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Results 501 - 550 of 772
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Davis T J - - 1994
A technique for bedside placement of NDT that was used in our ICU and allowed a significant percentage of feeding tubes to be placed in the duodenum without moving the patient from the ICU setting is reported. We believe that this modification for feeding tube placement is effective and safe ...
Black H - - 1994
The behaviour of two pens of mixed British breed male sheep transported by ship from New Zealand to Saudi Arabia was studied. One of the groups was carried above decks (n = 128) and one below decks (n = 116). Observations were conducted four to five times daily throughout the ...
Munk D D - - 1994
As many as 80% of the individuals with severe or profound mental retardation exhibit feeding problems. Although behavioral interventions have been used to treat these problems, no assessment procedure for determining a functional relationship between a person's acceptance of food and the type and texture of that food has been ...
Feistner A T - - 1994
Aye-ayes possess highly adapted hands, using their specialized third digits to investigate potential food sources by tapping and the third or fourth digits to transfer food to the mouth. Observations were conducted on 11 captive aye-ayes (10 wild-caught; 1 captive-bred) following presentation of food or novel objects, and hand use ...
Kennedy B W - - 1993
Residual feed intake is defined as the difference between actual feed intake and that predicted on the basis of requirements for production and maintenance of body weight. Formulas were developed to obtain genetic parameters of residual feed intake from knowledge of the genetic and phenotypic parameters of the component traits. ...
Metheny N - - 1993
This paper reports further findings from an ongoing clinical study designed to evaluate the extent to which pH values of aspirates from feeding tubes can be used to differentiate between gastric and intestinal tube placement and gastric and respiratory tube placement. The sample consisted of 405 aspirates from small-bore nasogastric ...
Lawrence A B - - 1993
Environmentally induced stereotypies, commonly observed in farm and zoo animals, are behaviors that are relatively invariant, that are regularly repeated, and that serve no obvious function. However, there is as yet no accepted means of discriminating between normal and abnormal behavior, and the assumption that stereotypies are abnormal may mask ...
Phillips D L - - 1993
In Experiment 1, four pigeons lived in a metabolic chamber on a 12h:12h LD cycle where they maintained a reduced body weight by consuming a daily ration of food presented at the eighth hour of the photophase. Body temperature (Tb) and oxygen consumption (Vo2) increased prior to the daily feeding. ...
Morpurgo B - - 1993
This study presents five aspects of aggressive behaviour in juvenile Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus, as observed in five cohorts of 6-18 month-old animals. During this period, the animals grew from a range of 35-55 cm, to a range of 65-115 cm. 1) Stock density related to aggression: decrease in density ...
Yuen H K - - 1993
This report describes a customized self-feeding system designed to increase the independence of a person with a head injury who is unable to use his arm for self-feeding. The client has spastic hemiparesis in the right upper extremity and profound ataxia in the left upper extremity. Due to the severity ...
Primavera A - - 1993
Wernicke-Korsakoff disease with sensory-motor neuropathy was diagnosed in three out of a series of 1,663 patients (0.18%), with onset 2, 3 and 5 months after biliopancreatic diversion. Precipitating factors were vomiting, minimal food intake, anorexia, rapid weight loss, and glucose-containing intravenous feeding. Recovery was partial in two and complete in ...
Nelson C E - - 1993
Mold growth can occur in dairy feeds only when nutrients are available, correct temperatures exist, oxygen is present, and unbound water is available. Because elimination of any one of these four factors prevents mold growth, management of feed that accounts for these elements is essential. Use of multiple ingredient mold ...
Salamone J D - - 1993
The present study was conducted to characterize the changes in feeding behavior produced by localized depletion of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens and subregions of the neostriatum in the rat. Food-deprived rats were given at least 2 weeks of training, which consisted of being placed in a Plexiglas box ...
Lawrence A B - - 1993
Results suggest that where the animal is unable to engage in functional feeding to reduce nutrient deficit, it may still continue to engage in feeding by directing its feeding behaviour to other alternative stimuli. If feeding is to be maintained where there are constraints on further intake, the alternative stimuli ...
Shimada I - - 1993
We present a new temporal model of animal behavior based on the ethological idea that the internal states of the individual essentially determine the behavior. The internal states, however, are conditioned by the external stimuli. This model, including environmental and internal parameters, predicts a fractal property of the behavior, that ...
Inoue K - - 1993
The effects of a time-restricted feeding schedule on dopamine (DA) release and its metabolites output in the striatum of freely moving rats were studied. Rats had access to food for only 2 h daily for 7 successive days. On the 1st or 7th day, the extracellular concentrations of DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic ...
Stephan F K - - 1992
Rats with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nuclei were exposed to daily feeding until anticipatory activity (AA) developed. Meals were then phase advanced or delayed and presented for 1-4 consecutive days. The phase of the circadian pacemaker was assessed during probes of total food deprivation before or after 8 days of ...
Hassager C - - 1992
There are several indications that the functions of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts have circadian rhythms with peak activities occurring at night. It is not known, however, whether the principal function of these cells, namely synthesis and degradation of the organic matrix of bone, of which about 90% is type I ...
Bendheim U - - 1992
The effects of type of feed, ambient temperature and ventilation on ascites were investigated on a fast-growing strain of broiler with regard to production parameters. It was found that poor ventilation had no effect on the incidence of ascites. Pelleted feed, when compared with the same feed in a mash ...
Henderson D - - 1992
Pigeons well adapted to living in 21 degrees C ambient temperature (T(a)) were continuously exposed to cold T(a) for 6 days (Experiment 1) or 30 days (Experiment 2). The pigeons lived on a 12:12 L:D cycle where they could obtain short access to food and water at any time in ...
Bobbert A C - - 1992
Long-term records of the free-running food intake rhythms were obtained from 26 young adult blinded rabbits that were subjected in the course of recording to bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (sympathectomy). This always resulted in acceleration of the rhythm (mean delta tau = -0.35 h). Some 4 months afterwards, 12 rabbits ...
Abe H - - 1992
Activity rhythms were recorded from hamsters in three conditions: during timed feedings of an attractive diet with free access to regular food, during restriction to 70% of normal food consumption, and during moderate food deprivation with limited temporal access to an attractive diet. An attractive diet given to intact animals ...
Yoshimatsu H - - 1992
Mechanisms of tail pinch-induced feeding and effects of neurotropin (NSP), an extract from the inflamed skin of rabbit inoculated with vaccinia virus, on behavioral responses were investigated in rats. Treatment of a 5-min tail pinch (tail pinch I) induced feeding response. An intensified 15-min tail pinch (tail pinch II) provoked ...
Bastrop R - - 1992
1. Rainbow trout held in brackish water (15 parts per thousand) were starved or fed different amounts of food. 2. A significant correlation was found between the growth rates of the different animals and the feed rates. 3. The RNA:DNA ratio in the white epaxial muscle is lowest in starved ...
Bozzetti F - - 1992
When the surgeon must obviate to an impending obstruction because of an unresectable tumor of the supramesocolic space and an intestinal bypass is not feasible, a jejunostomy is usually indicated. We describe a new method to provide enteral nutrition via a subcutaneous jejunostomy without any external device, which can be ...
Mistlberger R E - - 1992
Rats behaviorally anticipate a fixed, daily opportunity to feed by entrainment of circadian oscillators that are physically separate from the light-entrainable circadian pacemaker that has been localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neural substrates mediating food-entrained rhythms are unknown. A variety of anatomical and functional observations suggest possible involvement of the ...
Hau M - - 1992
We studied the potential zeitgeber qualities of periodic food availability on the circadian rhythms of locomotor and feeding activity of house sparrows. The birds were initially held in a LD-cycle of 12:12 h, with food restricted to the light phase. After transfer to constant dim light, the birds remained entrained ...
Hehir D J - - 1992
When indicated, artificial feeding in critically ill patients should be instituted as early and as simply as possible. If feasible, enteral feeding is preferable but a period of intravenous nutrition is usually necessary in the critically ill. A compounded feed, administered via a sterile single lumen subclavian catheter is recommended. ...
Samish M - - 1992
The beetle Dermestes maculatus, which is known to feed on dry, protein-rich, stored materials, has lately become a pest of wood and insulating polymers of poultry houses. Its carnivorous attack on live birds is recorded in this paper for the first time. These attacks resulted in deep wounds to adult ...
Carbonaro D A - - 1992
Eight Nubian dairy goat does in one experiment, and eight Alpine dairy goat does in a second experiment, were randomly allotted to food-thwarted or fed groups in a crossover experimental design. Food thwarting was hypothesized to produce an emotional state analogous to frustration. After a 1-week training period during which ...
Chabot C C - - 1992
Feeding and locomotor activities were measured simultaneously in homing pigeons (Columba livia) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Feeding, as well as locomotor activity, was found to be regulated by a circadian clock in both of these species. Implantation of melatonin-filled capsules or exposure to constant light abolished feeding and locomotor ...
Sakata T - - 1992
D-Glucosamine (GlcN), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (2,5-AM) were infused into the rat third cerebroventricle (icv) to compare their effects on food intake. GlcN (24 mumols/L) accelerated eating, and concomitantly increased plasma glucose, free fatty acids, and glycerol without affecting plasma insulin. GlcN accelerated lateral hypothalamic (LHA), and reciprocally decreased ventromedial ...
Jilge B - - 1992
The free-running circadian rhythms of five behavioral functions of the rabbit were masked by unsignalled restricted food access (RF). The rhythms were reorganized immediately, a large part of events being assembled around the end of food availability. In addition to masking a slower process of entrainment was running: a component ...
Verni F - - 1992
Digestion in the carnivorous form (giant) of the filter feeding ciliateOxytricha bifaria and in the obligatory carnivorous, raptorial feeding ciliateLitonotus lamella were studied and compared at the ultrastructural level. It was found that whenO. bifaria, shifts from the normal, bacterivorous to the gigantic carnivorous form, it modifies its morphology, acquiring ...
MacLeod M G - - 1991
1. Heat production and physical activity were measured in cockerels given the same amount of food either conventionally or by direct intubation into the crop. 2. The thermogenic effect of feeding (heat increment per unit weight of food) was about 30% less with tube-feeding. 3. The difference in heat increment ...
Kindack D G - - 1991
During surveillance of hog carcasses from Manitoba for antibiotic residues by the Health of Animals Laboratory, Agriculture Canada, Saskatoon, an unknown substance was found which produced tetracycline-like results with the methods used. This same substance was found in an implicated swine feed premix. Using various HPLC systems and columns, UV ...
Botzer D - - 1991
We examined whether pheromones released by reproductive behaviors (mating and egg-laying) affect feeding behavior. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that the quantity of food eaten can be used to measure the effects of pheromones on feeding. Using this measure, we then showed that Aplysia that were prevented from mating, but that ...
Kennedy G A - - 1991
The effect of daily restricted feeding (RF) on the circadian wheel-running rhythms of the kowari, Dasyuroides byrnei, was examined in two experiments. Kowaris were presented with a preferred food (determined in a pilot study) during a daily 2-h meal in the light period of a 14:10 light-dark (LD) cycle (expts ...
Huber T L - - 1991
Dog foods with similar claims for nutritional adequacy were tested by chemical analysis and the American Association of Feed Control Officials' growth trial. All foods tested were similar chemically, however, dogs given one regionally marketed food had lower growth rate and food efficiency as well as suboptimal PCV and hemoglobin ...
Phillips D L - - 1991
Pigeons ate food ad lib, then fasted for several days, and finally ate a controlled amount of food once a day for several months to maintain body weight at 80% of the ad lib value. Whole-body dry heat loss (HL) and core body temperature (Tb) were measured continuously for each ...
Yoerg S I - - 1991
Spotted hyenas are highly social carnivores with competitive feeding habits. It was hypothesized that social feeding might be capable of reversing an established flavor aversion. The dominant hyena of each of 4 captive social groups was given a novel food mixed with LiCl on Day 1; aversion to this food ...
Anderton A - - 1991
Some hospitals and manufacturers are now recommending that patients (particularly those on home enteral feeding) remove and re-insert their tubes on a daily basis. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a representative range of currently used cleaning procedures in removing bacteria from the lumina of these ...
Kooloos J G - - 1991
This paper is one of several contributions in a series, illustrating the application of a specific deductive methodology to explain diversity of form. The methodology facilitates the explanation of feeding morphologies in various ducks as a transformation of the mallard's feeding design maximized for specific proportions of performance that are ...
Singer L T - - 1991
Four children with cystic fibrosis, ranging in age from 10 to 40 months, were admitted to a specialized pediatric unit for evaluation and treatment of malnutrition. All were below the fifth percentile for weight despite appropriate pancreatic enzyme replacement and outpatient nutritional counseling. Dietary evaluation revealed oral intake of 48% ...
Aschoff J - - 1991
When exposed, in otherwise constant conditions, to a schedule with one single meal per day, rodents anticipate the time of food availability by an increase in locomotor activity while the main circadian rhythm continues to free-run with a period different from 24 h. The anticipatory activity (AA) is considered a ...
Adamo S A - - 1991
Starvation both increased the number of snails that exhibited feeding (i.e., increased feeding proclivity) and decreased the latencies of response to a food stimulus (i.e., increased food arousal). Feeding inhibited locomotion, although starvation itself had no effect. Sexual arousal (the intensity of courtship) increased locomotion, but only in the absence ...
Kurumiya S - - 1991
In male Wistar rats with chronically implanted electrodes, multiple-unit activity (MUA) was recorded from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Blinded rats with bilateral suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) lesions showed no circadian rhythm in MUA or motor activity when food was available ad libitum. However, under a restricted-feeding schedule ...
Tadtiyanant C - - 1991
Two experiments were carried out with a split-plot design over time using White Leghorn hens, 161 days of age. The experiments were conducted to determine the effect of two ambient temperatures (21.1 versus 29.4 C in Experiment 1 and 21.1 versus 33.3 C in Experiment 2) on feed and water ...
Collier G - - 1990
This paper contrasts the traditional depletion/repletion model of food intake with a longer-term perspective which focuses on function rather than mechanism. We review naturalistic observations as well as the economic relationships we have discovered in the laboratory by a cost/benefit analysis of feeding in a closed economy. We have manipulated ...
Hatzis C - - 1990
Suspension-feeding ciliates, either bacteriovorous or planktonic, are adapted to feed on particulate food matter of size much smaller than their own size. These microorganisms collect their prey by generating water currents that draw prey toward their capture surfaces. Under such conditions food particles are treated in bulk, and captures of ...
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