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Mattes Richard R Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, - - 2014
The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding ...
Bosch Guido G Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University,PO Box 338,6700 AHWageningen,The - - 2014
Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13 000 and 17 000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pigs and rats. ...
Arnold Kathryn E KE http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6485-6065 Environment Department, University of York, York, UK - - 2014
Global pharmaceutical consumption is rising with the growing and ageing human population and more intensive food production. Recent studies have revealed pharmaceutical residues in a wide range of ecosystems and organisms. Environmental concentrations are often low, but pharmaceuticals typically are designed to have biological effects at low doses, acting on ...
Tsutaya Takumi T Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8562, - - 2014
Biogeochemical methods using stable isotopes and trace elements have been increasingly developed and applied to reconstruct modern and ancient breastfeeding and weaning practices of mammals, including humans, because they offer direct proxies for the dietary intake of subadults. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopes have been used to evaluate breast milk ...
Fardet Anthony A INRA, UMR 1019, UNH, CRNH Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand & Clermont Université, Université d'Auvergne, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. - - 2014
This review aims at emphasizing the role played by physical characteristics and physico-chemical properties of the food matrix on the digestive and metabolic fate, and health effects of grain products. It is today obvious that the food matrix conditions the health effects of food products and that we are able ...
O'Charoen Siwaporn S Dept. of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa Univ, 2393 Ikenobe, Miki, Kagawa, 761-0795, - - 2014
Excessive intake of sugar-rich foods leads to metabolic syndrome. d-Psicose (Psi) not commonly found in nature, is noncalorie sweetener with a suppressive effect on the blood glucose level. Thus, Psi has the potential to be utilized as a sucrose (Suc) replacer in sugar-rich foods, including meringue-based confectionery (MBC). In this ...
Wright Alison G AG Horizon Science Pty. Ltd, 6/84-90 Lakewood Blvd., Braeside, Melbourne, VIC 3195, Australia, - - 2014
An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20 %, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction ...
Reddy Narendra L NL Division of Translational and Systems Medicine, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK; Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry, CV2 2DX, - - 2014
Meal duration may influence cardiometabolic health. The aim of this study was to explore postprandial effects of meal duration on human metabolism and appetite. Postprandial comparisons following a standard meal eaten slowly over 40-minutes ('D40') and the same meal eaten quickly over 10-minutes ('D10') on a different day. Each participant ...
Hanlon Ec E University of Chicago, Sleep, Health and Metabolism Center (SMAHC), Department of Medicine, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL - - 2014
Context: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the regulation of food intake and of peripheral metabolism. While the cross-talk between energy metabolism and the circadian system is well documented, little is known about a potential circadian modulation of human eCB activity. Objective: To define the 24-hour profile of circulating ...
Palmer Debra J DJ School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia (M561), Roberts Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008, Australia; Members of 'In-FLAME' the International Inflammation Network, World Universities Network (WUN). Electronic address: - - 2014
Observational studies show consistent links between early-life nutritional exposures as important risk factors for the development of asthma, allergy, and obesity. Reliance on increasing use of dietary supplementation and fortification (eg, with folate) to compensate for increased consumption of processed foods is also influencing immune and metabolic outcomes. Epigenetics is ...
Brinkmann Lea L University of Göttingen, - - 2014
Recent results suggest that wild Northern herbivores reduce their metabolism during times of low ambient temperatures and food shortage in order to reduce their energetic needs. It is however not known if domesticated animals are also able to reduce their energy expenditure. We exposed ten Shetland pony mares to different ...
Goonawardena Anushka V AV aDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA bSchool of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK cDepartment of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, - - 2014
The brain endocannabinoid system is a potential target for the treatment of psychiatric and metabolic conditions. Here, a novel CB1 receptor antagonist (ABD459) was synthesized and assayed for pharmacological efficacy in vitro and for modulation of food consumption, vigilance staging and cortical electroencephalography in the mouse. ABD459 completely displaced the ...
de Vries Emmely Marije EM E de Vries, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands - - 2014
A variety of illnesses leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased T3 and T4 and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness ...
Gao Mingxia M Reproductive Medicine Hospital of the First Affiliated Hospital, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, P. R. China. - - 2014
It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk associated with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs provides the basis for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been clarified whether the harmful effects is directly resulted from products of genetic ...
Sabbioni Enrico E CeSI, Aging Research Center, "G. d'Annunzio" University Foundation, Via Colle dell'Ara, 66100, Chieti, - - 2014
(75)Se-selenite transfer was investigated in a phytoplankton-mussel-rat food chain model consisting of Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing, Unio mancus Lamark and Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. (75)Se-metabolized forms were investigated in order to identify potential critical steps in the food chain, as well as its relative bioavailability looking also at intracellular, cellular and ...
Morabito Giuseppa - - 2014
The consumption of unbalanced meals, consisting of foods rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates and calories, has been associated to a postprandial metabolic stress that involves the increase of the production of free radicals and pro-inflammatory markers. Growing evidence suggest that dietary polyphenols contained in fruit-derived products, such as fruit juices, ...
Kimokoti Ruth W RW Department of Nutrition, School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Boston, MA; - - 2014
Metabolically healthy obesity may confer lower risk of adverse health outcomes compared with abnormal obesity. Diet and race are postulated to influence the phenotype, but their roles and their interrelations on healthy obesity are unclear. We evaluated food intakes of metabolically healthy obese women in comparison to intakes of their ...
Moraes Danilo Alves DA Departamento de Psicobiologia - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, - - 2014
Studies have shown a gradual reduction of sleep time in the general population, accompanied by increased food intake, representing a risk for developing obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) exhibit feeding and metabolic alterations, both of which are regulated by the communication ...
Barbaresko Janett J Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences,Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn,Endenicher Allee - - 2014
Diet is related to many chronic disease conditions such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We set out to compare behaviour-related with disease-related patterns and their association with the MetS in a German cross-sectional study. A total of 905 participants of a Northern German cohort (aged 25-82 years) completed a FFQ, ...
Kappen K L - - 2014
With the continued rise in feline obesity, novel weight management strategies are needed. To date, strategies aimed at altering physical activity, an important factor in weight maintenance, have been lacking. Photoperiod is known to cause physiological changes in seasonal mammals, including changes in body weight (BW) and reproductive status. Thus, ...
Dalton Christopher M CM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Corson Hall, 215 Tower Road, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA, - - 2014
Consumer-driven nutrient recycling, the release of chemicals as byproducts and excesses of consumer physiology, can alter ecosystems by changing the availability of limiting nutrients at the base of the food web. The mere presence of predators can alter consumer physiology by restricting food intake and inducing stress. Predation risk, then, ...
Davis Kathleen E KE a Texas Woman's University , Nutrition and Food Sciences , PO Box 425888 , Denton , TX , - - 2014
Abstract Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a diverse group of compounds produced when reducing sugars react with proteins or other compounds to form glycosylated molecules. AGEs may form endogenously, and glycation of molecules may negatively affect their function. AGEs may also be consumed in food form with dietary AGEs ...
Garlock T M TM Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Program, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, P. O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611, - - 2014
This study examined the growth, activity, metabolism and post-release survival of three groups of Florida largemouth bass Micropterus floridanus: wild-caught fish, hatchery fish reared according to standard practice (hatchery standard) and hatchery fish reared under reduced and unpredictable food provisioning (hatchery manipulated). Hatchery-standard fish differed from wild-caught fish in all ...
Ibrahim B A BA Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, - - 2014
Short-term abstinence from food intake, planned or unplanned, is unavoidable in modern life, but negatively correlated with appetite control and obesity. This study investigated the role of estradiol in feeding and body weight (BW) reactions to short-span cessation of feeding. During acute 1-6-h re-feeding, 12-h food-deprived (FD), estradiol benzoate (EB)-implanted ...
Pedersen Sindre Andre - - 2014
The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key component of northern Atlantic food webs, linking energy-transfer from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. We examined the effect of different ocean acidification (OA) scenarios (i.e. ambient, 1080, 2080 and 3080 μatm CO2) over two subsequent generations under limited food availability. Determination of metabolic- ...
McKenzie David J DJ UMR5119, Ecologie des systèmes marins côtiers (ECOSYM), Place Eugène Bataillon, Université Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France - - 2014
Although food deprivation is a major ecological pressure in fishes, there is wide individual variation in tolerance of fasting, whose mechanistic bases are poorly understood. Two thousand individually tagged juvenile European sea bass were submitted to two 'fasting/feeding' cycles each comprising 3 weeks of food deprivation followed by 3 weeks ...
Venarsky Michael P MP Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Box 870206, Tuscaloosa, AL, 35487, USA, - - 2014
Energy limitation has long been the primary assumption underlying conceptual models of evolutionary and ecological processes in cave ecosystems. However, the prediction that cave communities are actually energy-limited in the sense that constituent populations are consuming all or most of their resource supply is untested. We assessed the energy-limitation hypothesis ...
Girardet Clemence C The Department of Metabolism and Aging, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL - - 2014
The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or ghrelin receptor genes (GhsrKO) exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. ...
Rozman Jan J German Mouse Clinic, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany, - - 2014
Metabolic phenotyping of genetically modified animals aims to detect new candidate genes and related metabolic pathways that result in dysfunctional energy balance regulation and predispose for diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the technologies available to monitor energy ...
Perkhulyn Natalia V NV Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Precarpathian National University named after Vassyl Stefanyk, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76025, - - 2014
The effects of food supplementation with sodium chromate at concentrations of 1-500μM on development of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and food intake, carbohydrate and lipid pools in adult fruit flies were investigated. Food supplementation with hexavalent chromium (Na2CrO4) at high concentrations delayed larval development and decreased the percentage of larvae that ...
Całkosiński Ireneusz I Department of Nervous System Diseases, Medical University, Wrocław, - - 2014
Introduction and objective. Despite the restrictive legal regulations related to the reduction of dioxins emission, their concentration in the environment is still too high. Mainly, this is related to the illegal utilisation of electronic equipment and combustion of wastes, and also to intensified activity and maintenance of ships, especially in ...
Dauncey M J MJ Wolfson College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
Nutrition affects the brain throughout life, with profound implications for cognitive decline and dementia. These effects are mediated by changes in expression of multiple genes, and responses to nutrition are in turn affected by individual genetic variability. An important layer of regulation is provided by the epigenome: nutrition is one ...
Goyal Raksha R Department of Dietetics, Synergy Hospitals, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, - - 2014
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase at a rapid rate in various populations and across all age-group. The effect of meal skipping, both behaviorally and physiologically, may have an impact on the outcome of weight-loss efforts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ...
Chung Jin-Yong JY Heavy Metal Exposure Environmental Health Center, Dong-A University, Busan, - - 2014
Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested ...
Li Lei L Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, - - 2014
To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile ...
Sedibe Heather M - - 2014
Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. ...
Reidelberger Roger R Department of Veterans Affairs - Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System - - 2014
Cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced suppression of feeding is mediated by vagal sensory neurons that are destroyed by the neurotoxin capsaicin (CAP). Here we determined whether CAP-sensitive neurons mediate anorexic responses to IV infusions of gut hormones peptide YY (3-36) [PYY (3-36)] and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Rats received 3 IP injections of CAP ...
Long Lihong - - 2014
Activation of central PPARγ promotes food intake and body weight gain; however, the identity of the neurons that express PPARγ and mediate the effect of this nuclear receptor on energy homeostasis is unknown. Here, we determined that selective ablation of PPARγ in murine proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons decreases peroxisome density, elevates ...
van Bloemendaal Liselotte L Diabetes Center / Department of Internal Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands - - 2014
Gut-derived hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been proposed to relay information to the brain to regulate appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonists, currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), improve glycemic control and stimulate satiety leading to decreases in food intake and bodyweight. We hypothesized that food ...
Joordens Josephine C A JC Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
From c. 2 Ma (millions of years ago) onwards, hominin brain size and cognition increased in an unprecedented fashion. The exploitation of high-quality food resources, notably from aquatic ecosystems, may have been a facilitator or driver of this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to contribute to the ongoing debate ...
Hsu Ted M TM Neuroscience Program, University of Southern - - 2014
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the small intestines and in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons. Activation of central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces feeding and body weight. The neural circuits mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here we investigate the inhibition of food intake and motivated responding for food ...
McCoull William - - 2014
Ghrelin plays a major physiological role in the control of food intake and inverse agonists of the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) are widely considered to offer utility as anti-obesity agents by lowering the set-point for hunger between meals. We identified an acylurea series of ghrelin modulators from high throughput screening and ...
Lips Mirjam A MA From the Departments of Endocrinology & Metabolism (MAL, MAW, and HP) and Radiology (JvdG, MAvB, and SARBR), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; the Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (MAvB, SARBR, and IMV) and the Institute of Psychology (SARBR), Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands; the Department of Gastroenterology, Rode Kruis Ziekenhuis, Beverwijk, Netherlands (GHdG); and the Division of Mind and Brain Research, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany - - 2014
The brain is crucial for the control of food intake, reward, and energy homeostasis.OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that 1) brain circuits involved in energy homeostasis and reward show different functional connectivity patterns between obese and lean individuals and 2) food intake affects functional connectivity differentially in obese and lean. Therefore, we ...
Caba Mario M Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Veracruzana , Xalapa, Veracruz , México - - 2014
The olfactory bulb (OB) has a circadian clock independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but very little is known about the functional significance of its oscillations. The OB plays a major role in food intake as it contributes to the evaluation of the hedonic properties of food, it is necessary for ...
Karasawa Hiroshi H Department of Medicine, CURE/Digestive Diseases Center, Digestive Diseases Division, University of California at Los Angeles, and Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of the stable somatostatin pan-agonist, ODT8-SST induces a somatostatin 2 receptor (sst2) mediated robust feeding response that involves neuropeptide Y and opioid systems in rats. We investigated whether the orexigenic system driven by orexin also plays a role. Food and water intake after icv injection was measured ...
Ducatez S S McGill University, Department of Biology, 1205, avenue Docteur Penfield, H3A 1B1, Montréal, Quebec, - - 2014
1.Generalist species are more successful than specialists in anthropogenically-modified environments or in environments in which they have been introduced, but the nature of the link between generalism and establishment success is unclear. 2.A higher feeding innovation rate has previously been reported in habitat generalist birds from North America. By allowing ...
Herczeg G G Behavioural Ecology Group, Department of Systematic Zoology and Ecology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, - - 2014
Theory predicts that the sex making greater investments into reproductive behaviours demands higher cognitive ability, and as a consequence, larger brains or brain parts. Further, the resulting sexual dimorphism can differ between populations adapted to different environments, or among individuals developing under different environmental conditions. In the nine-spine stickleback (Pungitius ...
Cabral Agustina A Laboratory of Neurophysiology of the Multidisciplinary Institute of Cell Biology [Argentine Research Council (CONICET), Scientific Research Commission, Province of Buenos Aires (CIC-PBA)], La Plata, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that potently and rapidly increases food intake. The orexigenic action of ghrelin involves the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), which is accessible to plasma ghrelin and expresses high levels of the ghrelin receptor. Local administration of ghrelin in a variety of other brain nuclei also ...
Castro D C DC Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The neural basis of food sensory pleasure has become an increasingly studied topic in neuroscience and psychology. Progress has been aided by the discovery of localized brain subregions called hedonic hotspots in the early 2000's, which are able to causally amplify positive affective reactions to palatable tastes ('liking') in response ...
Billes Sonja K SK August Scientific, Encinitas, CA, - - 2014
The mechanism of action of the combination therapy, naltrexone/bupropion (NB), for obesity has not been fully described to date. Weight loss attempts rarely result in long-term success. This is likely a result of complex interactions among multiple peripheral and CNS systems that defend against weight loss, and may explain the ...
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