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Arav V I - - 2004
Mitotic index of type B spermatogonia in intact animals is characterized by a circadian rhythm. Mitotic index increased and its circadian rhythm disappeared after pinealectomy. Treatment with Epithalamin for 14 days restored the circadian rhythm. The circadian biorhythm of spermatogonia proliferation suggests the presence of circadian rhythm of spermatogenesis in ...
Guerenstein Pablo G - - 2004
As part of a study of the roles of the sensory subsystem devoted to CO(2) in the nectar-feeding moth Manduca sexta, we investigated CO(2) release and nectar secretion by flowers of Datura wrightii, a preferred hostplant of Manduca. Datura flowers open at dusk and wilt by the following noon. During ...
Vandoros Jason Demetri - - 2004
Frugivory evolved independently in Old and New World fruit bats (Families Pteropodidae and Phyllostomidae, respectively) and anecdotal reports state that these bats use their wings in different ways for manipulating food items and postural support during feeding. However, these often-cited behavioral differences have not been documented systematically. Here we report ...
Redstone Fran - - 2004
Children with cerebral palsy and other neurodisabilities often have decreased postural control that exacerbates their feeding/swallowing disorders. Correct postural alignment is important in the normal feeding/swallowing process. In the child with cerebral palsy, the alignment and stability of the oral structures for feeding/swallowing may be compromised by abnormal muscle tone ...
Warnken Jan - - 2004
This study investigated the potential for wildlife feeding to artificially increase population densities of the Australian brush-turkey, Alectura lathami and assessed the indirect adverse effects that this may have on surrounding forest floor vegetation. Census counts and observations of feeding activity conducted in recreation areas of Australia's Gold Coast hinterland ...
Warriss P D - - 2004
1. Broilers were held under constant light for up to 24 h with access to feed and water, access to water only, or access to neither feed nor water. 2. Birds given continuous access to feed ate evenly over the 24-h period. Feed deprivation reduced drinking behaviour to about half ...
Christofides Vassilis - - 2004
Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of screw speed (200-280 rpm), feed moisture (13.0-17.0%, wet basis), and curry powder (6.0-9.0%) on the bulk density, lateral expansion, and firmness of maize-based extruded snack with curry powder. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the responses were ...
Simmons Sandra F - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of megestrol acetate (Megace OS; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ) on the oral food and fluid intake of nursing home (NH) residents under two conditions: usual NH care and optimal mealtime feeding assistance. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective, ...
Hernádi L - - 2004
We investigated the effect of food intake on the serotonin and dopamine levels of the CNS as well as on the spontaneous firing activity of the CGC in isolated preparations from starved, feeding and satiated animals. Furthermore we investigated the effects of 1 microM serotonin and/or dopamine and their mixture ...
Boué Stephen M - - 2003
Fecundity, mortality, and food consumption of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated in response to five plant flavonoids (genistein, biochanin A, apigenin, quercetin, and glyceollin). Apigenin fed at 50 microg/primary reproductive pair proved to be the most toxic flavonoid. Biochanin A was most effective in reducing fecundity. ...
Moon H - - 2003
As a novel feeding strategy for optimizing human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) production with a recombinant Hansenula polymorpha DL-1 using the methanol oxidase (MOX) promoter in H. polymorpha DL-1, independent exponential feeding of two substrates was used. A simple kinetic model considering the cell growth on two substrates was established ...
Chowdhury V S - - 2003
Pituitary protein transcription factor (Pit-1) is a member of a large family of protein transcription factors that include Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether the population of Pit-1-containing cells changes in the anterior pituitary of chicken by the regulation of feeding. White ...
Su N-Y - - 2003
During the early stages of the development of termite baits, dyed paper was placed in specified feeding stations to ascertain whether a slow-acting toxicant could be placed in a few bait stations to be delivered to the entire colony members of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Feeding frequency ...
Mistlberger R E RE Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University,Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada. - - 2003
Daily feeding schedules can entrain circadian rhythms of food-anticipatory activity in mammals. The site of the circadian oscillators that drive food-entrained rhythms is unknown. Lateral hypothalamic (LH) neurons containing hypocretins (Hcrt1 and 2, also known as orexin A and B) regulate feeding, energy metabolism and arousal state, raising the possibility ...
Hanya Goro - - 2003
Age differences in food intake and dietary selection were studied for 8 months among wild male Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata) under non-predatory situations. Juveniles' feeding time was longer than adult males' in some months, in particular in mating seasons, but did not differ in the other months. Juveniles' feeding ...
Ishii Y - - 2003
Preclinical research on the neurobiology of appetite regulation is increasingly employing detailed behavioural assessment in addition to measures of food intake. One of the most widely used approaches examines treatment effects on the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS), a concept describing the predictable pattern of behavioural change (feeding-->grooming-->resting) associated with the ...
Vandegrift K J - - 2003
Daily BW velocity (BWV) and acceleration (BWA) of individual birds have been demonstrated to be oscillatory. Daily feed intake velocity (FIV) and acceleration (FIA) were hypothesized to be oscillatory and to have a positive relationship with BWV and BWA, respectively. Forty-eight male broiler chicks were individually caged and provided a ...
Iglesias Sebastian - - 2003
Specific dynamic action (SDA) describes the rise in metabolism following feeding in animals and represents the energetic cost of digesting and assimilating a meal. The overall energetic cost of feeding may depend on whether or not an animal is post-absorptive at the time of feeding. The aim of this study ...
Lotz C N - - 2003
Endotherms must warm ingested food to body temperature. Food warming costs may be especially high for nectar-feeding birds, which can ingest prodigious volumes. We formulated a mathematical model to predict the cost of warming nectar as a function of nectar temperature and sugar concentration. This model predicts that the cost ...
Woodley Sarah K - - 2003
In most species, plasma levels of baseline glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (B) have a circadian rhythm. This rhythm can be entrained by both photoperiod and food intake and is related to aspects of energy intake and metabolism. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) offer a unique opportunity to better understand the relative ...
Santos-Torres Maria Irene - - 2003
This cross-sectional study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico, during 1998-1999 to identify food taboos among nursing mothers who participated in a breast-feeding support programme. The study included 493 nursing mothers who were interviewed 10-45 days after delivery. A chi-square test was used for finding an association among food taboos, ...
Thoms Carsten - - 2003
Specimens of the spongivorous Mediterranean opisthobranch Tylodina perversa that had been collected while feeding on Aplysina acerophoba were shown to sequester the brominated isoxazoline alkaloids of their prey. Alkaloids were stored in the hepatopancreas, mantle tissues, and egg masses in an organ-specific manner. Surprisingly, the known sponge alkaloid aerothionin which ...
Shanmugam Balajee - - 2003
The possibility of using solid supports and intermittent substrate feeding to manipulate biotransformation by fungi was examined, with amoxapine as a model compound. Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 8688a grown as free cells in six-well plates showed 7-hydroxyamoxapine as the major metabolite of amoxapine biotransformation. However, when cells were grown in the ...
Ikeda Kumiko - - 2003
The effect of the concentration of tributyltin (TBT) in feed on the dietary bioaccumulation of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) was studied in an 8-week uptake experiment and a 4-week elimination experiment using red sea bream (Pagrus major). The biomagnification factor (BMF) and the assimilation efficiency (AE) decreased from 0.30 to 0.15 ...
Kruger R - - 2003
AIM: An exploratory qualitative investigation was done to determine the feeding and weaning practices, knowledge and attitudes towards nutrition of mothers/caregivers of children up to 3 years old attending baby clinics in the Moretele district (South Africa). METHODOLOGY: Qualitative data collection on six relevant nutrition topics was done using focus ...
de Rosa C - - 2003
The use of a puzzle-feeder, as feeding enrichment, was investigated in three families of captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The study was carried out as a simultaneous choice test between two cages: one contained the puzzle-feeder, the other contained the usual food dishes, but otherwise both were arranged similarly. The ...
Wolf P - - 2003
This contribution is meant to obtain basic data for feeding chinchillas (ingestion behaviour, feed and water intake) kept as companion animals. The chinchillas ingested more than 70% of their total feed intake during the dark phase (highest level of activity between 9:00 pm and 7:00 am). Daily amounts of feed ...
Malmkvist J - - 2003
The study aimed to (i) describe the response of farmed mink towards familiar and novel food, and (ii) assess the suitability of using novel food in order to measure fear responses in mink. A total of 48 farm mink from two behaviourally selected genetic lines were caged individually with one ...
Pitts SiNae S Dept. of Psychology, Columbia University, 1190 Amsterdam Ave. MC 5501, New York, NY 10027, - - 2003
Daily scheduled feeding is a potent time cue that elicits anticipatory activity in rodents. This food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is controlled by a food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) that is distinct from light-entrained oscillators of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Circadian rhythms within the SCN depend on transcription-translation feedback loops in which CLOCK protein ...
Callan W Todd - - 2003
It has been hypothesized that, when engulfing food mixed with inorganic particles during benthic feeding, cyprinid fish use protrusions of tissue from the palatal organ to retain the food particles while the inorganic particles are expelled from the opercular slits. In crossflow filtration, the particle suspension is pumped parallel to ...
Morales-Ramos Juan A - - 2003
The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more ...
Mahmut Keskin
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of artificial lighting (Al) on fattening performance and feeding behaviour of Shami (Demanascus) young male goats in comparison to naturally lightened male young goats. Sixtgeen young male goats fed a diet containing 2500 Kcal metabolic energy (ME) and 160 g crude ...
Lawrence John M - - 2003
The frequency of feeding in the field is variable in sea urchins, ranging from nearly continuous to diel or intermittent. It is essential to know the effect of feeding interval on physiological and metabolic processes to understand the basis for production. Lytechinus variegatus (50 mm horizontal diameter) were collected in ...
Barton Browne Lindsay - - 2003
We present the second in a series of experiments investigating the behavioural mechanisms used by Helicoverpa armigera caterpillars to fund the increased nutrient requirements associated with growth and development. In the work reported here, we measured ontogenetic changes in the rate of ingestion (amount of an artificial food ingested per ...
Peraica Maja - - 2002
Mycotoxins are metabolites of moulds that may be found in food and feed of plant and animal origin. This paper gives a short review of the agronomical methods and food and feed storage recommendations for the prevention of mould contamination. It describes the practical methods of feed decontamination and the ...
Zilberstein Yael - - 2002
In the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, the frontal ganglion (FG) plays a key role in control of foregut movements, and constitutes a source of innervation to the foregut dilator muscles. In this work we studied the generation and characteristics of FG motor outputs in two distinct and fundamental behaviours: feeding ...
- - 2002
BACKGROUND: Growth patterns of exclusively and predominantly breast-fed infants differ from those of non-breast-fed infants, but less is known about associations among growth patterns and different durations of exclusive breast-feeding and the types and frequency of complementary foods. OBJECTIVE: We examined these associations, particularly between 4 and 6 mo of ...
Stephan Friedrich K - - 2002
It is not surprising that limiting food access to a particular time of day has profound effects on the behavior and physiology of animals. It has been clear for some time that pre-meal behavioral activation, a rise in core temperature, elevated serum corticosterone, and an increase in duodenal disaccharidases are ...
Boenigk Jens - - 2002
Heterotrophic flagellates (HF) are known as most important grazers of bacteria in many aquatic ecosystem. HF cannot be treated as a black box since HF generally contain a diverse community of species significantly differing in their feeding behaviour and other ecological properties. Today it seems that the dominant taxonomic groups ...
Wauters A M - - 2002
It is widely accepted that brooding hens attract their chicks to food by food calling, but until now, the concurrent behavior of hens and chicks has never been investigated in depth. This study provides a detailed analysis of both the behavior of brooded chicks and the distance to their mother ...
Strubbe Jan H - - 2002
Body weight of man and animals is under homeostatic control mediated by the adjustment of food intake. It is discussed in this review that besides signals reporting energy deficits, optimized programs of body clocks take part in feeding behaviour as well. Circadian light- and food-entrainable clocks determine anticipatory adaptive behavioural ...
Feddes J J R - - 2002
The effects of four stocking and water nipple densities on broiler performance and carcass traits were measured in two trials. The stocking densities of 23.8, 17.9, 14.3, and 11.9 birds/m2 corresponded to 260, 195, 156, and 130 birds per pen, respectively. The water nipple densities were 5, 10, 15, and ...
Roenneberg Till - - 2002
This review uses three examples to summarise our knowledge about the complexity and the evolution of circadian systems. The first example describes the ecology of unicellular algae, which use their circadian system to optimise the daily exploitation of resources that are spatially separated. The second example looks at the role ...
Darby Creg - - 2002
Bubonic plague is transmitted to mammals, including humans, by the bites of fleas whose digestive tracts are blocked by a mass of the bacterium Yersinia pestis. In these fleas, the plague-causing bacteria are surrounded by an extracellular matrix of unknown composition, and the blockage depends on a group of bacterial ...
Starck J Matthias - - 2002
Garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis feed frequently but also tolerate extended periods of fasting when food is unavailable. We studied the dynamics, reversibility and repeatability of size changes of the small intestine and liver using ultrasonography. We employed light and transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry to study the tissue ...
Paul Shyam S - - 2002
Data from 33 feeding trials, conducted on lactating riverine buffaloes from different institutes across India, were subjected to multiple regression analysis to derive nutritional requirements for dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrients (TDN), crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) for maintenance, milk production and body weight gain. Maintenance ...
Whittemore Emma C - - 2002
We investigated the effects of foods of different bulk on the short-term feeding behavior (STFB) of 16 individually housed pigs. The three foods used had different bulk contents [low-control (C), medium-70% wheat bran (WB), and high-70% sugar beet pulp (SBP)]. We expected the different intakes of the foods to be ...
Rashotte Michael E - - 2002
When the behavioral cost of access to food is increased in the 24 h closed-economy procedure, the number of meals per day decreases, the amount consumed per meal increases, and the total daily food intake remains relatively constant. This "Collier function" is found widely in individuals of different species and ...
Cameron Christopher B - - 2002
An investigation of the feeding behavior of the acorn worm Harrimania planktophilus suggests a novel form of enteropneust feeding with significant phylogenetic implications. H. planktophilus is a holoinfaunal worm that feeds on deposited sediments, and filter feeds on suspended particles in interstitial pore water. To visualize the particle retention behavior ...
Kotz Catherine M - - 2002
Orexin A injected into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) stimulates feeding and activates neurons in brain sites regulating feeding and arousal. The feeding effects of orexin A have been demonstrated during the light cycle, a time when rats are normally resting, and the effect of orexin A on activity after injection ...
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