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Results 451 - 500 of 781
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Boissy A - - 1998
In gregarious species like cattle, the presence of partners often affects fear-related reactions. The first experiment investigated whether behavioral and physiological responses to stress depend on the emotional state of the partner. Aubrac heifers were presented with food in a novel environment. Compared to heifers in the presence of a ...
Stelzer, Claus-Peter
The planktonic rotifer Ascomorpha ovalis feeds on large dinoflagellates (e.g. Ceratium sp., Peridinium sp.) and is able to extract their cell contents by means of its virgate mastax. This paper presents the results of experiments on the feeding behaviour of laboratory-cultured Ascomorpha with Ceratium furcoides as food algae. Ascomorpha are ...
van der Honing Y - - 1998
The need for improvement of feed information in future is discussed from the perspective for implementation in practice. Weaknesses of the current feed evaluation systems, energy systems in particular, are described: prediction of voluntary feed intake, additivity of digestibilities of individual feedstuffs and dynamics of digestion, efficiency of utilization of ...
Clutter A C - - 1998
Plasma cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) was studied in pigs with divergent genetic potential for feed intake. Differences in feed intake resulted from selection for either fast (line F) or slow (line S) postweaning gain. The hypothesis was that the relatively lesser feed intake in S versus F may be attributable, in part, ...
Tang Y - - 1998
Sandfly feeding behaviour and destination of coloured sugar meals in the gut of Lutzomyia longipalpis were investigated with particular attention to the role of the crop. Sandflies were able to ingest sugar from liquid drops, microcapillaries, a slice of pear and even sugar powder. In most cases the flies adopted ...
Murphy H M - - 1998
Telemetered body temperature (BT), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (AC) data were collected in vasopressin-containing, Long-Evans (LE) and vasopressin-deficient, Brattleboro (DI) rats. In Experiment 1, the rats were initially exposed to a 12 h/12 h light/dark cycle under ad-libitum feeding and were then subjected to either a phase-advance or ...
Hoffmann L - - 1998
The advantages and disadvantages of metabolisable and net energy as parameters of energetic feed evaluation are discussed. For a global comprehensive standardisation of the energetic feed evaluation, the metabolisable energy (ME) will have a preference. The principles of an energetic feed evaluation system with ME as parameter are explained according ...
Bekele A - - 1998
A descriptive cross sectional study on mothers' knowledge and practice related to weaning was conducted in Butajira in 1994. A total of 1,543 mother-child pair were included in the study, of which 1,052 (68%) children were on weaning diet and 491 (32%) were exclusively breast feeding. Among children who were ...
Gous R M - - 1998
Genotypes used in the broiler industry have changed significantly in the past 40 yr, and continue to change at the same rate today. Different selection criteria are used by the major breeding companies, leading to widely different genotypes being available to the broiler industry, yet nutritionists have largely ignored these ...
Leal A M - - 1997
Temporal organization is an important feature of biological systems and its main function is to facilitate adaptation of the organism to the environment. The daily variation of biological variables arises from an internal time-keeping system. The major action of the environment is to synchronize the internal clock to a period ...
Marquis G S - - 1997
Although breast-feeding is widely accepted as important for infant health, its benefits during the second year of life have been questioned. We analyzed data from 107 breast-fed and weaned Peruvian children living in a periurban community to determine whether breast milk contributed to improved linear growth between 12 and 15 ...
Hau M - - 1997
Periodic food availability has been shown to be an effective circadian zeitgeber in many vertebrates. It is still unclear, however, i) whether light-active species like most birds can synchronize with food cycles in the presence of a strong light-dark (LD) cycle and ii) whether it is common among non-mammalian vertebrates ...
Wyse G A. - - 1997
Models of feeding regulation postulate that chemosensory information from available food both initiates and maintains feeding. However, we find that removing antennae and maxillae (AM) from Manduca sexta and Diacrisia virginica larvae has little effect on amounts eaten, patterns of feeding, and the microstructure (each bite and pause) of feeding, ...
Madrid J A - - 1997
The existence of feeding rhythms implies that fish would feed better during their preferred feeding phase but reject food at any other time. In the present paper, we tested the performance of a new device for continuously collecting and detecting uneaten food pellets. The device is basically made of two ...
Losso R - - 1997
The adiposogenital syndrome develops during the puberal period starting from a particular family constellation, that is described. The origins of the pathological alteration are found at the first object relationships, where feeding is felt as self-feeding. Food normally plays the role of transitional object in child. In these cases, this ...
Almroth S - - 1997
The study was aimed at learning about home management of infant and young child diarrhoea in Lesotho. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with mothers, grandmothers and nurses during two phases of field work in three geographically different locations. It was found that home management of diarrhoea traditionally had ...
Schivell Amanda E - - 1997
Stochastic analysis was applied to observations of spontaneous behavior in the carnivorous mollusc Melibe leonina. Six behaviors were denned that could be easily recognized on inspection and it was found that transitions between each of these behaviors could be fully described by a first-order random process without memory of past ...
Yo T - - 1997
Three techniques were compared: automated recording (A) of 2 h of feeding activities conveyed to a computer by constantly connected electronic balances, videotaping (V) of a closeup of the head of a chick during a feed-pecking session analyzed by focal sampling at reduced speed (16 times slower), strength of pecking ...
Morton R E - - 1997
Feeding abilities in 20 individuals with Rett syndrome aged 1 1/2 to 33 years were investigated by history and clinical assessment during a meal, followed by videofluoroscopy of feeding. All were shown to have reduced movements of the mid and posterior tongue, with premature spillover of food and liquid from ...
Belknap D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid (PHM) for prevention of diarrhea and to compare methods of PHM delivery. DESIGN: Experimental. SETTING: University-affiliated Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixty patients from medical-surgical and intensive care units who received newly initiated enteral feeding via feeding tube. OUTCOME ...
Paxton C G - - 1997
1. Three sets of experiments were performed on two batches of ostrich chicks to investigate the factors affecting the pecking and feeding behaviour of grouped individuals. 2. Chicks showed no significant alteration of their feeding behaviour in response to raising pen walls in the rearing facility from 30 to 60 ...
Williams B G - - 1997
Austrovenus stutchburyi is an intertidal, burrowing, filter-feeding bivalve. It exhibits a strong, approximately tidal pattern in the time of gaping of its valves when in constant laboratory conditions. Individuals that have been held in laboratory conditions long enough to lose their overt gaping pattern will respond to pulses of algae ...
Inoue K - - 1997
We examined the effects of fluvoxamine on food intake during rebound hyperphagia induced by a time-restricted feeding schedule in rats. Rats were allowed access to food for only 2 h daily for 7 days, and then had free access to food for 7 consecutive days. The daily food intake of ...
Miller M W - - 1997
The ragged sea hare (Bursatella leachii), an aplysiid mollusc indigenous to the tropical waters of Puerto Rico, possesses numerous properties that make it suitable for a neuroethological approach to the study of complex behavior patterns. Field studies spanning three years have established a location and season of Bursatella availability on ...
Dello Strologo L - - 1997
Nasogastric tube feeding (NGTF) is frequently necessary to overcome the inadequate caloric intake of children with severe chronic renal failure (CRF). In a multicenter retrospective study, we evaluated feeding dysfunction after tube feeding withdrawal in children with severe CRF who started long-term enteral nutrition early in childhood. We considered, almost ...
Arvedson J C - - 1997
Behavioral and interactional aspects of feeding problems are considered within a "total" child approach. Basic principles and guidelines for optimal feeding relationships are presented within a developmental framework. Factors that can underlie behavioral components are discussed. Children with limited appetites and food refusal typically demonstrate poor weight gain, or even ...
Sellers R - - 1997
The current legal and regulatory status of classes of feed additives is discussed, including food additives permitted in animal feed and drinking water, generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredients, and approved animal drugs. A brief description of these feed additive classes is given. Some nutritional and practical considerations are given ...
Dwyer D M - - 1997
Progressive weight loss resulting from restriction to a daily 1.5-hr feeding period and access to a running wheel, the Activity-Based Anorexia (ABA) effect, was obtained in 3 experiments. However, bodyweight recovered when adaptation to the feeding schedule preceded access to the wheel (Experiment 1), when feeding was at the start ...
Yoshihara T - - 1997
Free-running period of the feeding-associated circadian rhythm was assessed in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) lesioned rats under three different conditions using a feeding-fasting (FF) paradigm; restricted feeding (RF) with meal intervals of 24 h (T = 24 h) under 24 h light-dark cycle (LD), RF with T = 24 h under ...
Osse J W - - 1997
The heterogeneity of the cyprinid fishes (about 2000 species) and their feeding requires a general model of aquatic feeding. In this model the timing of mouth and gill slit opening and the relative contribution of head expansion and swimming are determining factors. The following elements have been distinguished in the ...
Bhatt R M - - 1996
A total of 41,552 anophelines comprising 16 species were collected during 70 all-night bovine-bait collection carried out in six villages of Kheda district, Gujarat. Anopheles subpictus, An. varuna, An. culicifacies, An. stephensi and An. vagus had unimodal biting rhythms. Most feeding occurred during the early night with occasional increase during ...
Koketsu Y - - 1996
Daily feed intake during lactation was recorded for 20,296 lactating sows on 30 commercial farms in the United States. Each lactation feed record was categorized into one of six patterns: RAPID, rapid increase in feed intake; MAJOR, major drop; MINOR, minor drop; LLL, low feed intake throughout lactation; LHH, low ...
Hau M - - 1996
House sparrows (Passer domesticus) can synchronize their circadian rhythms of locomotion and feeding with times of periodic food availability. In contrast to most mammals, which synchronize only a specific part of their circadian system with feeding cycles and thus express two distinct activity components, house sparrows synchronize their circadian activity ...
Lax P - - 1996
We describe and test a programmable feeding system based on a contact eatometer, previously developed in our laboratory, consisting of a swinging grid beneath a hopper that is moved by the rat each time it wants to eat. This has not been connected to a solenoid that can block the ...
Blackwell A - - 1996
Handling methods were found to be lengthen the time after capture that Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer could be blood fed successfully in the laboratory using an artificial membrane technique. By maintaining high levels of humidity in holding cages kept in a cool, dark environment, > 30% feeding success was achieved 72 ...
Rashotte M E - - 1996
Two experiments were conducted with a restricted feeding schedule to determine whether pigeons have a separate food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) and to assess the coupling strength between the FEO and the light-entrainable oscillator (LEO). In the baseline condition, the body temperature (Tb) and O2 consumption of two pigeons increased prior to ...
Fortier, L.
We monitored the feeding success (percent feeding incidence at length and mean feeding ratio at length) of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) and sand lance (Ammodytes sp. larvae in relation to prey density, light, temperature and potential predator density under the ice cover of southeastern Hudson Bay in the spring of ...
Abd Rabbo S - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To compare early oral hydration versus the conventional intravenous fluid replacement after elective cesarean section. METHODS: Two hundred women performed elective cesarean section were selected and randomized to: Regimen I (n = 100): early oral hydration (sips of fruit juices sweetened with honey once the women felt thirst immediately ...
Ritter S - - 1995
Systemic administration of mercaptoacetate (MA) blocks beta oxidation of fatty acids and stimulates food intake. The present experiment examined MA-induced feeding in rats with bilateral lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) and sham-operated controls. Food intake was measured for 6 h immediately following i.p. injection of 400, ...
Sánchez-Vázquez F J - - 1995
Sea bass, a fish species characterized by its dualistic feeding pattern, was investigated to study the synchronizing effect of light and food on the demand-feeding rhythm. Nocturnal and diurnal sea bass, both in groups and individually, were exposed to restricted-feeding (RF) and light-dark (LD) cycles of different periods. The phase ...
Emond M H - - 1995
This study characterized the distribution of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in three hindbrain nuclei: dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMN), nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and hypoglossal nucleus (HG) in response to eating or activation of specific components of feeding behavior. The degree of FLI was quantified by automated ...
Imong S M - - 1995
The bacterial contamination of infant weaning foods was examined in the context of a longitudinal study of lactation and infant growth, the Chiang Mai Lactation Study. Sixty-two mother-infant pairs were selected by random sampling from a rural area outside the city of Chiang Mai and studied for 48 hours in ...
Mistlberger R E - - 1995
Rats anticipate a daily meal, provided that meal onset intervals are within a circadian (22-31 hr) range. Food-anticipatory activity (FAA) has been interpreted as evidence for a food-entrained circadian pacemaker or for a computational process that uses stored representations of pacemaker phase. The models make different predictions concerning the symmetry ...
Andreasen J R JR - - 1995
A sudden outbreak of mortality in one house of 600 48-week-old male breeder turkeys on a five-house turkey breeder farm was suspected to be feed-related. The turkeys gasped and became recumbent; 21.7% of affected turkeys died. No significant gross lesions were found at necropsy. Histological lesions, limited to skeletal muscle, ...
Badiani A - - 1995
A system has been designed to study the intake of liquids and solid foods in rats that allows for the analysis of feeding and drinking episodes over time. In addition, it monitors locomotor activity and diuresis. This system is particularly useful for the study of the differential effects of drugs ...
Rashotte M E - - 1995
Pigeons lived in individual chambers where instantaneous metabolic rate (MR; indirect calorimetry), body temperature (Tb), and substrate utilization (RQ) were measured 24 times each hour throughout the 12h:12h light:dark cycle. The amount of food consumed influenced the amplitude of the MR and Tb cycles, primarily by affecting the dark-phase segment ...
Saowakontha S - - 1995
Breast feeding and supplementary food patterns were studied in 3 villages, of Udon Thani Province in Northeast Thailand. All children of 58 mothers were breast fed. Moreover, 42 mothers (72.4%), advised by health workers, fed their children with colostrum. Those who did not give colostrum believed that colostrum may cause ...
Bennett A J - - 1995
Twenty-one ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) were videotaped during feeding. They had previously been classified as left-, right- or ambipreferent on the basis of the hand used to reach for food. The feeding sequences provided duration-based measures of manipulation, hand and mouth lateralization, and posture during feeding sequences with 2 types ...
Himms-Hagen J - - 1995
The hypothesis proposed in this review provides a novel view of both the control of feeding and the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. It takes into account the episodic nature of feeding in rats allowed free access to food and the necessity for episodic events in the controlling ...
Mohr E G - - 1995
To determine the influence of various feeding schedules (different times of feeding, times without feeding) on the time course of heart rate (HR), electric activity of cervical muscles (EMG), motor activity (ACT) and body temperature (TB) in ruminants, 5 sheep were equipped with portable dataloggers able to register and store ...
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