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Results 501 - 550 of 783
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Himms-Hagen J - - 1995
The hypothesis proposed in this review provides a novel view of both the control of feeding and the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. It takes into account the episodic nature of feeding in rats allowed free access to food and the necessity for episodic events in the controlling ...
Mohr E G - - 1995
To determine the influence of various feeding schedules (different times of feeding, times without feeding) on the time course of heart rate (HR), electric activity of cervical muscles (EMG), motor activity (ACT) and body temperature (TB) in ruminants, 5 sheep were equipped with portable dataloggers able to register and store ...
Madrid J A - - 1995
A new contact eatometer designed and built in our laboratory is described. The system makes possible the reliable continuous recording of feeding behavior in rats from the time of weaning, without significantly affecting food intake- and growth-related variables. Improved time discrimination and reliability of records--along with the small financial outlay ...
Ferrari F - - 1994
B-HT 958 and SND 919, two selective agonists at D2 dopamine receptors, were examined for their influence on the feeding behavior of fasted rats. When food intake was determined in the rat's individual home cage, it was found to be reduced by both drugs at low sedative doses during the ...
Oyejide O - - 1994
Structured observations of events during food preparation, feeding and defeacation management were conducted in four rural Nigerian communities as part of a longitudinal study aimed at identifying environmental and behavioural risk factors for diarrhoea. A discriminant analysis model was developed for distinguishing between children who had no diarrhoea and those ...
Barbato G F - - 1994
Genetic selection for body weight in broiler-type chickens has created a highly efficient omnivore capable of attaining a 2.0 kg body weight in 40-42 d of age with an overall feed conversion (feed consumed per unit of body weight) of less than two. The primary correlated response to the huge ...
Ungar P S - - 1994
Several studies have suggested that incisor microwear reflects diet and feeding adaptations of anthropoids. However, such studies have been largely qualitative, and interpretations have relied on anecdotal references to diet and tooth use reported in the socioecology literature. The current study relates incisor microwear in four anthropoid primates to specific ...
Sibbald A M - - 1994
Voluntary food intakes by 12 housed red deer hinds were recorded during six 2-week periods between April and November. Diurnal patterns of intake and feeding activity were measured by weighing food at either 5-min (April, May and June) or 1-min intervals (July, September and November). At each time of the ...
van der Hoek G A - - 1994
This study investigated the effects of ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on palatable food consumption in nondeprived male rats, under conditions of familiarity. The results showed that ondansetron (3.0-30 micrograms/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced food intake at each dose tested. The reduction in food intake was due not to a ...
Liu D W - - 1994
A three-part motor program mediates a defecation every 45 sec in well-fed wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans. Individual worms maintain this 45 sec rhythm with an SD of about 3 sec. We present evidence that the defecation cycle is controlled by an endogenous clock, most likely a neuronal pattern generator. The phase ...
Massana R - - 1994
The trophic role of ciliates in anaerobic food webs has not been assessed experimentally. In order to obtain basic information necessary to interpret field situations, we studied the effects of temperature, sulfide concentration, and food abundance on the growth and feeding activities of two anaerobic ciliates, Plagiopyla nasuta and Metopus ...
Davis T J - - 1994
A technique for bedside placement of NDT that was used in our ICU and allowed a significant percentage of feeding tubes to be placed in the duodenum without moving the patient from the ICU setting is reported. We believe that this modification for feeding tube placement is effective and safe ...
Black H - - 1994
The behaviour of two pens of mixed British breed male sheep transported by ship from New Zealand to Saudi Arabia was studied. One of the groups was carried above decks (n = 128) and one below decks (n = 116). Observations were conducted four to five times daily throughout the ...
Munk D D - - 1994
As many as 80% of the individuals with severe or profound mental retardation exhibit feeding problems. Although behavioral interventions have been used to treat these problems, no assessment procedure for determining a functional relationship between a person's acceptance of food and the type and texture of that food has been ...
Feistner A T - - 1994
Aye-ayes possess highly adapted hands, using their specialized third digits to investigate potential food sources by tapping and the third or fourth digits to transfer food to the mouth. Observations were conducted on 11 captive aye-ayes (10 wild-caught; 1 captive-bred) following presentation of food or novel objects, and hand use ...
Kennedy B W - - 1993
Residual feed intake is defined as the difference between actual feed intake and that predicted on the basis of requirements for production and maintenance of body weight. Formulas were developed to obtain genetic parameters of residual feed intake from knowledge of the genetic and phenotypic parameters of the component traits. ...
Metheny N - - 1993
This paper reports further findings from an ongoing clinical study designed to evaluate the extent to which pH values of aspirates from feeding tubes can be used to differentiate between gastric and intestinal tube placement and gastric and respiratory tube placement. The sample consisted of 405 aspirates from small-bore nasogastric ...
Lawrence A B - - 1993
Environmentally induced stereotypies, commonly observed in farm and zoo animals, are behaviors that are relatively invariant, that are regularly repeated, and that serve no obvious function. However, there is as yet no accepted means of discriminating between normal and abnormal behavior, and the assumption that stereotypies are abnormal may mask ...
Phillips D L - - 1993
In Experiment 1, four pigeons lived in a metabolic chamber on a 12h:12h LD cycle where they maintained a reduced body weight by consuming a daily ration of food presented at the eighth hour of the photophase. Body temperature (Tb) and oxygen consumption (Vo2) increased prior to the daily feeding. ...
Morpurgo B - - 1993
This study presents five aspects of aggressive behaviour in juvenile Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus, as observed in five cohorts of 6-18 month-old animals. During this period, the animals grew from a range of 35-55 cm, to a range of 65-115 cm. 1) Stock density related to aggression: decrease in density ...
Yuen H K - - 1993
This report describes a customized self-feeding system designed to increase the independence of a person with a head injury who is unable to use his arm for self-feeding. The client has spastic hemiparesis in the right upper extremity and profound ataxia in the left upper extremity. Due to the severity ...
Primavera A - - 1993
Wernicke-Korsakoff disease with sensory-motor neuropathy was diagnosed in three out of a series of 1,663 patients (0.18%), with onset 2, 3 and 5 months after biliopancreatic diversion. Precipitating factors were vomiting, minimal food intake, anorexia, rapid weight loss, and glucose-containing intravenous feeding. Recovery was partial in two and complete in ...
Nelson C E - - 1993
Mold growth can occur in dairy feeds only when nutrients are available, correct temperatures exist, oxygen is present, and unbound water is available. Because elimination of any one of these four factors prevents mold growth, management of feed that accounts for these elements is essential. Use of multiple ingredient mold ...
Salamone J D - - 1993
The present study was conducted to characterize the changes in feeding behavior produced by localized depletion of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens and subregions of the neostriatum in the rat. Food-deprived rats were given at least 2 weeks of training, which consisted of being placed in a Plexiglas box ...
Lawrence A B - - 1993
Results suggest that where the animal is unable to engage in functional feeding to reduce nutrient deficit, it may still continue to engage in feeding by directing its feeding behaviour to other alternative stimuli. If feeding is to be maintained where there are constraints on further intake, the alternative stimuli ...
Shimada I - - 1993
We present a new temporal model of animal behavior based on the ethological idea that the internal states of the individual essentially determine the behavior. The internal states, however, are conditioned by the external stimuli. This model, including environmental and internal parameters, predicts a fractal property of the behavior, that ...
Inoue K - - 1993
The effects of a time-restricted feeding schedule on dopamine (DA) release and its metabolites output in the striatum of freely moving rats were studied. Rats had access to food for only 2 h daily for 7 successive days. On the 1st or 7th day, the extracellular concentrations of DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic ...
Stephan F K - - 1992
Rats with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nuclei were exposed to daily feeding until anticipatory activity (AA) developed. Meals were then phase advanced or delayed and presented for 1-4 consecutive days. The phase of the circadian pacemaker was assessed during probes of total food deprivation before or after 8 days of ...
Hassager C - - 1992
There are several indications that the functions of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts have circadian rhythms with peak activities occurring at night. It is not known, however, whether the principal function of these cells, namely synthesis and degradation of the organic matrix of bone, of which about 90% is type I ...
Bendheim U - - 1992
The effects of type of feed, ambient temperature and ventilation on ascites were investigated on a fast-growing strain of broiler with regard to production parameters. It was found that poor ventilation had no effect on the incidence of ascites. Pelleted feed, when compared with the same feed in a mash ...
Henderson D - - 1992
Pigeons well adapted to living in 21 degrees C ambient temperature (T(a)) were continuously exposed to cold T(a) for 6 days (Experiment 1) or 30 days (Experiment 2). The pigeons lived on a 12:12 L:D cycle where they could obtain short access to food and water at any time in ...
Bobbert A C - - 1992
Long-term records of the free-running food intake rhythms were obtained from 26 young adult blinded rabbits that were subjected in the course of recording to bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (sympathectomy). This always resulted in acceleration of the rhythm (mean delta tau = -0.35 h). Some 4 months afterwards, 12 rabbits ...
Abe H - - 1992
Activity rhythms were recorded from hamsters in three conditions: during timed feedings of an attractive diet with free access to regular food, during restriction to 70% of normal food consumption, and during moderate food deprivation with limited temporal access to an attractive diet. An attractive diet given to intact animals ...
Yoshimatsu H - - 1992
Mechanisms of tail pinch-induced feeding and effects of neurotropin (NSP), an extract from the inflamed skin of rabbit inoculated with vaccinia virus, on behavioral responses were investigated in rats. Treatment of a 5-min tail pinch (tail pinch I) induced feeding response. An intensified 15-min tail pinch (tail pinch II) provoked ...
Bastrop R - - 1992
1. Rainbow trout held in brackish water (15 parts per thousand) were starved or fed different amounts of food. 2. A significant correlation was found between the growth rates of the different animals and the feed rates. 3. The RNA:DNA ratio in the white epaxial muscle is lowest in starved ...
Bozzetti F - - 1992
When the surgeon must obviate to an impending obstruction because of an unresectable tumor of the supramesocolic space and an intestinal bypass is not feasible, a jejunostomy is usually indicated. We describe a new method to provide enteral nutrition via a subcutaneous jejunostomy without any external device, which can be ...
Mistlberger R E - - 1992
Rats behaviorally anticipate a fixed, daily opportunity to feed by entrainment of circadian oscillators that are physically separate from the light-entrainable circadian pacemaker that has been localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neural substrates mediating food-entrained rhythms are unknown. A variety of anatomical and functional observations suggest possible involvement of the ...
Hau M M Max-Planck-Institut für Verhaltensphysiologie, Andechs, - - 1992
We studied the potential zeitgeber qualities of periodic food availability on the circadian rhythms of locomotor and feeding activity of house sparrows. The birds were initially held in a LD-cycle of 12:12 h, with food restricted to the light phase. After transfer to constant dim light, the birds remained entrained ...
Hehir D J - - 1992
When indicated, artificial feeding in critically ill patients should be instituted as early and as simply as possible. If feasible, enteral feeding is preferable but a period of intravenous nutrition is usually necessary in the critically ill. A compounded feed, administered via a sterile single lumen subclavian catheter is recommended. ...
Samish M - - 1992
The beetle Dermestes maculatus, which is known to feed on dry, protein-rich, stored materials, has lately become a pest of wood and insulating polymers of poultry houses. Its carnivorous attack on live birds is recorded in this paper for the first time. These attacks resulted in deep wounds to adult ...
Carbonaro D A - - 1992
Eight Nubian dairy goat does in one experiment, and eight Alpine dairy goat does in a second experiment, were randomly allotted to food-thwarted or fed groups in a crossover experimental design. Food thwarting was hypothesized to produce an emotional state analogous to frustration. After a 1-week training period during which ...
Chabot C C - - 1992
Feeding and locomotor activities were measured simultaneously in homing pigeons (Columba livia) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Feeding, as well as locomotor activity, was found to be regulated by a circadian clock in both of these species. Implantation of melatonin-filled capsules or exposure to constant light abolished feeding and locomotor ...
Sakata T - - 1992
D-Glucosamine (GlcN), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (2,5-AM) were infused into the rat third cerebroventricle (icv) to compare their effects on food intake. GlcN (24 mumols/L) accelerated eating, and concomitantly increased plasma glucose, free fatty acids, and glycerol without affecting plasma insulin. GlcN accelerated lateral hypothalamic (LHA), and reciprocally decreased ventromedial ...
Jilge B - - 1992
The free-running circadian rhythms of five behavioral functions of the rabbit were masked by unsignalled restricted food access (RF). The rhythms were reorganized immediately, a large part of events being assembled around the end of food availability. In addition to masking a slower process of entrainment was running: a component ...
Verni F - - 1992
Digestion in the carnivorous form (giant) of the filter feeding ciliateOxytricha bifaria and in the obligatory carnivorous, raptorial feeding ciliateLitonotus lamella were studied and compared at the ultrastructural level. It was found that whenO. bifaria, shifts from the normal, bacterivorous to the gigantic carnivorous form, it modifies its morphology, acquiring ...
MacLeod M G - - 1991
1. Heat production and physical activity were measured in cockerels given the same amount of food either conventionally or by direct intubation into the crop. 2. The thermogenic effect of feeding (heat increment per unit weight of food) was about 30% less with tube-feeding. 3. The difference in heat increment ...
Kindack D G - - 1991
During surveillance of hog carcasses from Manitoba for antibiotic residues by the Health of Animals Laboratory, Agriculture Canada, Saskatoon, an unknown substance was found which produced tetracycline-like results with the methods used. This same substance was found in an implicated swine feed premix. Using various HPLC systems and columns, UV ...
Botzer D - - 1991
We examined whether pheromones released by reproductive behaviors (mating and egg-laying) affect feeding behavior. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that the quantity of food eaten can be used to measure the effects of pheromones on feeding. Using this measure, we then showed that Aplysia that were prevented from mating, but that ...
Kennedy G A - - 1991
The effect of daily restricted feeding (RF) on the circadian wheel-running rhythms of the kowari, Dasyuroides byrnei, was examined in two experiments. Kowaris were presented with a preferred food (determined in a pilot study) during a daily 2-h meal in the light period of a 14:10 light-dark (LD) cycle (expts ...
Huber T L - - 1991
Dog foods with similar claims for nutritional adequacy were tested by chemical analysis and the American Association of Feed Control Officials' growth trial. All foods tested were similar chemically, however, dogs given one regionally marketed food had lower growth rate and food efficiency as well as suboptimal PCV and hemoglobin ...
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