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Szentirmai Eva - - 2010
Behavioral and physiological rhythms can be entrained by daily restricted feeding (RF), indicating the existence of a food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). One manifestation of the presence of FEO is anticipatory activity to regularly scheduled feeding. In the present study, we tested if intact ghrelin signaling is required for FEO function by ...
Van der Zee Eddy A - - 2009
There is growing awareness of the importance of circadian rhythmicity in various research fields. Exciting developments are ongoing in the field of circadian neurobiology linked to sleep, food intake, and memory. With the current knowledge of critical 'clock genes' (genes found to be involved in the generation of circadian rhythms) ...
Furlano Elio - - 2009
To develop pharmaceutical treatments for obesity and diabetes, researchers carry out food intake studies and more in-depth assessments of the feeding behavior in rodents. To facilitate such studies, the authors designed and developed a rodent behavior monitoring system that simultaneously measures food intake, water consumption and motor activity. When tested, ...
Mistlberger Ralph E - - 2009
Rats, mice and other species can behaviorally anticipate a predictable daily mealtime by entrainment of circadian oscillators (food-entrainable oscillators) distinct from those (light-entrainable oscillators) that regulate light-dark entrained rhythms of behavior and physiology. Neurobiological analysis of food-anticipatory rhythms has progressed slowly but is gaining pace. Food-anticipatory rhythms have proven to ...
Escobar Carolina - - 2009
Food-anticipatory activity (FAA) and especially the food-entrained oscillator (FEO) have driven many scientists to seek their mechanisms and locations. Starting our research on FAA we, possibly like many other scientists, were convinced that clock genes held the key to the location and the underlying mechanisms for FAA. In this review, ...
Challet Etienne - - 2009
Circadian clocks enable the organisms to anticipate predictable cycling events in the environment. The mechanisms of the main circadian clock, localized in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, involve intracellular autoregulatory transcriptional loops of specific genes, called clock genes. In the suprachiasmatic clock, circadian oscillations of clock genes are primarily ...
Verwey M - - 2009
Circadian rhythms in mammalian behaviour and physiology rely on daily oscillations in the expression of canonical clock genes. Circadian rhythms in clock gene expression are observed in the master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus but are also observed in many other brain regions that have diverse roles, including influences on ...
Davidson Alec J - - 2009
Behavior ablation remains a powerful, if not cutting-edge, approach for localization of function within the nervous system. The initial discovery of the suprachiasmatic nuclei as the site of the mammalian light-entrainable circadian pacemaker is owed to this approach. Food-anticipatory activity (FAA), an output of a putative feeding-entrainable circadian pacemaker, is ...
Carneiro Breno Tercio Santos - - 2009
Food is critical for all animal species. Its temporal availability is a relevant signal for organizing behavioral and physiological parameters. When food is restricted to a few hours per day, rats, mice, and other mammals exhibit anticipatory activity before mealtime (food-anticipatory activity). There is considerable evidence suggesting that this anticipation ...
Oliveira Tiago G - - 2009
The importance of Rhodnius nasutus in the transmission of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil was investigated regarding feeding and defecation patterns of this triatomine under laboratory conditions. An average of 30 samples were studied for each instar, from fourth-instar nymphs onward. On average, 86.4% started feeding after less than 10 ...
Preston T Reg - - 2009
Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the ...
Sotka Erik E - - 2009
Gulf of Mexico blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis produce neurotoxic cyclic polyethers called brevetoxins. During and after a red tide bloom in southwestern Florida, K. brevis cells lyse and release brevetoxins, which then sink to the benthos and coat the surfaces of seagrasses and their epiphytes. We tested the ...
Rahman M M - - 2009
In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before starting experiments, and then stocked with ...
Howie J A - - 2009
Selection for increased growth rate in livestock is accompanied by increased requirements for food resources. It has been suggested that more intensively selected birds, such as broilers, have altered food intake control mechanisms and may be constantly hungry, due to the high demands of fast growth rates. If this is ...
Verwey Michael - - 2009
When food availability is restricted to a single time of day, circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology in rodents shift to anticipate the predictable time of food arrival. It has been hypothesized that certain food-anticipatory rhythms are linked to the induction and entrainment of rhythms in clock gene expression in ...
Hartley Paul S PS Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK. - - 2009
Circadian (c. 24 h) rhythms of physiology are entrained to either the environmental light-dark cycle or the timing of food intake. In the current work the hypothesis that rhythms of platelet turnover in mammals are circadian and entrained by food intake was explored in mice. Mice were entrained to 12 ...
Pan Xiaoyue - - 2009
Clock genes respond to external stimuli and exhibit circadian rhythms. This study investigated the expression of clock genes in the small intestine and their contribution in the regulation of nutrient absorption by enterocytes. We examined expression of clock genes and macronutrient transport proteins in the small intestines of wild-type and ...
Clark E L EL Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, E/CLS-706, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2009
Mice lacking orexin/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions ...
Hussain M Mahmood - - 2009
Light and food are two major environmental factors that impact daily life. Light entrainment is centrally controlled by suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Food entrainment might require cooperation between the intestine and dorsomedial hypothalamus. Clock genes that are essential for light entrainment also play a part in food entrainment. Understanding ...
Storch Kai-Florian - - 2009
When food availability is restricted to a particular time each day, mammals exhibit food-anticipatory activity (FAA), a daily increase in locomotor activity preceding the presentation of food. Considerable historical evidence suggests that FAA is driven by a food-entrainable circadian clock distinct from the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Multiple ...
Kusama Toyoko - - 2009
After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Japan in September 2001, the Japanese government introduced a series of animal feed control measures to reduce the risk of the spread of the disease from a feed source. To ensure the proper implementation of these measures, ...
Moriya Takahiro - - 2009
Circadian rhythms in mammals are regulated by a light-entrainable circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and food-entrainable oscillators located elsewhere in the brain and body. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) has been proposed to be the site of oscillators driving food-anticipatory circadian rhythms, but this is controversial. To further ...
Meye, JA; ;
Food and feeding habits of the mochokid fish, <i>Syndontis ocellifer</i> from River Adofi was studied. The food items in the stomach of <i>S. ocellifer</i> covered a wide spectrum, ranging from various types of algae, detritus, sand and mud to invertebrates. Thus, the species exhibited an omnivorous feeding. The absolute and ...
Jansen T - - 2009
A total of 84 farmers in 31 villages of Guadalcanal, Western, Malaita and Central Provinces of the Solomon Islands were surveyed to obtain baseline information on the current feeding practices and farmer attitudes to village poultry production. Farming of village chickens in the Solomon Islands is conducted on a small ...
van Dijk Marijn - - 2009
During the introduction of solid food (usually indicated as the weaning period), infant and caregiver have to adjust their feeding interactions to a completely changed feeding context. In this paper, we argue that these adjustments can be seen as a complex process in which many factors are involved. As a ...
Nakagawa Naofumi - - 2009
In this review I outline studies on wild non-human primates using information on feeding rate, which is defined as the food intake per minute on a dry-weight basis; further, I summarize the significance of feeding rate in primate feeding ecology. The optimal foraging theory has addressed three aspects of animal ...
Tallett A J - - 2009
The behavioural satiety sequence (BSS) is an important method for assessing the selectivity of treatment (physiological, pharmacological and/or genetic) effects on food intake in rodents. The concept describes the natural progression from feeding to resting, with the transition between the two a useful biomarker of behavioural satiety. Although treatments can ...
Hoque M A - - 2009
Genetic parameters for feed intake and performance traits of 514 bulls and carcass traits of 22 099 of their progeny, and the relationships of measures of feed intake with performance and carcass traits were estimated. Feed intake traits were dry matter intake (DMI), concentrate intake (CONI), roughage intake, ratio of ...
Verhagen Linda A W - - 2009
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model for anorexia nervosa (AN). By scheduled feeding and voluntary wheel running, it mimics severe body weight loss and increased physical activity in AN. Pharmacological, genetic and imaging studies implicate dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of feeding behavior, food-anticipatory activity, and food ...
Nair, S.R.S.
The salp Thalia democratica was found to feed on Chaetoceros sp. continuously during the entire experimental period of 24 hours. The rate of consumption (0.09-0.16% animal sup(-1) h sup(-1)), however, did not differ significantly. Faecal output also followed a similar trend (0.073-0.098% animal sup(-1) h sup(-1)). Food concentration, thus, did ...
Mistlberger Ralph E - - 2009
Daily feeding schedules generate food anticipatory rhythms of behavior and physiology that exhibit canonical properties of circadian clock control. The molecular mechanisms and location of food-entrainable circadian oscillators hypothesized to control food anticipatory rhythms are unknown. In 2008, Fuller et al reported that food-entrainable circadian rhythms are absent in mice ...
Van Wassenbergh Sam - - 2009
Food scraping has independently evolved twice from suction feeding in the evolution of catfishes: within neotropical Loricarioidea and paleotropical Mochokidae. To gain insight in the evolutionary transitions associated with the evolution towards scraping, we analyzed prey capture kinematics in two species of benthic suction feeders which belong to taxa that ...
Wells Deborah L - - 2009
This study explored the effect of 3 feeding devices (food-filled baskets, polyvinyl chloride tubes, frozen ice pops) on the behavior of 4 zoo-housed moloch gibbons. The project studied the gibbons for 5 days during a control condition (no feeding enrichment) and 5 days per condition of feeding enrichment, when 3 ...
Romero L F - - 2009
This trial characterized residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance requirement (RME(m)) as measures of energetic efficiency in broiler breeder hens. The RFI was defined as the difference between observed and expected ME intake and RME(m) as the difference between observed and expected maintenance requirements. A total of 600 Ross ...
Matulka Ray A - - 2009
Dietary fats in food are natural energy sources to animals and are included in the American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) manual as a requirement for dog food. Medium chain triglycerides are comprised of a glycerol backbone esterified to medium chain length (8-12 carbon) fatty acids (FA) and, in ...
Kröller Katja - - 2009
Research concerning child's food intake have considered various influencing factors, for example parental feeding strategies, demographic and weight factors. At this time, however, there are few findings that explore these factors simultaneously. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test a structural equation model regarding the associations between maternal ...
Pendergast Julie S - - 2009
Food availability is a potent environmental cue that directs circadian locomotor activity in rodents. Even though nocturnal rodents prefer to forage at night, daytime food anticipatory activity (FAA) is observed prior to short meals presented at a scheduled time of day. Under this restricted feeding regimen, rodents exhibit two distinct ...
Mistlberger Ralph E - - 2009
Evidence that circadian food-anticipatory activity and temperature rhythms are absent in Bmal1 knockout mice and rescued by restoration of Bmal1 expression selectively in the dorsomedial hypothalamus was published in 2008 by Fuller et al and critiqued in 2009 by Mistlberger et al. Fuller et al have responded to the critique ...
Daniels Lynne A - - 2009
Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency) ...
Wong Richard - - 2009
Measurement of food intake in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often necessary for studies of behaviour, nutrition and drug administration. There is no reliable and agreed method for measuring food intake of flies in undisturbed, steady state, and normal culture conditions. We report such a method, based on measurement ...
Coulthard Helen H School of Psychology, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK. - - 2009
The study aimed to follow up children who had been introduced to lumpy solids (chewy foods) at different ages, and to assess their dietary intake and feeding difficulties at seven years of age. Information was collected from a geographically defined population of 7821 mothers of children born in 1991/92, part ...
Wentzell Margaret M MM Department of Biological Sciences and Laboratory of Integrated Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Ill. 60607, - - 2009
The motor systems that generate feeding-related behaviors of gastropod mollusks provide exceptional opportunities for increasing our understanding of neural homologies and the evolution of neural networks. This report examines the neural control of feeding in Helisoma trivolvis, a pulmonate snail that ingests food by rasping or scraping material from the ...
Soroka Juliana J - - 2008
Field studies were conducted at two locations on the Canadian prairies to investigate use of reduced ratios of insecticide-treated seed in controlling flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Phyllotreta spp.) damage to canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.). Five treatments were evaluated: bare seed control, fungicide-only (0X), and three ratios ...
Jaman M Firoj - - 2008
Individuals adapt to changes in their environment, such as food availability and temperature, by adjusting the amount of time spent in different behavioral activities. These adjustments in behavior should vary across age-sex class according to specific physiological and social needs. We studied the activity budgets of three social Japanese macaque ...
Sutton Gregory M GM Neuropeptides Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, - - 2008
Entrainment of anticipatory activity and wakefulness to nutrient availability is a poorly understood component of energy homeostasis. Restricted feeding (RF) paradigms with a periodicity of 24 h rapidly induce entrainment of rhythms anticipating food presentation that are independent of master clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) but do require other ...
Wanapat Metha - - 2009
Energy and protein sources are of prime importance for ruminants as they stimulate microorganisms in the rumen and enhance the productive functions of the animals. Cassava roots in the form of dry cassava chips or pellets as energy sources and dried cassava leaves and cassava hay as protein sources have ...
Preston T Reg - - 2009
Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the ...
Coronado-Gonzalez Pablo A - - 2008
Abstract Food-based attractants incorporating an insecticide are an important component of area-wide control programmes for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This study was carried out to understand the feeding mechanism of adults of this species. Mouthparts of C. capitata are similar in general structure to those ...
Mistlberger Ralph E RE Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. - - 2008
Fuller et al. (Reports, 23 May 2008, p. 1074) reported that the dorsomedial hypothalamus contains a Bmal1-based oscillator that can drive food-entrained circadian rhythms. We report that mice bearing a null mutation of Bmal1 exhibit normal food-anticipatory circadian rhythms. Lack of food anticipation in Bmal1-/- mice reported by Fuller et ...
Hetzner Nina M Philipsen NM NCCF, Department of Human Development at Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 West 120th Street, 39, New York, NY 10027, USA. - - 2009
To explore the different combinations of early feeding practices and their association with child illness in toddlerhood (i.e., asthma, respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections, and ear infections). The Early Child Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) offers a unique opportunity to address this issue, as the study features a nationally representative sample of ...
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