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Thomas Stephen M SM Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014, - - 2014
The stable isotopes of carbon ((13) C /(12) C) and nitrogen ((15) N /(14) N) represent powerful tools in food-web ecology, providing a wide range of dietary information in animal consumers. However, identifying the temporal window over which a consumer's isotopic signature reflects its diet requires an understanding of elemental ...
Ertl P P Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Division of Livestock Sciences, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1180 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: - - 2014
When fed human-edible feeds, such as grains and pulses, dairy cows are very inefficient in transforming them into animal products. Therefore, strategies to reduce human-edible inputs in dairy cow feeding are needed to improve food efficiency. The aim of this feeding trial was to analyze the effect of the full ...
Cardinal Pierre P INSERM (P.C., L.B., O.G.Q., C.A., SC, M.E., T.L.L., D.G., A.C., G.M., DC), Neurocentre Magendie, Physiopathologie de la Plasticité Neuronale, U862, F-33000 Bordeaux, France; Université de Bordeaux (P.C., L.B., O.G.Q., C.A., SC, M.E., T.L.L., D.G., A.C., G.M., DC), Neurocentre Magendie, Physiopathologie de la Plasticité Neuronale, U862, F-33000 Bordeaux, France; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I and CIBERNED (L.B.), School of Biology, Complutense University-IUIN, 28040 Madrid, - - 2014
The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulates energy balance by modulating not only food intake, but also energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. To test the hypothesis that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in PVN neurons might control these processes, we used the Cre/loxP system to delete ...
Martin Harry H Food Innovation, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11 600, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. - - 2014
We have identified a range of food phytochemicals that inhibit Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK). A mutated and dysregulated form of JAK2, a tyrosine kinase, is associated with several diseases including Crohn's disease. Using an in vitro, time-resolved fluorescence (TR-FRET) assay, we tested 49 different types ...
Youngsteadt Elsa E Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7613, - - 2014
Urban green spaces provide ecosystem services to city residents, but their management is hindered by a poor understanding of their ecology. We examined a novel ecosystem service relevant to urban public health and esthetics: the consumption of littered food waste by arthropods. Theory and data from natural systems suggest that ...
Méquinion Mathieu M UMR 837 - - 2014
In restrictive type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, ...
Gugusheff Jessica Rose JR FOODplus Research Centre, School of Agriculture Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, - - 2014
The nutritional environment to which an individual is exposed during the perinatal period plays a crucial role in determining his or her future metabolic health outcomes. Studies in rodent models have demonstrated that excess maternal intake of high-fat and/or high-sugar "junk foods" during pregnancy and lactation can alter the development ...
Chaix Amandine A Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2014
Because current therapeutics for obesity are limited and only offer modest improvements, novel interventions are needed. Preventing obesity with time-restricted feeding (TRF; 8-9 hr food access in the active phase) is promising, yet its therapeutic applicability against preexisting obesity, diverse dietary conditions, and less stringent eating patterns is unknown. Here we ...
Mattes Richard R Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, - - 2014
The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding ...
Hahn Irene I Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department for Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, 3430 Tulln, - - 2014
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in maize-based food and feed. Alkaline processing like nixtamilisation of maize generates partially and fully hydrolysed FB1 (pHFB1 and HFB1) and thermal treatment in the presence of reducing sugars leads to formation of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 (NDF). The toxicity of these ...
Nash Kirsty L KL ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia, - - 2014
Body size has been identified as a key driver of home-range area. Despite considerable research into home-range allometry, the relatively high variability in this relationship among taxa means that the mechanisms driving this relationship are still under debate. To date, studies have predominantly focused on terrestrial taxa, and coral reef ...
Lucan Sean C SC 1Department of Family and Social Medicine,Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center,1300 Morris Park Avenue,Block Building,Room 410,Bronx,NY - - 2014
Prevailing thinking about obesity and related diseases holds that quantifying calories should be a principal concern and target for intervention. Part of this thinking is that consumed calories ��� regardless of their sources ��� are equivalent; i.e. ���a calorie is a calorie���. The present commentary discusses various problems with the ...
Bosch Guido G Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University,PO Box 338,6700 AHWageningen,The - - 2014
Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13 000 and 17 000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pigs and rats. ...
Arnold Kathryn E KE http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6485-6065 Environment Department, University of York, York, UK - - 2014
Global pharmaceutical consumption is rising with the growing and ageing human population and more intensive food production. Recent studies have revealed pharmaceutical residues in a wide range of ecosystems and organisms. Environmental concentrations are often low, but pharmaceuticals typically are designed to have biological effects at low doses, acting on ...
Tsutaya Takumi T Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8562, - - 2014
Biogeochemical methods using stable isotopes and trace elements have been increasingly developed and applied to reconstruct modern and ancient breastfeeding and weaning practices of mammals, including humans, because they offer direct proxies for the dietary intake of subadults. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopes have been used to evaluate breast milk ...
Fardet Anthony A INRA, UMR 1019, UNH, CRNH Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand & Clermont Université, Université d'Auvergne, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. - - 2014
This review aims at emphasizing the role played by physical characteristics and physico-chemical properties of the food matrix on the digestive and metabolic fate, and health effects of grain products. It is today obvious that the food matrix conditions the health effects of food products and that we are able ...
O'Charoen Siwaporn S Dept. of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa Univ, 2393 Ikenobe, Miki, Kagawa, 761-0795, - - 2014
Excessive intake of sugar-rich foods leads to metabolic syndrome. d-Psicose (Psi) not commonly found in nature, is noncalorie sweetener with a suppressive effect on the blood glucose level. Thus, Psi has the potential to be utilized as a sucrose (Suc) replacer in sugar-rich foods, including meringue-based confectionery (MBC). In this ...
Wright Alison G AG Horizon Science Pty. Ltd, 6/84-90 Lakewood Blvd., Braeside, Melbourne, VIC 3195, Australia, - - 2014
An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20 %, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction ...
Reddy Narendra L NL Division of Translational and Systems Medicine, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK; Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry, CV2 2DX, - - 2014
Meal duration may influence cardiometabolic health. The aim of this study was to explore postprandial effects of meal duration on human metabolism and appetite. Postprandial comparisons following a standard meal eaten slowly over 40-minutes ('D40') and the same meal eaten quickly over 10-minutes ('D10') on a different day. Each participant ...
Hanlon Ec E University of Chicago, Sleep, Health and Metabolism Center (SMAHC), Department of Medicine, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL - - 2014
Context: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the regulation of food intake and of peripheral metabolism. While the cross-talk between energy metabolism and the circadian system is well documented, little is known about a potential circadian modulation of human eCB activity. Objective: To define the 24-hour profile of circulating ...
Palmer Debra J DJ School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia (M561), Roberts Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008, Australia; Members of 'In-FLAME' the International Inflammation Network, World Universities Network (WUN). Electronic address: - - 2014
Observational studies show consistent links between early-life nutritional exposures as important risk factors for the development of asthma, allergy, and obesity. Reliance on increasing use of dietary supplementation and fortification (eg, with folate) to compensate for increased consumption of processed foods is also influencing immune and metabolic outcomes. Epigenetics is ...
Brinkmann Lea L University of Göttingen, - - 2014
Recent results suggest that wild Northern herbivores reduce their metabolism during times of low ambient temperatures and food shortage in order to reduce their energetic needs. It is however not known if domesticated animals are also able to reduce their energy expenditure. We exposed ten Shetland pony mares to different ...
Groh Ksenia J KJ Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland; ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) organize knowledge on the progression of toxicity through levels of biological organization. By determining the linkages between toxicity events at different levels, AOPs lay the foundation for mechanism-based alternative testing approaches to hazard assessment. Here, we focus on growth impairment in fish to illustrate the initial ...
Goonawardena Anushka V AV aDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA bSchool of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK cDepartment of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, - - 2014
The brain endocannabinoid system is a potential target for the treatment of psychiatric and metabolic conditions. Here, a novel CB1 receptor antagonist (ABD459) was synthesized and assayed for pharmacological efficacy in vitro and for modulation of food consumption, vigilance staging and cortical electroencephalography in the mouse. ABD459 completely displaced the ...
Ebling Francis J P FJ School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Seasonal cycles of fattening and body weight reflecting changes in both food intake and energy expenditure are a core aspect of the biology of mammals that have evolved in temperate and arctic latitudes. Identifying the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie these cycles has provided new insights into the hypothalamic control of ...
de Vries Emmely Marije EM E de Vries, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands - - 2014
A variety of illnesses leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased T3 and T4 and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness ...
Gao Mingxia M Reproductive Medicine Hospital of the First Affiliated Hospital, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, P. R. China. - - 2014
It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk associated with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs provides the basis for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been clarified whether the harmful effects is directly resulted from products of genetic ...
Aiello Marilena M Area of Neuroscience, SISSA, Trieste, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Research on eating behaviours has extensively highlighted that cognitive systems interact with the metabolic system in driving food intake and in influencing body weight regulation. Parkinson's disease is a good model for studying these complex interactions since alterations in both body weight and cognitive domains have been frequently reported among ...
Sabbioni Enrico E CeSI, Aging Research Center, "G. d'Annunzio" University Foundation, Via Colle dell'Ara, 66100, Chieti, - - 2014
(75)Se-selenite transfer was investigated in a phytoplankton-mussel-rat food chain model consisting of Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing, Unio mancus Lamark and Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. (75)Se-metabolized forms were investigated in order to identify potential critical steps in the food chain, as well as its relative bioavailability looking also at intracellular, cellular and ...
Wierenga Christina E CE Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, - - 2014
Hunger enhances sensitivity to reward, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not motivated to eat when starved. This study investigated brain response to rewards during hunger and satiated states to examine whether diminished response to reward could underlie food restriction in AN. Using a delay discounting monetary decision task ...
Morabito Giuseppa - - 2014
The consumption of unbalanced meals, consisting of foods rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates and calories, has been associated to a postprandial metabolic stress that involves the increase of the production of free radicals and pro-inflammatory markers. Growing evidence suggest that dietary polyphenols contained in fruit-derived products, such as fruit juices, ...
Pandey Prabhash K PK Department of Biochemistry [DST-FIST UGC-SAP Supported], Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh 224001, - - 2014
A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine ...
Kimokoti Ruth W RW Department of Nutrition, School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Boston, MA; - - 2014
Metabolically healthy obesity may confer lower risk of adverse health outcomes compared with abnormal obesity. Diet and race are postulated to influence the phenotype, but their roles and their interrelations on healthy obesity are unclear. We evaluated food intakes of metabolically healthy obese women in comparison to intakes of their ...
Moraes Danilo Alves DA Departamento de Psicobiologia - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, - - 2014
Studies have shown a gradual reduction of sleep time in the general population, accompanied by increased food intake, representing a risk for developing obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) exhibit feeding and metabolic alterations, both of which are regulated by the communication ...
Roznere Ieva I Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Effective conservation of freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae), one of the most endangered groups of animals in North America, is compromised by limited knowledge of their health. We address this gap in knowledge by characterizing the metabolic profile of Amblema plicata in the wild and in response to captivity and ...
Barbaresko Janett J Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences,Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn,Endenicher Allee - - 2014
Diet is related to many chronic disease conditions such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We set out to compare behaviour-related with disease-related patterns and their association with the MetS in a German cross-sectional study. A total of 905 participants of a Northern German cohort (aged 25-82 years) completed a FFQ, ...
Kappen K L - - 2014
With the continued rise in feline obesity, novel weight management strategies are needed. To date, strategies aimed at altering physical activity, an important factor in weight maintenance, have been lacking. Photoperiod is known to cause physiological changes in seasonal mammals, including changes in body weight (BW) and reproductive status. Thus, ...
Dalton Christopher M CM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Corson Hall, 215 Tower Road, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA, - - 2014
Consumer-driven nutrient recycling, the release of chemicals as byproducts and excesses of consumer physiology, can alter ecosystems by changing the availability of limiting nutrients at the base of the food web. The mere presence of predators can alter consumer physiology by restricting food intake and inducing stress. Predation risk, then, ...
Davis Kathleen E KE a Texas Woman's University , Nutrition and Food Sciences , PO Box 425888 , Denton , TX , - - 2014
Abstract Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a diverse group of compounds produced when reducing sugars react with proteins or other compounds to form glycosylated molecules. AGEs may form endogenously, and glycation of molecules may negatively affect their function. AGEs may also be consumed in food form with dietary AGEs ...
Garlock T M TM Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Program, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, P. O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611, - - 2014
This study examined the growth, activity, metabolism and post-release survival of three groups of Florida largemouth bass Micropterus floridanus: wild-caught fish, hatchery fish reared according to standard practice (hatchery standard) and hatchery fish reared under reduced and unpredictable food provisioning (hatchery manipulated). Hatchery-standard fish differed from wild-caught fish in all ...
Ibrahim B A BA Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, - - 2014
Short-term abstinence from food intake, planned or unplanned, is unavoidable in modern life, but negatively correlated with appetite control and obesity. This study investigated the role of estradiol in feeding and body weight (BW) reactions to short-span cessation of feeding. During acute 1-6-h re-feeding, 12-h food-deprived (FD), estradiol benzoate (EB)-implanted ...
Pedersen Sindre Andre - - 2014
The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key component of northern Atlantic food webs, linking energy-transfer from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. We examined the effect of different ocean acidification (OA) scenarios (i.e. ambient, 1080, 2080 and 3080 μatm CO2) over two subsequent generations under limited food availability. Determination of metabolic- ...
McKenzie David J DJ UMR5119, Ecologie des systèmes marins côtiers (ECOSYM), Place Eugène Bataillon, Université Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France - - 2014
Although food deprivation is a major ecological pressure in fishes, there is wide individual variation in tolerance of fasting, whose mechanistic bases are poorly understood. Two thousand individually tagged juvenile European sea bass were submitted to two 'fasting/feeding' cycles each comprising 3 weeks of food deprivation followed by 3 weeks ...
Venarsky Michael P MP Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Box 870206, Tuscaloosa, AL, 35487, USA, - - 2014
Energy limitation has long been the primary assumption underlying conceptual models of evolutionary and ecological processes in cave ecosystems. However, the prediction that cave communities are actually energy-limited in the sense that constituent populations are consuming all or most of their resource supply is untested. We assessed the energy-limitation hypothesis ...
Girardet Clemence C Departments of Metabolism and Aging (C.G., M.M., R.G.S., A.A.B.) and Molecular Therapeutics (M.R.S.), The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida 33458; and Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science (C.G., M.M., A.A.B.), Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, Missouri - - 2014
The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GhsrKO) genes exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to ...
Rozman Jan J German Mouse Clinic, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany, - - 2014
Metabolic phenotyping of genetically modified animals aims to detect new candidate genes and related metabolic pathways that result in dysfunctional energy balance regulation and predispose for diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the technologies available to monitor energy ...
Perkhulyn Natalia V NV Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Precarpathian National University named after Vassyl Stefanyk, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76025, - - 2014
The effects of food supplementation with sodium chromate at concentrations of 1-500μM on development of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and food intake, carbohydrate and lipid pools in adult fruit flies were investigated. Food supplementation with hexavalent chromium (Na2CrO4) at high concentrations delayed larval development and decreased the percentage of larvae that ...
Całkosiński Ireneusz I Department of Nervous System Diseases, Medical University, Wrocław, - - 2014
Introduction and objective. Despite the restrictive legal regulations related to the reduction of dioxins emission, their concentration in the environment is still too high. Mainly, this is related to the illegal utilisation of electronic equipment and combustion of wastes, and also to intensified activity and maintenance of ships, especially in ...
Dauncey M J MJ Wolfson College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
Nutrition affects the brain throughout life, with profound implications for cognitive decline and dementia. These effects are mediated by changes in expression of multiple genes, and responses to nutrition are in turn affected by individual genetic variability. An important layer of regulation is provided by the epigenome: nutrition is one ...
Goyal Raksha R Department of Dietetics, Synergy Hospitals, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, - - 2014
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase at a rapid rate in various populations and across all age-group. The effect of meal skipping, both behaviorally and physiologically, may have an impact on the outcome of weight-loss efforts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ...
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