Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 772
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Cross Paul C - - 2007
Every winter, government agencies feed approximately 6000 metric tons (6 x 10(6) kg) of hay to elk in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) to limit transmission of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis, from elk to cattle. Supplemental feeding, however, is likely to increase the transmission of brucellosis ...
Soucek David John - - 2007
Sodium sulfate is a ubiquitous salt that reaches toxic concentrations due to mining and other industrial activities, yet is currently unregulated at the Federal level in the United States. Previous studies have documented reduced growth of clams downstream of sulfate-dominated effluents, altered bioenergetics in filter-feeding invertebrates, and interactions between sulfate ...
Ja William W - - 2007
Studies of feeding behavior in genetically tractable invertebrate model systems have been limited by the lack of proper methodology. We introduce the Capillary Feeder (CAFE), a method allowing precise, real-time measurement of ingestion by individual or grouped fruit flies on the scale of minutes to days. Using this technique, we ...
Gbogbo, Francis; Zoology Department, ...
A comparative study conducted on two saline coastal wetlands that have been developed into saltpans and two others (referred to as ‘non-saltpans'), that are also saline but have no saltpans, describes the quality of lagoon water, benthic macroinvertebrates and waterbird communities characterising these wetlands. The wetlands were sampled monthly from ...
Krasnov B R - - 2007
We studied the effect of density on feeding success of 2 fleas, Xenopsylla conformis and Xenopsylla ramesis, when exploiting rodents Meriones crassus and Gerbillus dasyurus. We tested 2 alternative hypotheses: (i) that intraspecific interference competition occurs and, thus, feeding success of a flea decreases with an increase in density and ...
Mazlan, Abdul Ghaffar
Relationship between the feeding regime of the coral feeding butterflyfish, Chaetodon octofasciatus and the coral reef health were investigated across five reefs around Redang Island, Malaysia. Feeding and territorial behavior for a total of 15 pairs butterflyfishes were studied by using visual census observation approach. Ranging behavior, territories size, activity ...
Celik Gonca - - 2007
Feeding disorders of infancy or early childhood are relatively uncommon in the pediatric population. In posttraumatic eating disorder, the infant demonstrates food refusal after a traumatic event or repeated traumatic events to the oropharynx or esophagus. We present case reports of 24-month-old twin girls, A and B, who presented to ...
Jing Jian - - 2007
A shift in motivational state often produces behavioral change, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the marine mollusc, Aplysia californica, feeding-induced transition from a hunger to satiation state leads to a slowdown and an eventual termination of feeding. Because the multifunctional feeding network generates both ingestion and the ...
Froy Oren - - 2007
The master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus regulates circadian rhythms in mammals. The clock is an intracellular, transcriptional mechanism sharing the same molecular components in SCN neurons and in peripheral cells, such as the liver, intestine, and retina. The circadian clock controls food processing ...
Hirsch Ben T - - 2007
An animal's within-group spatial position has several important fitness consequences. Risk of predation, time spent engaging in antipredatory behavior and feeding competition can all vary with respect to spatial position. Previous research has found evidence that feeding rates are higher at the group edge in many species, but these studies ...
Maehara Noritoshi - - 2007
We examined the amount of maturation feeding and transmission of pinewood nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), to healthy pine (Pinus spp.) trees by pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) adults infected with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Inoculated beetles fed less than noninoculated beetles, ...
Mendoza J J Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Intégratives, Département de Neurobiologie des Rythmes UMR7168, CNRS et Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France. - - 2007
In mammals, daily rhythms in behaviour and physiology are driven by a circadian timing system comprised, in a hierarchical way, of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and of peripheral oscillators in most body cells. At the molecular level, in both the SCN and peripheral ...
Liu Quan-Sheng - - 2007
Ingestion of soft faeces derived from caecal contents, caecotrophy, in herbivorous small mammals is considered an adaptation to the metabolic disadvantage of small body size, especially when feeding on diets of low quality. We investigated daily activity patterns in captive Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii), including feeding, locomotion, caecotrophy, and defaecation, ...
Azzaydi M - - 2007
The effect of restricted feeding schedule was investigated on the seasonal shifting of daily demand-feeding pattern and food anticipatory activity in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) held under natural environmental conditions in an outdoor laboratory. To that end, demand-feeding behavior was continuously monitored for approximately one year in four groups ...
Barr Yoav - - 2007
In marine fish larviculture the live feed organisms are often enriched in order to enhance their nutritional value. One of the challenges is to enhance the phospholipids (PL) content, and another is to enhance the content of specific water soluble nutrients, like free amino acids (FAA). There are a few ...
Berkeveld M - - 2007
The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent suckling (IS) combined with an extended lactation can reduce postweaning growth check in pigs. Three weaning regimens [conventional weaning (CW), IS with 6-h separation intervals (IS6), and IS with 12-h separation intervals (IS12)] were compared. In CW (n = 17 ...
Girolami Peter A - - 2007
Previous research has demonstrated that extinction in the form of re-presentation of expelled bites is an effective intervention for treating food expulsion. The current study compared the effectiveness of re-presenting expulsions with a spoon to re-presenting with a Nuk brush for a 4-year-old boy with a feeding disorder. Fewer expulsions ...
Saper C B - - 2007
All mammals have daily cycles of behavior (e.g., wake-sleep and feeding), and physiology (e.g., hormone secretion and body temperature). These cycles are typically entrained to the external light/dark cycle, but they can be altered dramatically under conditions of restricted food availability, changes in ambient temperature, or the presence of external ...
Wäckers Felix L - - 2007
Among herbivorous insects with a complete metamorphosis the larval and adult stages usually differ considerably in their nutritional requirements and food ecology. Often, feeding on plant structural tissue is restricted to the larval stage, whereas the adult stage feeds primarily or exclusively on plant-provided food supplements such as nectar and ...
Boyd Windy A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Government agencies have defined a need to reduce, refine or replace current mammalian-based bioassays with testing methods that use alternative species. Invertebrate species, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, provide an attractive option because of their short life cycles, inexpensive maintenance, and high degree of evolutionary conservation with higher eukaryotes. The ...
Dutta Tanushree - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Attributes that caregivers assign to complementary foods have been primarily described in the context of illness, but attributes assigned to foods in everyday circumstances must be understood to effectively promote good complementary feeding. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand how mothers judge complementary foods to be appropriate by cross-cultural ...
Adamo Shelley A - - 2007
Although many animals exhibit illness-induced anorexia when immune-challenged, the adaptive significance of this behavior remains unclear. Injecting Manduca sexta larvae (caterpillars) with live bacteria (Serratia marcescens), heat-killed bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharides resulted in a decline in feeding, demonstrating illness-induced anorexia in this species. We used M. sexta to test four ...
Feillet Céline A - - 2006
Circadian clocks are autonomous time-keeping mechanisms that allow living organisms to predict and adapt to environmental rhythms of light, temperature and food availability. At the molecular level, circadian clocks use clock and clock-controlled genes to generate rhythmicity and distribute temporal signals. In mammals, synchronization of the master circadian clock located ...
González-Cossío Teresa - - 2006
We evaluated breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in Mexico, using data from a national probabilistic survey carried out in 17,716 households, with regional and urban-rural representation. Mothers of children <2 y old (n = 3,191) reported duration of breast-feeding and the ages of usual introduction of 7 food groups. The ...
Feillet Céline A - - 2006
Predicting time of food availability is key for survival in most animals. Under restricted feeding conditions, this prediction is manifested in anticipatory bouts of locomotor activity and body temperature. This process seems to be driven by a food-entrainable oscillator independent of the main, light-entrainable clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus ...
Ripley Jennifer L - - 2007
This research utilizes the acoustic behavior of two sympatric pipefish species to assess the impact of hypoxia on feeding. We collected northern, Syngnathus fuscus, and dusky pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae, from the relatively pristine Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, USA and audiovisually recorded behavior in the laboratory of fish held in normoxic (>5 ...
Tarnaud Laurent - - 2006
Altmann [Baboon Mothers and Infants, University of Chicago Press, 1980] and Dunbar and Dunbar [Animal Behavior 36:970-980, 1988] provided a model that predicts the amount of time spent feeding by lactating baboon females, as related to infant age. Dunbar's model further suggests that food quality affects the amount of time ...
Brewster David R - - 2006
In the dietary management of severe acute malnutrition in children, there is evidence to support the WHO Manual's protocol of cautious feeding of a low energy and protein formula with small frequent feeds in the initial phase of treatment, particularly in kwashiorkor. However, this initial milk diet (WHO F-75) might ...
Hazlett, Brian A.
Three species of crayfish ( Orconectes virilis, O. rusticus , and Cambarus robustus ) were tested for feeding responses to potential food odors from mollusks (either zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha , or native gastropods). In all three crayfish species, feeding responses to odor cues were shown only by individuals experienced ...
Freeland, W. J.
Feeding experiments with the Australian acridid, Valanga irregularis , demonstrated the following relationships: 1) grasshoppers require a period of feeding on a particular food before becoming completely adjusted to it; 2) the plant species eaten has a strong influence on the rate of ingestion, even when the species is a ...
Wortinger Ann - - 2006
Feeding tubes are an accepted way of providing nutritional support for animals unable or unwilling to consume adequate calories on their own. This article provides information on the indications for the use of feeding tubes in small animals, the types of tubes available, and ways to initiate nutritional support once ...
Kudlova E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To describe feeding patterns during first two years of life and their relation to sociodemographic factors. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Prague, Czech Republic. SUBJECTS: Ninety-seven full-term healthy singletons enrolled at maternity ward, of which 90.7% completed the study. METHODS: Diet was assessed at 9, 12 and 24 months of ...
dos Santos Claudiney Biral - - 2006
Adults of Triatoma vitticeps infected by flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi are frequently captured by the inhabitants of rural areas in the Brazilian state of Espirito Santo. The dynamics of feeding and defecation were observed in three groups of adult triatomines, consisting of sylvatic T. vitticeps and laboratory-reared specimens of ...
Mieda Michihiro - - 2006
Temporal restriction of feeding can phase-shift behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms in mammals. These changes in biological rhythms are postulated to be brought about by a food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) that is independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. However, the neural substrates of FEO have remained elusive. Here, we carried out an ...
Loureiro Susana - - 2006
Soil decomposition is mainly dependent on the nature and characteristics of organic matter within the soil, the environmental conditions and the activity of microorganisms and soil fauna. Isopods play an important role in decomposition through litter fragmentation and stimulating and/or ingesting fungi and bacteria. The aim of this study was ...
Stroka Joerg - - 2006
An interlaboratory study was conducted for the determination of deoxynivalenol in baby food and animal feed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The study included 14 participants representing a cross section of industry, official food control, and research facilities. Mean recoveries reported ranged from 89% (at 120 microg/kg) to ...
Despland Emma - - 2006
Synchronized behaviour is common in animal groups. In ant colonies, synchronization occurs because active ants stimulate their neighbours to activity. We use oscillator theory to explain how stimulation from active neighbours synchronizes activity in groups of solitarious locusts via entrainment of internal physiological rhythms. We also show that the spatial ...
D'Souza, M.
The findings are presented of a study conducted at Mkomani, Mombasa, investigating the Nerita species and their feeding habits. Algal food items found in the molluskan stomachs are listed. Nerita is believed to be a herbivorous gastropod feeding upon the algae off rocky shores.
Prosser-Loose Erin J - - 2006
Results from three large, randomized, multicenter FOOD (Feed or Ordinary Food) Collaboration Trials showed no reduction in death or poor outcome with routine oral protein-energy supplementation of stroke patients who were primarily well nourished upon admission to the hospital. Nasogastric tube feeding was favored over percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy as the ...
Selck Henriette - - 2006
The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we ...
Morton Robert J - - 2006
Child-sized pig carcasses (Sus scrofa) were placed in surface deposit and buried scenarios in a wooded area of Virginia from May 1998 through December 2000, to examine the taphonomic effects of decompositional changes, predator scavenging, and the extent of remains scattering. Changes were observed through on-site examination, charting of remains, ...
Fishbein Mark - - 2006
Food chaining has been developed as a systematic method for the treatment of children with extreme food selectivity. Food chaining is an individualized, non-threatening, home-based feeding program designed to expand food repertoire by emphasizing similar features between accepted and targeted food items. This chart review illustrates the efficacy of food ...
Uchii Kimiko - - 2006
Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in Lake Biwa, Japan, feed on benthic invertebrates (benthivorous type), aquatic plants (herbivorous type), and zooplankton (planktivorous type). To evaluate the effect of food on intestinal bacterial microbiota, we characterized and compared the intestinal microbiota of these three types of bluegill in terms of community-level physiological profile ...
Kear Benjamin P - - 2006
Modern sea turtles utilize a variety of feeding strategies ranging from herbivory to omnivory. In contrast, the diets of fossil sea turtles are poorly known. This study reports the first direct evidence: inoceramid bivalve shell pieces (encased in phosphatic material) preserved within the body cavities of several small protostegid turtles ...
la Fleur Susanne E - - 2006
Glucocorticoids have major effects on food intake, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. Next, animal data on the interaction of ...
Matson Johnny L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Feeding problems are common among individuals with intellectual disabilities. The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship between food refusal and social skills in people with intellectual disability. METHOD: The Screening Tool of Feeding Problems (STEP) was administered to all residents of a large developmental centre. ...
Huberty Andrea F - - 2006
In population ecology, dispersal plays a fundamental role, but is potentially costly. Traditionally, studies of phenotypic trade-offs involving dispersal focus on resource allocation differences between flight and reproduction. However, investments in dispersal may also result in reduced allocation to other "third-party traits" (e.g. compensatory feeding) that are not directly associated ...
de Vasconcelos A Pereira - - 2006
Food-anticipatory activity that animals express before a daily timed meal is considered as the behavioral output of a feeding-entrainable oscillator whose functional neuroanatomy is still unknown. In order to identify the possible brain areas involved in that timing mechanism, we investigated local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during food-anticipatory activity ...
Barboza Perry S - - 2006
Food intakes of wild animals may not match their requirements for nutrients and energy but may vary between periods of nutritional excess (hyperphagia) and nutritional deficit (hypophagia) at timescales that vary from days to months. We present a simple model of feeding patterns and requirements of vertebrates. Frequent fasts and ...
Landry G J - - 2006
Circadian rhythms of behavior in rodents are regulated by a system of circadian oscillators, including a master light-entrainable pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus that mediates synchrony to the day-night cycle, and food-entrainable oscillators located elsewhere that generate rhythms of food-anticipatory activity (FAA) synchronized to daily feeding schedules. Despite progress in ...
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