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Palmer Debra J DJ School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia (M561), Roberts Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008, Australia; Members of 'In-FLAME' the International Inflammation Network, World Universities Network (WUN). Electronic address: - - 2014
Observational studies show consistent links between early-life nutritional exposures as important risk factors for the development of asthma, allergy, and obesity. Reliance on increasing use of dietary supplementation and fortification (eg, with folate) to compensate for increased consumption of processed foods is also influencing immune and metabolic outcomes. Epigenetics is ...
Moraes Danilo Alves DA Departamento de Psicobiologia - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, - - 2014
Studies have shown a gradual reduction of sleep time in the general population, accompanied by increased food intake, representing a risk for developing obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) exhibit feeding and metabolic alterations, both of which are regulated by the communication ...
Barbaresko Janett J Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences,Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn,Endenicher Allee - - 2014
Diet is related to many chronic disease conditions such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We set out to compare behaviour-related with disease-related patterns and their association with the MetS in a German cross-sectional study. A total of 905 participants of a Northern German cohort (aged 25-82 years) completed a FFQ, ...
Dalton Christopher M CM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Corson Hall, 215 Tower Road, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA, - - 2014
Consumer-driven nutrient recycling, the release of chemicals as byproducts and excesses of consumer physiology, can alter ecosystems by changing the availability of limiting nutrients at the base of the food web. The mere presence of predators can alter consumer physiology by restricting food intake and inducing stress. Predation risk, then, ...
Davis Kathleen E KE a Texas Woman's University , Nutrition and Food Sciences , PO Box 425888 , Denton , TX , - - 2014
Abstract Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a diverse group of compounds produced when reducing sugars react with proteins or other compounds to form glycosylated molecules. AGEs may form endogenously, and glycation of molecules may negatively affect their function. AGEs may also be consumed in food form with dietary AGEs ...
Garlock T M TM Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Program, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, P. O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611, - - 2014
This study examined the growth, activity, metabolism and post-release survival of three groups of Florida largemouth bass Micropterus floridanus: wild-caught fish, hatchery fish reared according to standard practice (hatchery standard) and hatchery fish reared under reduced and unpredictable food provisioning (hatchery manipulated). Hatchery-standard fish differed from wild-caught fish in all ...
Ibrahim B A BA Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, - - 2014
Short-term abstinence from food intake, planned or unplanned, is unavoidable in modern life, but negatively correlated with appetite control and obesity. This study investigated the role of estradiol in feeding and body weight (BW) reactions to short-span cessation of feeding. During acute 1-6-h re-feeding, 12-h food-deprived (FD), estradiol benzoate (EB)-implanted ...
Pedersen Sindre Andre - - 2014
The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key component of northern Atlantic food webs, linking energy-transfer from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. We examined the effect of different ocean acidification (OA) scenarios (i.e. ambient, 1080, 2080 and 3080 μatm CO2) over two subsequent generations under limited food availability. Determination of metabolic- ...
McKenzie David J DJ UMR5119, Ecologie des systèmes marins côtiers (ECOSYM), Place Eugène Bataillon, Université Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France - - 2014
Although food deprivation is a major ecological pressure in fishes, there is wide individual variation in tolerance of fasting, whose mechanistic bases are poorly understood. Two thousand individually tagged juvenile European sea bass were submitted to two 'fasting/feeding' cycles each comprising 3 weeks of food deprivation followed by 3 weeks ...
Venarsky Michael P MP Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Box 870206, Tuscaloosa, AL, 35487, USA, - - 2014
Energy limitation has long been the primary assumption underlying conceptual models of evolutionary and ecological processes in cave ecosystems. However, the prediction that cave communities are actually energy-limited in the sense that constituent populations are consuming all or most of their resource supply is untested. We assessed the energy-limitation hypothesis ...
Girardet Clemence C The Department of Metabolism and Aging, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL - - 2014
The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or ghrelin receptor genes (GhsrKO) exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. ...
Rozman Jan J German Mouse Clinic, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany, - - 2014
Metabolic phenotyping of genetically modified animals aims to detect new candidate genes and related metabolic pathways that result in dysfunctional energy balance regulation and predispose for diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the technologies available to monitor energy ...
Perkhulyn Natalia V NV Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Precarpathian National University named after Vassyl Stefanyk, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76025, - - 2014
The effects of food supplementation with sodium chromate at concentrations of 1-500μM on development of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and food intake, carbohydrate and lipid pools in adult fruit flies were investigated. Food supplementation with hexavalent chromium (Na2CrO4) at high concentrations delayed larval development and decreased the percentage of larvae that ...
Całkosiński Ireneusz I Department of Nervous System Diseases, Medical University, Wrocław, - - 2014
Introduction and objective. Despite the restrictive legal regulations related to the reduction of dioxins emission, their concentration in the environment is still too high. Mainly, this is related to the illegal utilisation of electronic equipment and combustion of wastes, and also to intensified activity and maintenance of ships, especially in ...
Dauncey M J MJ Wolfson College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
Nutrition affects the brain throughout life, with profound implications for cognitive decline and dementia. These effects are mediated by changes in expression of multiple genes, and responses to nutrition are in turn affected by individual genetic variability. An important layer of regulation is provided by the epigenome: nutrition is one ...
Goyal Raksha R Department of Dietetics, Synergy Hospitals, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, - - 2014
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase at a rapid rate in various populations and across all age-group. The effect of meal skipping, both behaviorally and physiologically, may have an impact on the outcome of weight-loss efforts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ...
Chung Jin-Yong JY Heavy Metal Exposure Environmental Health Center, Dong-A University, Busan, - - 2014
Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested ...
Li Lei L Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, - - 2014
To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile ...
Sedibe Heather M - - 2014
Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. ...
Reidelberger Roger R Department of Veterans Affairs - Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System - - 2014
Cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced suppression of feeding is mediated by vagal sensory neurons that are destroyed by the neurotoxin capsaicin (CAP). Here we determined whether CAP-sensitive neurons mediate anorexic responses to IV infusions of gut hormones peptide YY (3-36) [PYY (3-36)] and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Rats received 3 IP injections of CAP ...
Long Lihong - - 2014
Activation of central PPARγ promotes food intake and body weight gain; however, the identity of the neurons that express PPARγ and mediate the effect of this nuclear receptor on energy homeostasis is unknown. Here, we determined that selective ablation of PPARγ in murine proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons decreases peroxisome density, elevates ...
van Bloemendaal Liselotte L Diabetes Center / Department of Internal Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands - - 2014
Gut-derived hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been proposed to relay information to the brain to regulate appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonists, currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), improve glycemic control and stimulate satiety leading to decreases in food intake and bodyweight. We hypothesized that food ...
Joordens Josephine C A JC Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
From c. 2 Ma (millions of years ago) onwards, hominin brain size and cognition increased in an unprecedented fashion. The exploitation of high-quality food resources, notably from aquatic ecosystems, may have been a facilitator or driver of this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to contribute to the ongoing debate ...
Hsu Ted M TM Neuroscience Program, University of Southern - - 2014
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the small intestines and in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons. Activation of central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces feeding and body weight. The neural circuits mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here we investigate the inhibition of food intake and motivated responding for food ...
McCoull William - - 2014
Ghrelin plays a major physiological role in the control of food intake and inverse agonists of the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) are widely considered to offer utility as anti-obesity agents by lowering the set-point for hunger between meals. We identified an acylurea series of ghrelin modulators from high throughput screening and ...
Lips Mirjam A MA From the Departments of Endocrinology & Metabolism (MAL, MAW, and HP) and Radiology (JvdG, MAvB, and SARBR), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; the Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (MAvB, SARBR, and IMV) and the Institute of Psychology (SARBR), Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands; the Department of Gastroenterology, Rode Kruis Ziekenhuis, Beverwijk, Netherlands (GHdG); and the Division of Mind and Brain Research, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany - - 2014
The brain is crucial for the control of food intake, reward, and energy homeostasis.OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that 1) brain circuits involved in energy homeostasis and reward show different functional connectivity patterns between obese and lean individuals and 2) food intake affects functional connectivity differentially in obese and lean. Therefore, we ...
Caba Mario M Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Veracruzana , Xalapa, Veracruz , México - - 2014
The olfactory bulb (OB) has a circadian clock independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but very little is known about the functional significance of its oscillations. The OB plays a major role in food intake as it contributes to the evaluation of the hedonic properties of food, it is necessary for ...
Karasawa Hiroshi H Department of Medicine, CURE/Digestive Diseases Center, Digestive Diseases Division, University of California at Los Angeles, and Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of the stable somatostatin pan-agonist, ODT8-SST induces a somatostatin 2 receptor (sst2) mediated robust feeding response that involves neuropeptide Y and opioid systems in rats. We investigated whether the orexigenic system driven by orexin also plays a role. Food and water intake after icv injection was measured ...
Ducatez S S McGill University, Department of Biology, 1205, avenue Docteur Penfield, H3A 1B1, Montréal, Quebec, - - 2014
1.Generalist species are more successful than specialists in anthropogenically-modified environments or in environments in which they have been introduced, but the nature of the link between generalism and establishment success is unclear. 2.A higher feeding innovation rate has previously been reported in habitat generalist birds from North America. By allowing ...
Herczeg G G Behavioural Ecology Group, Department of Systematic Zoology and Ecology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, - - 2014
Theory predicts that the sex making greater investments into reproductive behaviours demands higher cognitive ability, and as a consequence, larger brains or brain parts. Further, the resulting sexual dimorphism can differ between populations adapted to different environments, or among individuals developing under different environmental conditions. In the nine-spine stickleback (Pungitius ...
Cabral Agustina A Laboratory of Neurophysiology of the Multidisciplinary Institute of Cell Biology [Argentine Research Council (CONICET), Scientific Research Commission, Province of Buenos Aires (CIC-PBA)], La Plata, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that potently and rapidly increases food intake. The orexigenic action of ghrelin involves the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), which is accessible to plasma ghrelin and expresses high levels of the ghrelin receptor. Local administration of ghrelin in a variety of other brain nuclei also ...
Castro D C DC Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The neural basis of food sensory pleasure has become an increasingly studied topic in neuroscience and psychology. Progress has been aided by the discovery of localized brain subregions called hedonic hotspots in the early 2000's, which are able to causally amplify positive affective reactions to palatable tastes ('liking') in response ...
Billes Sonja K SK August Scientific, Encinitas, CA, - - 2014
The mechanism of action of the combination therapy, naltrexone/bupropion (NB), for obesity has not been fully described to date. Weight loss attempts rarely result in long-term success. This is likely a result of complex interactions among multiple peripheral and CNS systems that defend against weight loss, and may explain the ...
Koch M M 1] Program in Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism, Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA [2] Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, - - 2014
The brain receives and integrates environmental and metabolic information, transforms these signals into adequate neuronal circuit activities, and generates physiological behaviors to promote energy homeostasis. The responsible neuronal circuitries show lifetime plasticity and guaranty metabolic health and survival. However, this highly evolved organization has become challenged nowadays by chronic overload ...
Cansell C C Unité de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR 8251, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, - - 2014
Circulating triglycerides (TGs) normally increase after a meal but are altered in pathophysiological conditions, such as obesity. Although TG metabolism in the brain remains poorly understood, several brain structures express enzymes that process TG-enriched particles, including mesolimbic structures. For this reason, and because consumption of high-fat diet alters dopamine signaling, ...
Sun Xue X Yale Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale Medical School, New Haven, CT, U.S.; John B. Pierce Laboratory, 290 Congress Avenue, New Haven, CT, U.S.. Electronic address: - - 2014
Eating behavior is guided by a complex interaction between signals conveying information about energy stores, food availability, and palatability. How peripheral signals regulate brain circuits that guide feeding during sensation and consumption of a palatable food is poorly understood. We used fMRI to measure brain response to a palatable food ...
Nishimura Yuri Y Department of Environmental Health, Nara Women's University, Kitauoya Nishimachi, Nara, 630-8506, - - 2014
In order to elucidate the involvement of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A (ORX-A) neurons of the perifornical/lateral hypothalamic areas (PF/LH) in the regulation of food intake induced by acutely reduced glucose availability, we examined the food intake response and c-Fos expression in the MCH and ORX-A neurons in the PF/LH ...
Alhadeff Amber L AL Department of - - 2014
Central glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1 R) activation reduces food intake and the motivation to work for food, but the neurons and circuits mediating these effects are not fully understood. While lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) neurons are implicated in the control of food intake and reward, the specific role of GLP-1 R expressing ...
Wernecke Kerstin K Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Luebeck, - - 2014
Objective: Energy homeostasis results from a balance of food intake and energy expenditure, accomplished by the interaction of peripheral and central nervous signals. The recently discovered adipokine nesfatin-1 is involved in the central control of food intake, but whether it also participates in the regulation of thermogenesis is unknown. Design ...
Fushiki Tohru T a Division of Food Science & Biochemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture , Kyoto University , Kyoto , - - 2014
Potential mechanisms underlying the high palatability of fat can be assessed by reviewing animal studies on fat detection and brain patterns during reward behavior. Fatty acids are likely recognized by receptors on taste buds, with the signals transmitted to the brain through taste nerves. Ingested oil is broken down and ...
Olofsson Birgitta B MRC-Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, - - 2014
Changes in metabolic state alter foraging behavior and food preference in animals. Here I show that normally attractive food becomes repulsive to C. elegans if animals are chronically under-nourished due to alimentary tract defects. This behavior plasticity is achieved in two ways: increased food leaving and induction of aversive behaviour ...
Grillo Claudia A CA Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, - - 2014
Obesity-induced changes in the metabolic and endocrine milieu elicit deficits in neuroplasticity, including increased risk for development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depressive illness. We previously demonstrated that downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptors (hypo-IRAS) elicits a phenotype that is consistent with features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and that rats ...
Pandit Rahul R Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Translational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584, CG, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food-intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, we aimed to identify the brain regions through which NPY increases food-intake and motivation. Design and Methods: NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food-intake and motivation: the lateral hypothalamus (LH), ...
Bjordal Marianne M University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France; CNRS, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France; INSERM, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, - - 2014
The brain is the central organizer of food intake, matching the quality and quantity of the food sources with organismal needs. To ensure appropriate amino acid balance, many species reject a diet lacking one or several essential amino acids (EAAs) and seek out a better food source. Here, we show ...
Jerlhag Elisabet E Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, - - 2014
Development of alcohol dependence, a chronic and relapsing disease, largely depends on the effects of alcohol on the brain reward systems. By elucidating the mechanisms involved in alcohol use disorder, novel treatment strategies may be developed. Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, acts as an ...
Schoffen João Paulo Ferreira JP Center of Biological Sciences, State University of the North of Paraná (UENP), Bandeirantes Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Food restriction may slow the aging process by increasing the levels of antioxidant defenses and reducing cell death. We evaluated the effects of food restriction on oxidative and nutritional status, myenteric cell populations, and the colonic muscle layer in aging rats. Wistar rats were distributed into control groups (7, 12, ...
Soria-Gómez Edgar E INSERM U862 NeuroCentre Magendie, Bordeaux, France; Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-dependent signaling in the brain is known to modulate food intake. Recent evidence has actually shown that CB1 can both inhibit and stimulate food intake in fasting/refeeding conditions, depending on the specific neuronal circuits involved. However, the exact brain sites where this bimodal control is exerted ...
Dazzi Laura L Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Section of Neuroscience and Anthropology, Centre of Excellence for the Neurobiology of Dependence, University of Cagliari, Monserrato, Cagliari, - - 2014
Increase in dopamine output on corticolimbic structures, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens, has been related to reward effects associated with palatable food or food presentation after a fasting period. The endocannabinoid system regulates feeding behavior through a modulatory action on different neurotransmitter systems, including the dopaminergic ...
Rios M M Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA, - - 2014
Complex interactions between the brain and peripheral tissues mediate the effective control of energy balance and body weight. Hypothalamic and hindbrain neural circuits integrate peripheral signals informing the nutritional status of the animal and in response regulate nutrient intake and energy utilization. Obesity and its many medical complications emerge from ...
Price Samantha L SL Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, - - 2014
The hormone PYY is released from the distal gut in response to nutrient ingestion. Numerous studies have shown that PYY3-36, the most abundant circulating isoform of PYY, reduces food intake when given to obese rodents and humans. Its infusion to mimic postprandial levels in fasting subjects inhibits appetite, suggesting a ...
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