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Pedersen Sindre Andre - - 2014
The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key component of northern Atlantic food webs, linking energy-transfer from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. We examined the effect of different ocean acidification (OA) scenarios (i.e. ambient, 1080, 2080 and 3080 μatm CO2) over two subsequent generations under limited food availability. Determination of metabolic- ...
Venarsky Michael P MP Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Box 870206, Tuscaloosa, AL, 35487, USA, - - 2014
Energy limitation has long been the primary assumption underlying conceptual models of evolutionary and ecological processes in cave ecosystems. However, the prediction that cave communities are actually energy-limited in the sense that constituent populations are consuming all or most of their resource supply is untested. We assessed the energy-limitation hypothesis ...
Girardet Clemence C The Department of Metabolism and Aging, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL - - 2014
The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or ghrelin receptor genes (GhsrKO) exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. ...
Rozman Jan J German Mouse Clinic, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany, - - 2014
Metabolic phenotyping of genetically modified animals aims to detect new candidate genes and related metabolic pathways that result in dysfunctional energy balance regulation and predispose for diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the technologies available to monitor energy ...
Perkhulyn Natalia V NV Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Precarpathian National University named after Vassyl Stefanyk, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76025, - - 2014
The effects of food supplementation with sodium chromate at concentrations of 1-500μM on development of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and food intake, carbohydrate and lipid pools in adult fruit flies were investigated. Food supplementation with hexavalent chromium (Na2CrO4) at high concentrations delayed larval development and decreased the percentage of larvae that ...
Dauncey M J MJ Wolfson College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
Nutrition affects the brain throughout life, with profound implications for cognitive decline and dementia. These effects are mediated by changes in expression of multiple genes, and responses to nutrition are in turn affected by individual genetic variability. An important layer of regulation is provided by the epigenome: nutrition is one ...
Kim Y T YT Psychiatry, Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, - - 2014
Obesity is highly prevalent in developed countries, which is mainly attributable to excess caloric intake. Obesity causes a wide range of detrimental health consequences including Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, and depression. Recently, accumulating data show that obesity share common neurobiological mechanism of drug and alcohol addiction. This ...
Li Lei L Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, - - 2014
To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile ...
Sedibe Heather M - - 2014
Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. ...
Reidelberger Roger R Department of Veterans Affairs - Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System - - 2014
Cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced suppression of feeding is mediated by vagal sensory neurons that are destroyed by the neurotoxin capsaicin (CAP). Here we determined whether CAP-sensitive neurons mediate anorexic responses to IV infusions of gut hormones peptide YY (3-36) [PYY (3-36)] and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Rats received 3 IP injections of CAP ...
Long Lihong - - 2014
Activation of central PPARγ promotes food intake and body weight gain; however, the identity of the neurons that express PPARγ and mediate the effect of this nuclear receptor on energy homeostasis is unknown. Here, we determined that selective ablation of PPARγ in murine proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons decreases peroxisome density, elevates ...
van Bloemendaal Liselotte L Diabetes Center / Department of Internal Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands - - 2014
Gut-derived hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been proposed to relay information to the brain to regulate appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonists, currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), improve glycemic control and stimulate satiety leading to decreases in food intake and bodyweight. We hypothesized that food ...
Joordens Josephine C A JC Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
From c. 2 Ma (millions of years ago) onwards, hominin brain size and cognition increased in an unprecedented fashion. The exploitation of high-quality food resources, notably from aquatic ecosystems, may have been a facilitator or driver of this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to contribute to the ongoing debate ...
Hsu Ted M TM Neuroscience Program, University of Southern - - 2014
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the small intestines and in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons. Activation of central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces feeding and body weight. The neural circuits mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here we investigate the inhibition of food intake and motivated responding for food ...
McCoull William - - 2014
Ghrelin plays a major physiological role in the control of food intake and inverse agonists of the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) are widely considered to offer utility as anti-obesity agents by lowering the set-point for hunger between meals. We identified an acylurea series of ghrelin modulators from high throughput screening and ...
Lips Mirjam A MA From the Departments of Endocrinology & Metabolism (MAL, MAW, and HP) and Radiology (JvdG, MAvB, and SARBR), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; the Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (MAvB, SARBR, and IMV) and the Institute of Psychology (SARBR), Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands; the Department of Gastroenterology, Rode Kruis Ziekenhuis, Beverwijk, Netherlands (GHdG); and the Division of Mind and Brain Research, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany - - 2014
The brain is crucial for the control of food intake, reward, and energy homeostasis.OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that 1) brain circuits involved in energy homeostasis and reward show different functional connectivity patterns between obese and lean individuals and 2) food intake affects functional connectivity differentially in obese and lean. Therefore, we ...
Caba Mario M Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Veracruzana , Xalapa, Veracruz , México - - 2014
The olfactory bulb (OB) has a circadian clock independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but very little is known about the functional significance of its oscillations. The OB plays a major role in food intake as it contributes to the evaluation of the hedonic properties of food, it is necessary for ...
Karasawa Hiroshi H Department of Medicine, CURE/Digestive Diseases Center, Digestive Diseases Division, University of California at Los Angeles, and Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of the stable somatostatin pan-agonist, ODT8-SST induces a somatostatin 2 receptor (sst2) mediated robust feeding response that involves neuropeptide Y and opioid systems in rats. We investigated whether the orexigenic system driven by orexin also plays a role. Food and water intake after icv injection was measured ...
Ducatez S S McGill University, Department of Biology, 1205, avenue Docteur Penfield, H3A 1B1, Montréal, Quebec, - - 2014
1.Generalist species are more successful than specialists in anthropogenically-modified environments or in environments in which they have been introduced, but the nature of the link between generalism and establishment success is unclear. 2.A higher feeding innovation rate has previously been reported in habitat generalist birds from North America. By allowing ...
Herczeg G G Behavioural Ecology Group, Department of Systematic Zoology and Ecology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, - - 2014
Theory predicts that the sex making greater investments into reproductive behaviours demands higher cognitive ability, and as a consequence, larger brains or brain parts. Further, the resulting sexual dimorphism can differ between populations adapted to different environments, or among individuals developing under different environmental conditions. In the nine-spine stickleback (Pungitius ...
Cabral Agustina A Laboratory of Neurophysiology of the Multidisciplinary Institute of Cell Biology [Argentine Research Council (CONICET), Scientific Research Commission, Province of Buenos Aires (CIC-PBA)], La Plata, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that potently and rapidly increases food intake. The orexigenic action of ghrelin involves the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), which is accessible to plasma ghrelin and expresses high levels of the ghrelin receptor. Local administration of ghrelin in a variety of other brain nuclei also ...
Castro D C DC Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The neural basis of food sensory pleasure has become an increasingly studied topic in neuroscience and psychology. Progress has been aided by the discovery of localized brain subregions called hedonic hotspots in the early 2000's, which are able to causally amplify positive affective reactions to palatable tastes ('liking') in response ...
Billes Sonja K SK August Scientific, Encinitas, CA, - - 2014
The mechanism of action of the combination therapy, naltrexone/bupropion (NB), for obesity has not been fully described to date. Weight loss attempts rarely result in long-term success. This is likely a result of complex interactions among multiple peripheral and CNS systems that defend against weight loss, and may explain the ...
Koch M M 1] Program in Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism, Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA [2] Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, - - 2014
The brain receives and integrates environmental and metabolic information, transforms these signals into adequate neuronal circuit activities, and generates physiological behaviors to promote energy homeostasis. The responsible neuronal circuitries show lifetime plasticity and guaranty metabolic health and survival. However, this highly evolved organization has become challenged nowadays by chronic overload ...
Cansell C C Unité de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR 8251, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, - - 2014
Circulating triglycerides (TGs) normally increase after a meal but are altered in pathophysiological conditions, such as obesity. Although TG metabolism in the brain remains poorly understood, several brain structures express enzymes that process TG-enriched particles, including mesolimbic structures. For this reason, and because consumption of high-fat diet alters dopamine signaling, ...
Sun Xue X Yale Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale Medical School, New Haven, CT, U.S.; John B. Pierce Laboratory, 290 Congress Avenue, New Haven, CT, U.S.. Electronic address: - - 2014
Eating behavior is guided by a complex interaction between signals conveying information about energy stores, food availability, and palatability. How peripheral signals regulate brain circuits that guide feeding during sensation and consumption of a palatable food is poorly understood. We used fMRI to measure brain response to a palatable food ...
Nishimura Yuri Y Department of Environmental Health, Nara Women's University, Kitauoya Nishimachi, Nara, 630-8506, - - 2014
In order to elucidate the involvement of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A (ORX-A) neurons of the perifornical/lateral hypothalamic areas (PF/LH) in the regulation of food intake induced by acutely reduced glucose availability, we examined the food intake response and c-Fos expression in the MCH and ORX-A neurons in the PF/LH ...
Alhadeff Amber L AL Department of - - 2014
Central glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1 R) activation reduces food intake and the motivation to work for food, but the neurons and circuits mediating these effects are not fully understood. While lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) neurons are implicated in the control of food intake and reward, the specific role of GLP-1 R expressing ...
Wernecke Kerstin K Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Luebeck, - - 2014
Objective: Energy homeostasis results from a balance of food intake and energy expenditure, accomplished by the interaction of peripheral and central nervous signals. The recently discovered adipokine nesfatin-1 is involved in the central control of food intake, but whether it also participates in the regulation of thermogenesis is unknown. Design ...
Fushiki Tohru T a Division of Food Science & Biochemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture , Kyoto University , Kyoto , - - 2014
Potential mechanisms underlying the high palatability of fat can be assessed by reviewing animal studies on fat detection and brain patterns during reward behavior. Fatty acids are likely recognized by receptors on taste buds, with the signals transmitted to the brain through taste nerves. Ingested oil is broken down and ...
Olofsson Birgitta B MRC-Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, - - 2014
Changes in metabolic state alter foraging behavior and food preference in animals. Here I show that normally attractive food becomes repulsive to C. elegans if animals are chronically under-nourished due to alimentary tract defects. This behavior plasticity is achieved in two ways: increased food leaving and induction of aversive behaviour ...
Grillo Claudia A CA Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, - - 2014
Obesity-induced changes in the metabolic and endocrine milieu elicit deficits in neuroplasticity, including increased risk for development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depressive illness. We previously demonstrated that downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptors (hypo-IRAS) elicits a phenotype that is consistent with features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and that rats ...
Pandit Rahul R Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Translational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584, CG, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food-intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, we aimed to identify the brain regions through which NPY increases food-intake and motivation. Design and Methods: NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food-intake and motivation: the lateral hypothalamus (LH), ...
Bjordal Marianne M University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France; CNRS, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France; INSERM, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, - - 2014
The brain is the central organizer of food intake, matching the quality and quantity of the food sources with organismal needs. To ensure appropriate amino acid balance, many species reject a diet lacking one or several essential amino acids (EAAs) and seek out a better food source. Here, we show ...
Jerlhag Elisabet E Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, - - 2014
Development of alcohol dependence, a chronic and relapsing disease, largely depends on the effects of alcohol on the brain reward systems. By elucidating the mechanisms involved in alcohol use disorder, novel treatment strategies may be developed. Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, acts as an ...
Schoffen João Paulo Ferreira JP Center of Biological Sciences, State University of the North of Paraná (UENP), Bandeirantes Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Food restriction may slow the aging process by increasing the levels of antioxidant defenses and reducing cell death. We evaluated the effects of food restriction on oxidative and nutritional status, myenteric cell populations, and the colonic muscle layer in aging rats. Wistar rats were distributed into control groups (7, 12, ...
Soria-Gómez Edgar E INSERM U862 NeuroCentre Magendie, Bordeaux, France; Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-dependent signaling in the brain is known to modulate food intake. Recent evidence has actually shown that CB1 can both inhibit and stimulate food intake in fasting/refeeding conditions, depending on the specific neuronal circuits involved. However, the exact brain sites where this bimodal control is exerted ...
Dazzi Laura L Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Section of Neuroscience and Anthropology, Centre of Excellence for the Neurobiology of Dependence, University of Cagliari, Monserrato, Cagliari, - - 2014
Increase in dopamine output on corticolimbic structures, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens, has been related to reward effects associated with palatable food or food presentation after a fasting period. The endocannabinoid system regulates feeding behavior through a modulatory action on different neurotransmitter systems, including the dopaminergic ...
Rios M M Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA, - - 2014
Complex interactions between the brain and peripheral tissues mediate the effective control of energy balance and body weight. Hypothalamic and hindbrain neural circuits integrate peripheral signals informing the nutritional status of the animal and in response regulate nutrient intake and energy utilization. Obesity and its many medical complications emerge from ...
Price Samantha L SL Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, - - 2014
The hormone PYY is released from the distal gut in response to nutrient ingestion. Numerous studies have shown that PYY3-36, the most abundant circulating isoform of PYY, reduces food intake when given to obese rodents and humans. Its infusion to mimic postprandial levels in fasting subjects inhibits appetite, suggesting a ...
Mithieux Gilles G National Institute of Health and Medical Research, U855, and University of Lyon, Lyon, and University Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, - - 2014
The modulation of hunger sensations by the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) present in the brain is an established fact. That MORs expressed in the periphery could have a similar role was outstanding. Using portal infusions of agonists and/or antagonists of MOR in conscious rodents, we have shown that MORs present in ...
Paolini Brielle M BM Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine Winston-Salem, NC, - - 2014
There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to "hot states" which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function ...
Wurtman Richard J RJ Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Mass Ave., 46-5009, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - - 2014
Brain neurons form synapses throughout the life span. This process is initiated by neuronal depolarization, however the numbers of synapses thus formed depend on brain levels of three key nutrients-uridine, the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, and choline. Given together, these nutrients accelerate formation of synaptic membrane, the major component of ...
Amigo Ignacio I Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, - - 2014
The brain has a central role in the regulation of energy stability of the organism. It is the organ with the highest energetic demands, the most susceptible to energy deficits, and is responsible for coordinating behavioral and physiological responses related to food foraging and intake. Dietary interventions have been shown ...
Morley Wendy A WA Thionetic Nutrition, Richmond Hill, ON L4C 7T3, - - 2014
The number of sports-related concussions has been steadily rising in recent years. Diminished brain resilience syndrome is a term coined by the lead author to describe a particular physiological state of nutrient functional deficiency and disrupted homeostatic mechanisms leading to increased susceptibility to previously considered innocuous concussion. We discuss how ...
Jansson Erik Karl Håkan EK Institute of Medical Genetics and Applied Genomics, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; and Centre for Rare Diseases, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, - - 2014
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, ...
Södersten Per P Section of Applied Neuroendocrinology, Karolinska Institutet Huddinge, - - 2014
Brainstem and hypothalamic "orexigenic/anorexigenic" networks are thought to maintain body weight homeostasis in response to hormonal and metabolic feedback from peripheral sites. This approach has not been successful in managing over- and underweight patients. It is suggested that concept of homeostasis has been misinterpreted; rather than exerting control, the brain ...
Worsley Anthony A School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences , Deakin University , Burwood , VIC , - - 2014
A nationwide survey of 2022 consumers was conducted in Australia in late 2011. A short list of questions about knowledge of the nutrient composition of common foods was administered along with questions about the respondents' food attitudes, demographics, school education and dieting practices. Overall, the results showed that nutrition knowledge ...
Veiga Patrick P Danone Nutricia Research, Palaiseau, - - 2014
The gut microbiota (GM) consists of resident commensals and transient microbes conveyed by the diet but little is known about the role of the latter on GM homeostasis. Here we show, by a conjunction of quantitative metagenomics, in silico genome reconstruction and metabolic modeling, that consumption of a fermented milk ...
French Alice S AS Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, - - 2013
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is involved in the regulation of feeding and digestion in many animals from worms to mammals. In insects, 5-HT functions both as a neurotransmitter and as a systemic hormone. Here we tested its role as a neurotransmitter in feeding and crop contractions and its role as a ...
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