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Wanapat Metha - - 2009
Energy and protein sources are of prime importance for ruminants as they stimulate microorganisms in the rumen and enhance the productive functions of the animals. Cassava roots in the form of dry cassava chips or pellets as energy sources and dried cassava leaves and cassava hay as protein sources have ...
Preston T Reg - - 2009
Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the ...
Coronado-Gonzalez Pablo A - - 2008
Abstract Food-based attractants incorporating an insecticide are an important component of area-wide control programmes for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This study was carried out to understand the feeding mechanism of adults of this species. Mouthparts of C. capitata are similar in general structure to those ...
Mistlberger Ralph E RE Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. - - 2008
Fuller et al. (Reports, 23 May 2008, p. 1074) reported that the dorsomedial hypothalamus contains a Bmal1-based oscillator that can drive food-entrained circadian rhythms. We report that mice bearing a null mutation of Bmal1 exhibit normal food-anticipatory circadian rhythms. Lack of food anticipation in Bmal1-/- mice reported by Fuller et ...
Hetzner Nina M Philipsen NM NCCF, Department of Human Development at Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 West 120th Street, 39, New York, NY 10027, USA. - - 2009
To explore the different combinations of early feeding practices and their association with child illness in toddlerhood (i.e., asthma, respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections, and ear infections). The Early Child Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) offers a unique opportunity to address this issue, as the study features a nationally representative sample of ...
Mantovani Alberto - - 2009
As a key element of the 'farm-to-fork' approach, an assessment of the safety of feed components should consider major long-term toxicological hazards, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this review, attention is given to endocrine-modulating trace elements (such as iodine and trivalent chromium) and their potentially sensitive subgroups as ...
Aboud Frances E - - 2008
Responsive complementary feeding, whereby the mother feeds her child in response to child cues of hunger state and psychomotor abilities, is a problem in some countries, and likely contributes to malnutrition. Interventions are needed to evaluate whether promoting responsive feeding would add any benefit. Using a cluster randomized field trial, ...
Tacon Albert G J - - 2008
The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible ...
Hoque M A - - 2009
Records on 514 bulls from the sire population born from 1978 to 2004, and on 22,099 of their field progeny born from 1997 to 2003 with available pedigree information (total number = 124,458) were used to estimate genetic parameters for feed intake and energy efficiency traits of bulls and their ...
Kittell Michele M - - 2008
Goliath groupers (Epinephelus itajara) are large charismatic species, which are often residents in public aquaria. This study reports a novel approach to feeding techniques for three resident goliath groupers. Because of the size and depth of their exhibit, the groupers were conditioned to hand feed from aquarists. Daily food logs ...
Lilia G - - 2008
1. Because tylosin is a time-dependent antibacterial agent, and because feeding and drinking of broilers decreases in late afternoon and ceases in the dark, it was hypothesised that serum concentrations of this drug are greatly reduced during the dark period. 2. The trial was carried out in a commercial poultry ...
Watts Jennifer L JL School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. - - 2008
When food becomes scarce, animals undergo distinct metabolic, behavioral, and physiological changes that allow them to survive. In this issue, Greer et al. (2008) take advantage of the relatively simple and well-characterized nervous system of C. elegans to elucidate a neural circuit regulating feeding behavior and fat storage.
Piccione Giuseppe - - 2008
Daily rhythmicity of physiological processes has been described for numerous variables in numerous species. A major source of this rhythmicity is a circadian pacemaker located in the mammalian hypothalamus, but very little is known about how the pacemaker generates the multiplicity of bodily rhythms. Research on rats has shown that ...
Gauthier Charles - - 2008
This study on yellow perch (Perca flavescens) examines a series of enzymatic markers and the relative weights of pyloric caeca and visceral lipids, their response to changes in feeding regime and their potential use to infer recent changes in growth rate and fish condition. Fish were exposed to four different ...
Arcement Reese J - - 2008
The role of the facial lobe (FL) of goldfish in feeding behavior (search, pick up and ingestion) was investigated using the ablation method. Facial lobectomy (FLX) was performed on 10 fish, five of which were also fitted with blinders (BLs). It was found that FLX did not have any apparent ...
von Holst Christoph - - 2008
Near-infrared microscopy (NIRM) has been proved to be a powerful tool for the detection of banned meat and bone meal (MBM) in feed. The identification of MBM traces and its ability to differentiate animal from vegetable feed ingredients is based on the evaluation of near-infrared spectra obtained from individual particles ...
Pringle A A Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3QT, UK. - - 2008
The 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is implicated in the regulation of appetite. Expression of the 5-HTT varies in the human population, and this variation may determine both individual differences in feeding and abnormal feeding behaviours such as eating disorders. The effects of 5-HTT expression on feeding and satiety were examined in ...
Angeles-Castellanos M M Departamento de Anatomía, Fac de Medicina Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, - - 2008
The clock gene protein Per 1 (PER1) is expressed in several brain structures and oscillates associated with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Restricted feeding schedules (RFS) induce anticipatory activity and impose daily oscillations of c-Fos and clock proteins in brain structures. Daily access to a palatable treat (chocolate) also elicits anticipatory ...
Chang Su-Ying - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To understand the status and problems of complementary feeding and to explore the strategy of improving complementary feeding for infants and young children in China. METHOD: Data of urban and rural children were selected from the China Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (CFNSS) dataset to describe the status of ...
Kurk, Carolina Deborah
Adaptive radiation involves the rapid divergence of a single ancestral species into a group of species each occupying a different ecological niche. Differences between species are the result of trade-offs in the ability to exploit different environments to avoid competitive interactions. The many species of wildfowl and their diversity in ...
Fuller Patrick M PM Department of Neurology, Division of Sleep Medicine, and Program in Neuroscience, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2008
When food is plentiful, circadian rhythms of animals are powerfully entrained by the light-dark cycle. However, if animals have access to food only during their normal sleep cycle, they will shift most of their circadian rhythms to match the food availability. We studied the basis for entrainment of circadian rhythms ...
Wladichuk Jennifer L - - 2008
Eastern Pacific grey whales (Eschrichtius robustus) apparently do not actively echolocate, yet still they thrive in shallow water environments where visibility is much reduced. Along their migration route and in their feeding grounds these whales are exposed to high levels of ambient noise, highlyturbid waters and many underwater obstacles. To ...
Abyerami B - - 2008
A total of 179 fishes of Gerres oblongus (Cuvier, 1830) ranging in standard length 40 to 169 mm were collected in the morning from four collection sites in the Jaffna lagoon. The stomach contents were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. The fishes were placed in 19 mm size class intervals and ...
Wu Tao - - 2008
Although the light/dark (LD) cycle is a weak Zeitgeber in peripheral clocks compared with food stimuli, whether the effect of light cues on the re-entrainment of peripheral clocks can be masked by that of the dominating food cue remains unknown. In the present study, the individual reversal of LD cycle ...
Fernández-Ahumada Elvira - - 2008
Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of the chemical and ingredient composition of intact compound feeds. Two rather different instruments were compared (diode array vs grating monochromator). The grating monochromator was used in a static mode in the laboratory, whereas the diode-array instrumentbetter adapted to online analysiswas placed ...
Wang Haiyan - - 2008
The feeding behavior of the nemertean Procephalothrix simulus and the effects of extrinsic factors on the feeding rates of this nemertean were experimentally studied. Procephalothrix simulus showed a typical macrophagous feeding strategy and consumed various food items. When capturing freshwater Tubifex sp., the nemerteans successfully ingested prey in all attacks, ...
Santos Xavier - - 2008
Ectotherm vertebrates show physiological mechanisms that reduce metabolic costs during prolonged fasting. Once feeding, these animals adopt a wide variety of metabolic responses such as changes in gastrointestinal organ masses. Up-regulatory responses after feeding have been widely explored in infrequently feeding snakes like pythons, whereas few studies have been devoted ...
Marshall Christopher D - - 2008
Feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted both on land and in water, and allowed a choice between suction and biting, but food was also presented that could be ingested by suction alone. Four feeding ...
Kaur Satvinder S West Roxbury VA Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, MA 02132, - - 2008
Ablation of the SCN, an established circadian clock, does not abolish food entrainment, suggesting that the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) must lie outside the SCN. Typically, animals show anticipatory locomotor activity and rise in core body temperature under the influence of the FEO. Signals from the FEO would, therefore, converge onto ...
- - 2008
In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for ...
Torrey S - - 2008
During the first few days after weaning, pigs often experience BW loss as they adapt to eating solid food. During this time period, they are also known to drink excessively and develop abnormal oral behavior such as belly nosing. The excessive drinking may stem from the piglets' attempt to satiate ...
Kröller Katja - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the impact of different feeding strategies on the child's food intake as well as the effect and influence socio-economic status and weight have on the use of feeding strategies. METHODS: 219 mothers and their children between 3 and 6 years of ...
Krüger Konstanze - - 2008
Like many other herbivores, in a natural environment equids feed on rather evenly distributed resources. However, the vegetation in their vast habitats constantly changes. If food is plentiful only little competition occurs over food, and in non-competitive situations domestic horses tend to return to the same feeding site until it ...
Tulay Altun
Wild-caught juvenile pikeperch (<I>Sander lucioperca</I> (6.21?0.38 g and 7.80?0.24 cm) were offered different types of food and tested for their transition to dry feed. Totally 8 Groups (including Control) were fed according to the experimental feeding regime during 28 days. Group A (control) was fed with live <I>Gambusia affinis</I> fries ...
Schipper, L.L.
In general, an animal's inability to perform specific behaviours (for example, due to a lack of suitable stimuli or physical restraint) is often viewed as a cause of reduced welfare of animals kept in captivity. There is increasing evidence that the opportunity to display more species-specific appetitive behaviours is beneficial ...
Ke Zhixin - - 2008
Phenotypic plasticity widely exists in the external morphology of animals as well as the internal traits of organs. In the present study, we studied the gut length plasticity of planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp under different food resources in large-net cage experiments in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in 2004 and ...
Faruga A - - 2008
An increasing demand for turkey meat requires intensification of rearing, while almost permanent presence of stable chlorinated hydrocarbons in the environment, feeds, living organisms, including humans, to force undertaking studies on the wholesome safety of food of animal origin. The objective of the present study was therefore to evaluate selected ...
Flax Valerie L VL School of Public Health, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland. - - 2008
Fortified spread (FS), containing dry food particles embedded in edible fat, offers a convenient means for nutrition rehabilitation. To describe how caregivers feed FS to their undernourished children at home, and how FS use affects other feeding patterns, we conducted a longitudinal observational study in rural Malawi. Sixteen 6- to ...
Oishi Katsutaka - - 2007
Kaolin-induced writhing reaction is a simple and convenient model of bradykinin-induced pain for assessment of analgesic actions. In this study, we demonstrated that the number of kaolin-induced writhing reaction was fluctuated in a circadian manner that peaked at the end of the resting period (dusk) and reduced during the active ...
Wynne Janna - - 2007
A free-ranging California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) presented severely dehydrated, unable to stand, very weak, and with a distended crop. Toxicologic analysis revealed an elevated blood lead level of 291.4 microg/ ml. There was no evidence of lead exposure on radiographs. The condor was treated with chelating agents and intensive supportive ...
Herrman Timothy J - - 2007
The commitment to consumer food safety, global trade, and proposed new regulations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has led to increased adoption of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) by the U.S. feed industry. A project supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture ...
Jiang Houshuo - - 2007
Video observation has shown that feeding-current-producing calanoid copepods modulate their feeding currents by displaying a sequence of different swimming behaviours during a time period of up to tens of seconds. In order to understand the feeding-current modulation process, we numerically modelled the steady feeding currents for different modes of observed ...
de Moor J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. METHODS: A behavioural treatment package was implemented in an outpatient setting for the ...
Brashler Rebecca - - 2007
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes, or PEG tubes, look innocuous enough-narrow, plastic, pliable tubes, that when inserted into the stomach protrude approximately 3 to 5 inches and can be attached to a bag of liquid food. How can something so seemingly straightforward create so much controversy and evoke such intense emotion? ...
Arranz Isabel - - 2007
An interlaboratory trial for determination of zearalenone (ZON) in baby food and animal feed was conducted. The study involved 39 participants in 16 European Union member states, as well as Turkey, Uruguay, and China, representing a cross-section of industry, and official food control and research institutes. The method is based ...
Stimpert Alison K - - 2007
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) exhibit a variety of foraging behaviours, but neither they nor any baleen whale are known to produce broadband clicks in association with feeding, as do many odontocetes. We recorded underwater behaviour of humpback whales in a northwest Atlantic feeding area using suction-cup attached, multi-sensor, acoustic tags ...
Al-Ruqaie Ibrahim M - - 2007
A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75 +/- 1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to ...
Bett R C - - 2007
Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, kg; 12-month sale weight, LW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CMP) and functional traits (doe live weight, DoWT, kg; number of kids weaned, NKW; kidding frequency, KF; kidding rate, KR, %; doe weaning rate, DoWR, %; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; post-weaning survival ...
Prado Marta - - 2007
The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical methods for the species-specific detection of ...
Gilbert H - - 2007
Data were collected over the first 4 generations of a divergent selection experiment for residual feed intake of Large White pigs having ad libitum access to feed. This data set was used to obtain estimates of heritability for residual feed intake and genetic correlations (r(a)) between this trait and growth, ...
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