied two behavioral circadian rhythmicities, feeding and locomotor activity, in rats exposed to two conflicting zeitgebers, food ...
Ye W - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To explore the risk factors associated with rampant caries and to provide suggestions for prevention and clinical treatment. METHODS: On the basis of a field survey, case-control study was performed to isolate variables possibly related to rampant caries in children. Data analysis was performed with individual analysis and multiple ...
Holder R B - - 1999
Improvement in feed efficiency when selection is based on gain:feed ratio has often been accompanied by a reduction in feed intake. The following four criteria were used in mass selection for improved lean gain efficiency in mice with an objective of evaluating changes in lean gain and intake: 1) gain ...
Hurwitz I - - 1999
Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential ...
Asarian L - - 1999
The hypothesis that prior pregastric food stimulation is sufficient to reveal an inhibitory effect of gastrin-releasing peptide1-27 (GRP) on sham feeding was tested in 11 male rats equipped with chronic gastric cannulas. Rats were sham fed a high-carbohydrate solution during a 45-min test session, after 17-h food deprivation. GRP (16 ...
Morimura N - - 1999
Modifications of feeding conditions are essential to the establishment of environmental enrichment in zoos. In this study, we attempted to increase the duration of feeding by varying feeding conditions, such as the spatial or temporal distribution of foods, while keeping the sorts and amounts of food the same. Subjects included ...
Howell S - - 1999
Beyond planning for good nutrition, one of the Cornerstones of a successful captive-chimpanzee wellness program is the opportunity for the nonhuman primates to express normal feeding and foraging behaviors. This study presents the results of a survey of 11 institutions-8 zoological and 3 research facilities-given to ascertain how daily diets ...
Altman J D - - 1999
Bears in captivity often show abnormal behaviors such as stereotypies and periods of excessive inactivity. Most of the research aimed at reducing abnormal behaviors in bears has focused on feeding enrichment. However, the effects of feeding enrichment only seem to last as long as it takes a bear to consume ...
Musial F - - 1998
The feeding behavior of four Munich miniature pigs (29-43 kg) housed in pairs of two, was observed for two consecutive weeks. Pigs were conditioned to operate a computer-controlled recording system equipped with feeders delivering a precise food release per response and were then fed ad libitum. In addition to the ...
Rogers S G - - 1998
Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTSs), the first biotechnologically improved soybeans to be marketed, became available commercially in 1996. The safety of GTSs was assessed in 2 ways: study of the introduced protein and of the soybean seed and selected processing fractions. Because soybeans are a major source of protein in most farm ...
Kennedy D G - - 1998
European Union Member States are now required to monitor poultry meat for the presence of coccidiostat residues. Among other factors contributing to the production of residue-free food is the ability of animal feed manufacturers to produce medication-free feedstuffs, ensuring the proper observance of withdrawal periods prior to slaughter. Carry-over of ...
Waddell L S - - 1998
Nutrition is an integral part of the management of the critically ill patient. Nutritional support can be provided by either parenteral or enteral routes. Whenever possible, enteral nutrition is the method of choice, as it reduces complication rates and improves outcome. Potential choices for enteral feeding include nasoesophageal, esophagostomy, gastrostomy, ...
Reierth E - - 1998
The possibility that feeding may act as a zeitgeber has been investigated in captive Svalbard ptarmigan by recording feeding or food-searching activity (FA) in birds given periodic access to food (PAF) under light-dark (LD) cycles or in continuous bright (LL) or dim light (DD) conditions. Except during LL, anticipatory attempts ...
Vilensky J A - - 1998
Utilizing the Denny-Brown collection, we investigated an unusual feeding behavior exhibited by monkeys after sequential pre- and post-central gyrus lesions. The behavior involves ingestion of food by placing the lips directly over the food object, i.e., 'mouth-feeding.' Interestingly, this behavior persists long after recovery of the ability to hand-feed. In ...
Theyse L F - - 1998
A case-control study was conducted to investigate whether age, gender, neuter status, type of food, feeding frequency, food intake time, interval between feeding and exercise, duration of exercise and overall physical activity were risk factors for gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) in the great dane. The sample population consisted of 38 ...
Kollien A H - - 1998
To follow the developmental effects of feeding of the insect host after long starvation periods, the population density and composition of an established infection of Trypanosoma cruzi in the rectum of Triatoma infestans were determined 60 days after the last feeding (daf) and then at different intervals after feeding. The ...
Ricci C - - 1998
Preliminary to carry out long-term experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) using living orgainisms, the capacity of the experimental organisms to cope with perturbations of gravity should be tested. Actually, animals have evolved under gravity, because on earth gravity force cannot be eluded, and several features that influence life-history ...
Cerdá-Reverter J M - - 1998
Daily variations of insulin, cortisol, and glucose are studied in animals adapted to two different photoperiodic regimes, with the intervals between feeding times and photoperiodic events kept constant. Data support the existence of a daily rhythm of plasma glucose which seems to be photoperiodic. In contrast, the daily patterns of ...
Arvedson J C - - 1998
Decisions for management of feeding and swallowing problems in infants and children are likely to be most effective in a professional team approach with caregivers. Optimal management relies on optimal assessment. This article focuses on management strategies that involve "food rules," the position and posture changes, alterations in food and ...
Escobar C - - 1998
The presence of a food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) independent from the SCN is now well established, but until now its location and characterization have been elusive. Because its expression requires priming of the animal's metabolism toward a catabolic state, it is possible that metabolic rhythms may be related to FEO. The ...
Matsuzawa T - - 1998
A mouse feeder in common use in the US was modified to eliminate spillage, contamination by excreta and formation of food aggregates. The improved feeder consists of a glass jar which holds 100 g of meal-type feed, an inner metal mesh tube, a marble placed inside the inner mesh tube, ...
Wiessinger D - - 1998
Effective latch-on is central to comfortable, efficient breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding involves taking a large mouthful of an even larger object, a latch-on teaching model based on bottle-feeding or on suction alone may be inappropriate. A model based on the way in which an adult approaches a large sandwich, using a ...
McWilliams S R - - 1998
We tested predictions of a chemical reactor model of digestion by manipulating the short-term costs of feeding and then measuring the effect on digestive parameters. We compared residence time of digesta and extraction efficiency of glucose in cold-acclimated waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) feeding ad lib. and in birds whose costs of ...
Boissy A - - 1998
In gregarious species like cattle, the presence of partners often affects fear-related reactions. The first experiment investigated whether behavioral and physiological responses to stress depend on the emotional state of the partner. Aubrac heifers were presented with food in a novel environment. Compared to heifers in the presence of a ...
Stelzer, Claus-Peter
The planktonic rotifer Ascomorpha ovalis feeds on large dinoflagellates (e.g. Ceratium sp., Peridinium sp.) and is able to extract their cell contents by means of its virgate mastax. This paper presents the results of experiments on the feeding behaviour of laboratory-cultured Ascomorpha with Ceratium furcoides as food algae. Ascomorpha are ...
van der Honing Y - - 1998
The need for improvement of feed information in future is discussed from the perspective for implementation in practice. Weaknesses of the current feed evaluation systems, energy systems in particular, are described: prediction of voluntary feed intake, additivity of digestibilities of individual feedstuffs and dynamics of digestion, efficiency of utilization of ...
Clutter A C - - 1998
Plasma cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) was studied in pigs with divergent genetic potential for feed intake. Differences in feed intake resulted from selection for either fast (line F) or slow (line S) postweaning gain. The hypothesis was that the relatively lesser feed intake in S versus F may be attributable, in part, ...
Tang Y - - 1998
Sandfly feeding behaviour and destination of coloured sugar meals in the gut of Lutzomyia longipalpis were investigated with particular attention to the role of the crop. Sandflies were able to ingest sugar from liquid drops, microcapillaries, a slice of pear and even sugar powder. In most cases the flies adopted ...
Murphy H M - - 1998
Telemetered body temperature (BT), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (AC) data were collected in vasopressin-containing, Long-Evans (LE) and vasopressin-deficient, Brattleboro (DI) rats. In Experiment 1, the rats were initially exposed to a 12 h/12 h light/dark cycle under ad-libitum feeding and were then subjected to either a phase-advance or ...
Hoffmann L - - 1998
The advantages and disadvantages of metabolisable and net energy as parameters of energetic feed evaluation are discussed. For a global comprehensive standardisation of the energetic feed evaluation, the metabolisable energy (ME) will have a preference. The principles of an energetic feed evaluation system with ME as parameter are explained according ...
Bekele A - - 1998
A descriptive cross sectional study on mothers' knowledge and practice related to weaning was conducted in Butajira in 1994. A total of 1,543 mother-child pair were included in the study, of which 1,052 (68%) children were on weaning diet and 491 (32%) were exclusively breast feeding. Among children who were ...
Gous R M - - 1998
Genotypes used in the broiler industry have changed significantly in the past 40 yr, and continue to change at the same rate today. Different selection criteria are used by the major breeding companies, leading to widely different genotypes being available to the broiler industry, yet nutritionists have largely ignored these ...
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