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Results 251 - 300 of 783
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Morton Robert J - - 2006
Child-sized pig carcasses (Sus scrofa) were placed in surface deposit and buried scenarios in a wooded area of Virginia from May 1998 through December 2000, to examine the taphonomic effects of decompositional changes, predator scavenging, and the extent of remains scattering. Changes were observed through on-site examination, charting of remains, ...
Fishbein Mark - - 2006
Food chaining has been developed as a systematic method for the treatment of children with extreme food selectivity. Food chaining is an individualized, non-threatening, home-based feeding program designed to expand food repertoire by emphasizing similar features between accepted and targeted food items. This chart review illustrates the efficacy of food ...
Uchii Kimiko - - 2006
Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in Lake Biwa, Japan, feed on benthic invertebrates (benthivorous type), aquatic plants (herbivorous type), and zooplankton (planktivorous type). To evaluate the effect of food on intestinal bacterial microbiota, we characterized and compared the intestinal microbiota of these three types of bluegill in terms of community-level physiological profile ...
Kear Benjamin P - - 2006
Modern sea turtles utilize a variety of feeding strategies ranging from herbivory to omnivory. In contrast, the diets of fossil sea turtles are poorly known. This study reports the first direct evidence: inoceramid bivalve shell pieces (encased in phosphatic material) preserved within the body cavities of several small protostegid turtles ...
la Fleur Susanne E - - 2006
Glucocorticoids have major effects on food intake, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. Next, animal data on the interaction of ...
Matson Johnny L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Feeding problems are common among individuals with intellectual disabilities. The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship between food refusal and social skills in people with intellectual disability. METHOD: The Screening Tool of Feeding Problems (STEP) was administered to all residents of a large developmental centre. ...
Huberty Andrea F - - 2006
In population ecology, dispersal plays a fundamental role, but is potentially costly. Traditionally, studies of phenotypic trade-offs involving dispersal focus on resource allocation differences between flight and reproduction. However, investments in dispersal may also result in reduced allocation to other "third-party traits" (e.g. compensatory feeding) that are not directly associated ...
de Vasconcelos A Pereira - - 2006
Food-anticipatory activity that animals express before a daily timed meal is considered as the behavioral output of a feeding-entrainable oscillator whose functional neuroanatomy is still unknown. In order to identify the possible brain areas involved in that timing mechanism, we investigated local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during food-anticipatory activity ...
Barboza Perry S - - 2006
Food intakes of wild animals may not match their requirements for nutrients and energy but may vary between periods of nutritional excess (hyperphagia) and nutritional deficit (hypophagia) at timescales that vary from days to months. We present a simple model of feeding patterns and requirements of vertebrates. Frequent fasts and ...
Landry G J - - 2006
Circadian rhythms of behavior in rodents are regulated by a system of circadian oscillators, including a master light-entrainable pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus that mediates synchrony to the day-night cycle, and food-entrainable oscillators located elsewhere that generate rhythms of food-anticipatory activity (FAA) synchronized to daily feeding schedules. Despite progress in ...
G.A. Lameed
The study of feeding responses of snailets of African giant snail (&lt;I&gt;Archachatina marginata&lt;/I&gt;) fed with different food items: Ugwu leave (&lt;I&gt;Talfairia &lt;/I&gt; sp.), Pawpaw fruit (&lt;I&gt;Carica papaya&lt;/I&gt;), banana fruits (&lt;I&gt;Musa sapientum&lt;/I&gt;) and three levels of compounded feed with crude protein: 16.25, 15.88, 15.60% was carried out in the University Mission ...
Volkoff Helene - - 2006
Feeding behavior is a complex behavior that is closely associated with food intake. Fish have a wide variety of feeding habits and feeding patterns making them good experimental models for the study of the regulation of feeding behavior. The aquatic nature of fish often creates challenges in the study of ...
Huzzey J M - - 2006
The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate how stocking density at the feed bunk affects feeding and social behavior of dairy cows; and 2) determine if this effect is further influenced by the type of feed barrier used. Thirty-six lactating Holstein cows, allotted to 4 groups, were subjected ...
Janovetz Jeff - - 2005
The wimple piranha, Catoprion mento, has a narrow-range natural diet with fish scales comprising an important proportion of its total food intake. Scales are eaten throughout most of ontogeny and adults feed almost exclusively on this food source. Catoprion exhibits a novel prey capture behavior when removing scales for ingestion. ...
Herrel Anthony - - 2006
When competing for food or other resources, or when confronted with predators, young animals may be at a disadvantage relative to adults because of their smaller size. Additionally, the ongoing differentiation and growth of tissues and the development of sensory-motor integration during early ontogeny may constrain performance. Because ectothermic vertebrates ...
Holland Peter C PC Johns Hopkins University, 222 Ames Hall, 3400 North Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. - - 2005
Associative learning processes play many important roles in the control of food consumption. Although these processes can complement regulatory mechanisms in the control of eating by providing opportunities for the anticipation of upcoming needs, they may also contribute to inappropriate or pathological consumption patterns by overriding internal regulatory signals. In ...
Bloodworth Brian - - 2005
The feeding kinematics of dwarf and pygmy sperm whales (Kogia sima and K. breviceps) and bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus were characterized and compared incorporating the Ram-Suction Index (RSI). Mean RSI data support a suction feeding strategy for Kogia (-0.67+/-0.29; mean +/- s.d.) and a ram feeding strategy for Tursiops (0.94+/-0.11; ...
Laud Rinita B - - 2006
This study represents the first to assess whether a relationship between manic symptoms and feeding/mealtime behavior problems exists in individuals with ID. Participants were compared across three groups (manic, non-manic psychiatrically impaired, and controls) on the diagnostic assessment for the severely handicapped-revised (DASH-II) and young mania rating scale (YMRS) and ...
Hurwitz Itay - - 2006
The patterning of feeding and the quantity eaten in Aplysia californica with ad libitum food access cannot be explained by the effects of three variables previously shown to control the patterning of consummatory feeding responses and the quantity eaten in animals hand-fed individual meals. Feeding in ad libitum conditions is ...
Gussekloo Sander W S - - 2005
Cranial kinesis is an important feature in avian feeding behaviour and involves the transmission of quadrate movement to the upper bill by the Pterygoid-Palatinum Complex (PPC). The PPC in Palaeognathae is remarkably different from that found in Neognathae. In this study we analyse whether the special morphology of the PPC ...
Moreira Susana Maria - - 2005
This study evaluated a short-term sublethal endpoint for in situ toxicity assays for estuarine sediments, based on postexposure feeding of the polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller. A method for precisely quantifying postexposure feeding rates of H. diversicolor was established under laboratory conditions using Artemia franciscana Kellog nauplii. The sensitivity of ...
Soares S - - 2005
A short-term, sublethal, and cost-effective in situ sediment toxicity assay for routine assessments with the midge Chironomus riparius Meigen, based on postexposure feeding, was developed and evaluated. An inexpensive and easy-to-use assay chamber was designed. A sediment toxicity assay was successfully performed at a lentic system impacted by acid mine ...
Moreira Susana M - - 2006
This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, ...
Ishii Toshiaki - - 2005
The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5), which receives input from oral proprioceptors and projects to higher brain regions, is involved in mastication-induced modulation of satiation. To investigate how the Me5 is involved in the control of feeding and exploratory behavior, we examined the effect of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the Me5 ...
David T. Drumm
The feeding mechanisms of two species in the tanaidacean family Kalliapseudidae, Kalliapseudes macsweenyi Drumm and Psammokalliapseudes granulosus Brum, are elucidated by comparing gut contents, mouthpart movements, and feeding behavior. Kalliapseudes macsweenyi filter-feeds and possesses plumose setae on the chelipeds, maxillipeds, and maxillae. When building its burrows, P. granulosus scrapes detritus ...
Pablo Agustín Collins
This study examined the circadian feeding cycles of two sympatric decapod prawns, Palaemonetes argentinus (Nobili, 1901) and Macrobrachium borellii (Nobili, 1896), as a coexistence mechanism. The work was done in some shallow lakes of the alluvial valley of the Paraná River (Santa Fe, Argentina). Both prawns consume similar food items, ...
Kerridge Frances J - - 2005
I compared the behaviors of wild Varecia variegata living in a Malagasy rain forest with those of caged groups living in zoos in the United Kingdom in order to design environmental enrichment to encourage more natural behaviors. Comparisons were made between wild and captive animals in terms of activity budgets ...
Iijima Michihiko - - 2005
In nocturnal rodents, restricted feeding to daytime (RF) causes feeding-associated diurnal locomotor activity that persists for the next 1-2 days when food is withheld. Along with this anticipatory behavior, the expression pattern of clock genes such as mPer1 and mPer2 changes from a nocturnal to diurnal pattern in the liver ...
Onuki Yasuhiro - - 2005
It is known that rats tend to eat a smaller/lighter piece of food at the food source but carry a larger/heavier one to the nest for consumption. This could be interpreted well in terms of the trade-off or motivational conflict between "feeding" and "risk avoidance", because eating food immediately satisfies ...
Leletkin V A - - 2005
The change of Stylophora pistillata coral photosynthetic function (oxygen exchange and biomass of symbionts) under starvation and food enrichment was studied to understand the role of heterotrophy in nitrogen supplements of zooxanthellae. The starvation caused the decrease of frequency of zooxanthellae cells division in 7-10 times. The number of degraded ...
Trevisani Lucio - - 2005
The aim of this study was to evaluate polyurethane percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube degradation and the role played by fungi. The inner surfaces of 20 used polyurethane tubes were brushed, and the brushing end was incubated for 7 days in Saburaud broth and cultured if fungal growth occurred. Three ...
Idodo-Umeh, G; Environmental Care ...
The feeding ecology of seven bagrid species was studied between March, 1982 and February, 1984. A summary of the food items and condition factors (kf) in relation to sized groups were described for all the seven species while feeding intensity are to sized groups, diel and monthly variations in feeding ...
Colodny Nancy - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to examine the various ways in which independent-feeding patients with dysphagia justified their noncompliance with swallowing recommendations suggested by a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Sixty-three independent-feeding dysphagia patients between the ages of 65 and 100 years who had been identified by the SLP or staff ...
McClave Stephen A - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated residual volumes (RV), considered a marker for the risk of aspiration, are used to regulate the delivery of enteral tube feeding. We designed this prospective study to validate such use. METHODS: Critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in the medical, coronary, or surgical intensive care units ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2005
Trial experiments to develop an in situ method for determining effects of short-term exposure to contaminants on salmon during the sensitive smolt stage were carried out. Wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts were caged at various estuarine locations in northeast New Brunswick, Canada at different levels of anthropogenic impact in ...
A.K.M. Rohul Amin
An eighteen weeks long experiment was conducted during the month of June to October, 2002 to observed the effect of different period of starvation and subsequent refeeding on growth, daily food demand and food conversion ratio of Thai pangs <I>Pangasius hypophthalmus</I>. Fish maintained in four treatments were either: fed to ...
Warnken, Jan
This study investigated the potential for wildlife feeding to artificially increase population densities of the Australian brush-turkey, Alectura lathami and assessed the indirect adverse effects that this may have on surrounding forest floor vegetation. Census counts and observations of feeding activity conducted in recreation areas of Australia's Gold Coast hinterland ...
Meyers Jay J - - 2005
While morphological and behavioral feeding specializations are obvious in many vertebrate groups, among lizards there appear to be few dietary specialists. By comparing the prey capture kinematics and overall feeding behavior in two highly specialized ant-eating lizards (Moloch horridus and Phrynosoma platyrhinos) with those of two closely related dietary generalists ...
Altman Joanne D - - 2005
Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera ...
Pan Zhi-Chong - - 2005
We used the Chinese skink (Eumeces chinensis) as an experimental model to study influence of food type on specific dynamic action (SDA) of feeding. Thirty-three adult males collected from a natural population were divided equally into three (one control and two experimental) groups. We starved all skinks at 30 degrees ...
Davidson Alec J AJ Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, - - 2005
Mammals organize many of their activities around rhythmic events in their environments. Primary among these events is the daily light-dark cycle. However, for many animals, food availability is rhythmic or quasi-rhythmic and is therefore a potential synchronizing cue. While circadian rhythms in both behavior and physiological activity can be entrained ...
Jeng M-S - - 2004
The crab Xenograpsus testudinatus lives at enormously high densities around the sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents found in shallow waters off Taiwan, even though this acidic environment is low in nutrients. Here we show that these crabs swarm out of their crevices at slack water and feed on the vast numbers of ...
Akinpelu Akinsola I - - 2004
The feeding ecology of Turdus pelios was studied from field observations and gizzard contents. Quantitative data on feeding were obtained from repeated standard "fixed route" walks and observational points at seven sites from January to December 1998 on 5065ha at the Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife (7 degrees 20' N, ...
Schröder O - - 2004
Enteral nutritional support plays a major role in the management of patients who are critically ill in intensive care units (ICU), those with poor volitional intake, persons with chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia, and individuals with gut dysfunction. Part I of this review will briefly discuss the principles governing nasoenteral ...
Bayne Brian L - - 2004
Bivalve molluscs have a highly plastic feeding and growth physiology. The increasing availability of families artificially selected for faster growth has enabled physiological experiments to investigate the genetic basis for variable rates of growth. Fast growth is achieved by a combination of increased rates of feeding, reduced metabolic rates and ...
Hoepffner N - - 2004
Despite the benefits and the widespread use of enteral and tube feeding (ETF) some patients experience complications, which can be divided in three categories: mechanical, e. g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e. g., vomiting, diarrhea; and metabolic, e. g., re-feeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. The type and frequency of complications related ...
Blois-Heulin Catherine - - 2005
We analysed the impact of the distribution of food items on feeding activity and social interactions in captive red-capped and grey-cheeked mangabeys. Three different feeding situations were presented: food items were either placed in a single heap or dispersed in several smaller heaps on the ground or in space. Social ...
Vera Candioti M F - - 2004
After the description of the chondrocranium, hyobranchial apparatus, associated musculature, buccal apparatus, buccopharyngeal cavity, digestive tract, and gut contents, it was possible to define the feeding modes of Scinax nasicus and Hyla nana tadpoles (Gosner Stages 31-36). Scinax nasicus larvae are "typical" microphagous tadpoles, with keratodonts and robust rostrodonts appropriate ...
GEORG J. ZIEGLTRUM
While searching for food, 1 black bear (Ursus americanus) may girdle 60–70 coniferous trees in a day during the spring months in western Washington, USA. Tree-bark peeling and subsequent foraging on sapwood can result in substantial economic losses for forest landowners. The supplemental feeding program, a nonlethal approach to minimize ...
Wang Hsien-Chi - - 2004
It has been shown that certain slow neurological diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as "mad cow" disease) could be transmitted through contaminated food intake by animals; therefore, the examination of meat components in commercial feeds is important for the control of the disease in public health. The ...
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