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Koch M M 1] Program in Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism, Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA [2] Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, - - 2014
The brain receives and integrates environmental and metabolic information, transforms these signals into adequate neuronal circuit activities, and generates physiological behaviors to promote energy homeostasis. The responsible neuronal circuitries show lifetime plasticity and guaranty metabolic health and survival. However, this highly evolved organization has become challenged nowadays by chronic overload ...
Cansell C C Unité de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR 8251, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, - - 2014
Circulating triglycerides (TGs) normally increase after a meal but are altered in pathophysiological conditions, such as obesity. Although TG metabolism in the brain remains poorly understood, several brain structures express enzymes that process TG-enriched particles, including mesolimbic structures. For this reason, and because consumption of high-fat diet alters dopamine signaling, ...
Sun Xue X Yale Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale Medical School, New Haven, CT, U.S.; John B. Pierce Laboratory, 290 Congress Avenue, New Haven, CT, U.S.. Electronic address: - - 2014
Eating behavior is guided by a complex interaction between signals conveying information about energy stores, food availability, and palatability. How peripheral signals regulate brain circuits that guide feeding during sensation and consumption of a palatable food is poorly understood. We used fMRI to measure brain response to a palatable food ...
Nishimura Yuri Y Department of Environmental Health, Nara Women's University, Kitauoya Nishimachi, Nara, 630-8506, - - 2014
In order to elucidate the involvement of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A (ORX-A) neurons of the perifornical/lateral hypothalamic areas (PF/LH) in the regulation of food intake induced by acutely reduced glucose availability, we examined the food intake response and c-Fos expression in the MCH and ORX-A neurons in the PF/LH ...
Alhadeff Amber L AL Department of - - 2014
Central glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1 R) activation reduces food intake and the motivation to work for food, but the neurons and circuits mediating these effects are not fully understood. While lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) neurons are implicated in the control of food intake and reward, the specific role of GLP-1 R expressing ...
Wernecke Kerstin K Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Luebeck, - - 2014
Objective: Energy homeostasis results from a balance of food intake and energy expenditure, accomplished by the interaction of peripheral and central nervous signals. The recently discovered adipokine nesfatin-1 is involved in the central control of food intake, but whether it also participates in the regulation of thermogenesis is unknown. Design ...
Olofsson Birgitta B MRC-Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, - - 2014
Changes in metabolic state alter foraging behavior and food preference in animals. Here I show that normally attractive food becomes repulsive to C. elegans if animals are chronically under-nourished due to alimentary tract defects. This behavior plasticity is achieved in two ways: increased food leaving and induction of aversive behaviour ...
Grillo Claudia A CA Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, - - 2014
Obesity-induced changes in the metabolic and endocrine milieu elicit deficits in neuroplasticity, including increased risk for development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depressive illness. We previously demonstrated that downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptors (hypo-IRAS) elicits a phenotype that is consistent with features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and that rats ...
Pandit Rahul R Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Translational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584, CG, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food-intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, we aimed to identify the brain regions through which NPY increases food-intake and motivation. Design and Methods: NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food-intake and motivation: the lateral hypothalamus (LH), ...
Bjordal Marianne M University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France; CNRS, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France; INSERM, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, - - 2014
The brain is the central organizer of food intake, matching the quality and quantity of the food sources with organismal needs. To ensure appropriate amino acid balance, many species reject a diet lacking one or several essential amino acids (EAAs) and seek out a better food source. Here, we show that, ...
Jerlhag Elisabet E Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, - - 2014
Development of alcohol dependence, a chronic and relapsing disease, largely depends on the effects of alcohol on the brain reward systems. By elucidating the mechanisms involved in alcohol use disorder, novel treatment strategies may be developed. Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, acts as an ...
Schoffen João Paulo Ferreira JP Center of Biological Sciences, State University of the North of Paraná (UENP), Bandeirantes Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Food restriction may slow the aging process by increasing the levels of antioxidant defenses and reducing cell death. We evaluated the effects of food restriction on oxidative and nutritional status, myenteric cell populations, and the colonic muscle layer in aging rats. Wistar rats were distributed into control groups (7, 12, ...
Soria-Gómez Edgar E INSERM U862 NeuroCentre Magendie, Bordeaux, France; Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-dependent signaling in the brain is known to modulate food intake. Recent evidence has actually shown that CB1 can both inhibit and stimulate food intake in fasting/refeeding conditions, depending on the specific neuronal circuits involved. However, the exact brain sites where this bimodal control is exerted ...
Amigo Ignacio I Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, - - 2014
The brain has a central role in the regulation of energy stability of the organism. It is the organ with the highest energetic demands, the most susceptible to energy deficits, and is responsible for coordinating behavioral and physiological responses related to food foraging and intake. Dietary interventions have been shown ...
Dazzi Laura L Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Section of Neuroscience and Anthropology, Centre of Excellence for the Neurobiology of Dependence, University of Cagliari, Monserrato, Cagliari, - - 2014
Increase in dopamine output on corticolimbic structures, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens, has been related to reward effects associated with palatable food or food presentation after a fasting period. The endocannabinoid system regulates feeding behavior through a modulatory action on different neurotransmitter systems, including the dopaminergic ...
Rios M M Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA, - - 2014
Complex interactions between the brain and peripheral tissues mediate the effective control of energy balance and body weight. Hypothalamic and hindbrain neural circuits integrate peripheral signals informing the nutritional status of the animal and in response regulate nutrient intake and energy utilization. Obesity and its many medical complications emerge from ...
Price Samantha L SL Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, - - 2014
The hormone PYY is released from the distal gut in response to nutrient ingestion. Numerous studies have shown that PYY3-36, the most abundant circulating isoform of PYY, reduces food intake when given to obese rodents and humans. Its infusion to mimic postprandial levels in fasting subjects inhibits appetite, suggesting a ...
Mithieux Gilles G National Institute of Health and Medical Research, U855, and University of Lyon, Lyon, and University Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, - - 2014
The modulation of hunger sensations by the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) present in the brain is an established fact. That MORs expressed in the periphery could have a similar role was outstanding. Using portal infusions of agonists and/or antagonists of MOR in conscious rodents, we have shown that MORs present in ...
Paolini Brielle M BM Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine Winston-Salem, NC, - - 2014
There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to "hot states" which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function ...
French Alice S AS Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, - - 2013
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is involved in the regulation of feeding and digestion in many animals from worms to mammals. In insects, 5-HT functions both as a neurotransmitter and as a systemic hormone. Here we tested its role as a neurotransmitter in feeding and crop contractions and its role as a ...
Byerly Mardi S MS Johns Hopkins University, United - - 2013
CTRP4 is a unique member of the C1q family, possessing two tandem globular C1q domains; its physiological function is poorly defined. Here, we show that CTRP4 is an evolutionarily conserved ~34 kDa secretory protein expressed in the brain. In human, mouse, and zebrafish brain, CTRP4 expression begins early in development ...
Roccisano D D Biological Anthropology and Comparative Anatomy Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2013
Alzheimer's data indicate that at present, approximately one new case of this form of dementia is identified in the USA every 68s and that by 2050 the incidence will be about every 33s, with projections from the Alzheimer Association (USA) indicating that nearly 25% of Americans will be affected by ...
Szőke B - - 2013
The effect of 40% partial food deprivation was studied on the immunohistochemically detectable amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) - the specific marker of astroglia - in the dorsal subnucleus of lateral septum (LS) of male, intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Animals were either fed ad libitum (control) ...
Penney Carla C - - 2013
The effects of intraperitoneal injections of cholecystokinin(CCK), apelin, ghrelin and orexin on food intake were examined in the blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus. CCK (50 ng/g) induced a decrease in food intake whereas apelin (100 ng/g), orexin (100 ng/g) and ghrelin (100 ng/g) induced an increase in food intake as ...
Baik Ja-Hyun - - 2013
Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic DAergic pathway. Changes in DA signaling in mesolimbic neurotransmission are widely believed to modify reward-related behaviors, thus closely associated with drug addiction. Recent evidences are now suggesting that not only drug addiction but also obesity with compulsive eating behaviors involves ...
Sousa-Ferreira Lígia - - 2013
The recently described generation of new neurons in the adult hypothalamus, the center for energy regulation, suggests that hypothalamic neurogenesis is a crucial part of the mechanisms that regulate food intake. Accordingly, neurogenesis in both the adult and embryonic hypothalamus is affected by nutritional cues and metabolic disorders such as ...
Hulsken Sjoerd - - 2013
The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on the availability of the food-derived precursor tryptophan, ...
Beshel Jennifer J Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York - - 2013
Odors are highly evocative, yet how and where in the brain odors derive meaning remains unknown. Our analysis of the Drosophila brain extends the role of a small number of hunger-sensing neurons to include food-odor value representation. In vivo two-photon calcium imaging shows the amplitude of food odor-evoked activity in ...
Bruce Amanda S - - 2013
Few studies have examined brain changes in response to effective weight loss; none have compared different methods of weight-loss intervention. We compared functional brain changes associated with a behavioral weight loss intervention to those associated with bariatric surgery. 15 obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery and ...
Killgore William D S - - 2013
Physical exercise has many health benefits, including improved cardiovascular fitness, lean muscle development, increased metabolism, and weight loss, as well as positive effects on brain functioning and cognition. Recent evidence suggests that regular physical exercise may also affect the responsiveness of reward regions of the brain to food stimuli. We ...
Wahls Terry - - 2013
To evaluate dietary adequacy of patients presenting for evaluation at an outpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinic. We identified 14 key micronutrients with defined dietary intake reference ranges that are considered important for brain health. Adult patients completed the Brief NutritionQuest Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to calculate estimated nutrient intake. ...
Wagner Dylan D - - 2013
To be successful at self-regulation, individuals must be able to resist impulses and desires. The strength model of self-regulation suggests that when self-regulatory capacity is depleted, self-control deficits result from a failure to engage top-down control mechanisms. Using functional neuroimaging, we examined changes in brain activity in response to viewing ...
Zhang Ting T Department of Cellular Biology and Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute, University of Georgia, Athens, GA - - 2013
The easy accessibility of energy-rich palatable food makes it difficult to resist food temptation. Drosophila larvae are surrounded by sugar-rich food most of their lives, raising the question of how these animals modulate food-seeking behaviors in tune with physiological needs. Here we describe a circuit mechanism defined by neurons expressing ...
Kim Kwang Kon KK Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Natural Sciences, Ulsan, - - 2013
Reduced appetite and body weight loss are typical symptoms of inflammatory diseases. A number of inflammatory stimuli are responsible for the imbalance in energy homeostasis, leading to metabolic disorders. The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) protein plays an important role in the development of various inflammatory diseases, such as intestinal ...
Tarasuk Valerie - - 2013
Analyses of cross-sectional population survey data in Canada and the United States have indicated that household food insecurity is associated with poorer self-rated health and multiple chronic conditions. The causal inference has been that household food insecurity contributes to poorer health, but there has been little consideration of how adults' ...
Lundgren Jennifer D JD University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Psychology, 5030 Cherry Street, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
Evening hyperphagia (EH; consumption of ≥25% of total daily calories after the evening meal) is a circadian delay in the pattern of daily food intake and is a core criterion of night eating syndrome (Allison et al., 2010). This preliminary study examined the brain response to food cues using functional ...
Wang G-J - - 2013
Objective:The significant weight loss observed with combination naltrexone sustained-release (SR) 32 mg and bupropion SR 360 mg (NB32) therapy is thought to be due, in part, to bupropion stimulation of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, and naltrexone blockade of opioid receptor-mediated POMC auto-inhibition, but the neurobiological mechanisms are not fully understood. We assessed ...
Nakhate Kartik T - - 2013
Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor active neurosteroid, elicits hyperphagic response in rodents. Since GABA-A receptors are present on the peptidergic neurons in the hypothalamus, we were interested in finding out if ALLO and neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) interact and influence feeding behavior. While subcutaneous ...
Bubak Andrew N - - 2013
Understanding the physiological mechanisms that influence conflict resolution is of great importance because the outcome of contests over limited resources such as mates, territories, and food has significant fitness consequences. Male stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni) compete over territory and mates and provide an excellent model system to study aggression. To ...
Pandit R - - 2013
The Neuropeptide Y and the melanocortin peptides are two well-described hypothalamic feeding peptides regulating energy balance. Predominantly expressed within the arcuate nucleus, these neurons project to different brain areas and modulate various aspects of feeding. Hedonic feeding, where one overindulges in palatable food consumption beyond one's nutritional necessities, is one ...
Sánchez-Lara Karla - - 2013
The aim of this study was to examine the brain activity manifested while non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with and without anorexia were exposed to visual food stimuli. We included 26 treatment-naïve patients who had been recently diagnosed with advanced NSCLC. Patients with brain metastasis were excluded. The patients ...
Shi Yan-Chuan - - 2013
Objective: PYY3-36 and PP potently inhibit food intake in rodents and humans, however, it is unclear whether they have any synergistic/additive interaction in decreasing food intake. Design and Methods: Fasted WT, Y2(-/-) , Y4(-/-) or Y2Y4(-/-) mice were i.p. administrated with saline, PYY3-36 and/or PP. Results: We demonstrate that combined ...
Iemolo Attilio - - 2013
Highly palatable foods and dieting are major contributing factors for the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. We previously demonstrated that intermittent access to palatable food results in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist-reversible behaviors, which include excessive palatable food intake, hypophagia of regular chow and anxiety-like behavior. ...
Mancebo María J - - 2013
Mammalian studies have shown a link between serotonin (5-HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the acute regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Taking into account that the actions of 5-HT and NPY on food intake in fish are similar to those observed in mammals, the objective of this study was ...
Leal Esther - - 2013
Dopamine is synthesized from L-dopa and subsequently processed into norepinephrine and epinephrine. Any excess neurotransmitter can be taken up again by the neurons to be broken down enzymatically into DOPAC. The effect of dopamine on mammalian food intake is controversial. Mice unable to synthesize central dopamine die of starvation. However, ...
Gu Yian - - 2013
Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability and mortality. Mounting evidence from observational studies suggests that among lifestyle factors, diet may be playing an important role for the prevention of stroke. Neuroimaging markers, particularly white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and brain infarcts (BI) are more sensitive measurements ...
Cardoso Armando - - 2013
Several studies have demonstrated the vulnerability of the hippocampal formation to malnutrition. In this study, we compared the effects of food restriction and protein malnutrition in the total number of neurons of the dentate gyrus and in the number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons, which are related to the control of ...
Kenny Paul J - - 2013
Drug addiction and obesity share the core feature that those afflicted by the disorders express a desire to limit drug or food consumption yet persist despite negative consequences. Emerging evidence suggests that the compulsivity that defines these disorders may arise, to some degree at least, from common underlying neurobiological mechanisms. ...
da Silva Amanda Alves Marcelino AA Postgraduate Nutrition, Universidade Federal Pernambuco-UFPE, Recife, PE, Brazil. - - 2013
Experiments in animals have revealed that perinatal nutritional restriction, which manifests in adulthood, increases food intake and preference for palatable foods. Considering this, we aimed to evaluate the effects of perinatal malnutrition on hedonic control of feeding behavior. In this study, we divided Wistar rats into two groups according to ...
Murakami Kentaro - - 2013
Inconsistent associations between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) and body fatness may be partly due to differences in the underlying dietary patterns or energy under-reporting. In the present study, we examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and general and ...
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