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Results 301 - 350 of 435
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Mohammad F K - - 1996
The effect of xylazine (0.05 and 0.15 mg/kg, intramuscularly) on food (concentrate) intake was examined in ewes. Xylazine at 0.15 mg/kg significantly increased the 2 and 24 h food intake in comparison with control values. Xylazine treatments significantly and dose-dependently decreased the heart rate, respiratory rate and ruminal motility, and ...
Nørgaard P - - 1996
A new method for reversible reentrant cannulation of the parotid duct in cattle by use of an injectable anesthetic regimen is described. Ruminal contents were removed before anesthesia instead of food deprivation. The parotid duct was dilated by means of a long hemostatic forceps: its jaws were encased in a ...
McNally P W - - 1996
In two surveys of a total of over 16,000 cattle carcases, animals from live auctions had more bruising and more meat rejected for bruising than animals from dealers and farms. The proportion of carcases with stick-markings was higher in market cattle (2.5 per cent) than in cattle from farms (0.9 ...
Lichtenfels J R - - 1996
The synlophe (longitudinal, surface cuticular ridges) of Sarwaria bubalis is described for the first time. It is a tapering lateral synlophe of about 40 ridges. The synlophe of S. bubalis is similar to that of Ostertagia ostertagi but markedly different from that of species of Spiculopteragia and Mazamastrongylus. New information ...
Weeks C A - - 1995
The behaviour of cattle with and without louse infestation was studied for eight weeks. Thirty-two crossbred calves were housed in groups of four at 20 weeks old. Sixteen of the calves were artificially infested with the long-nosed cattle louse Linognathus vituli and 16 were left uninfested as controls. In infested ...
Jabbar M A - - 1995
The aim of this study was to assess the process and extent of sedentarisation among Fulani cattle owners in the derived savannah zone of south-west Nigeria. The results, based on a survey of 66 randomly-selected cattle owners, indicate an on-going process of settlement. Previously cattle owners visited the zone for ...
Hultén F - - 1995
Four farms that group-housed sows from 2 weeks of lactation until weaning (G-farms) and 3 farms that kept the sows individually penned throughout the 5 to 6-week-long lactation period (C-farms), were compared in terms of sow health. All sows were crossbred Swedish Yorkshire x Swedish Landrace. The daily food ration ...
Jones D D - - 1995
The dairy industry, with regulatory approvals of recombinant chymosin and bovine somatotropin (BST), has been at the forefront of food and agricultural biotechnology. The commercial fate of these products is one of several factors that may affect the success of future genetic manipulations in dairy cattle and dairy products. Other ...
Provenza F D - - 1994
Ruminants learn to avoid many foods that contain toxins by associating the flavor of the foods with aversive postingestive feedback. We hypothesized the emetic system is a cause of aversive feedback, and three experiments were conducted to determine whether antiemetic drugs (diphenhydramine, metoclopramide, dexamethasone) would attenuate food aversions caused by ...
Freudenberger D O - - 1994
Six adult castrated male red deer (Cervus elaphus), fitted with rumen cannulas, were offered chaffed lucerne hay ad lib. during winter and summer, with voluntary food intake (VFI) being respectively 59 and 89 g dry matter intake (DMI)/kg bodyweight 0.75 per d. The same animals were also offered the same ...
Provenza F D - - 1994
We discovered that a food aversion could be conditioned in anesthetized sheep. Sheep were allowed to eat a familiar food (alfalfa-grain pellets) for 30 min, and 90 min later they were given either an intraruminal (IR) injection of water (C), an IR injection of LiCl (L), anesthesia followed by an ...
Pfeffer A - - 1993
Acute phase protein concentrations in blood, food intake and liveweight changes were compared in 10 sheep given intrathoracic injections of yeast and 10 control sheep over a period of 61 days. The yeast injections caused acute pleuritis and limited necrotising lung lesions which progressed to fibrous pleural adhesions and walled-off ...
Wacher T J - - 1993
The local migration of village N'Dama cattle between two study sites, Niamina East and Bansang, 40 km apart in the inland region of The Gambia, West Africa, is described. The consequences of seasonal variations in local stocking densities on the epidemiology of African animal trypanosomiasis are reported. Tsetse abundance at ...
Bradley R - - 1993
BSE is a new disease of cattle. The first clinical case occurred in April 1985 but the existence of a new disease was first confirmed microscopically in November 1986. Epidemiological studies show that cattle suddenly became effectively exposed to a scrapie-like agent in ruminant-derived feed in the form of meat ...
Duncan A J - - 1993
Glucosinolates, such as sinigrin, and S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide (SMCO), which are found in forage brassica species have been implicated in the low intakes observed among lambs consuming such diets. To test both the individual and interactive effects of these compounds in sheep, all combinations of the sinigrin breakdown products, allyl ...
Pensaert M - - 1993
A porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), antigenically closely related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), appeared in the European swine population in 1984. The present serological study was performed to obtain insight into the epizootiology of PRCV and of TGEV. PRCV-induced neutralizing antibodies were found in 90.6 per cent of the 160 ...
Westendorf M L - - 1993
Relationships between alkaloid compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue and ruminal metabolism were studied in two experiments. In the first experiment, different combinations of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, N-formyl and N-acetyl loline, were incubated with ruminal fluid for 0, 24, or 48 h. Rate of disappearance of N-formyl and N-acetyl loline increased ...
Bonnemoy F - - 1993
The establishment of a fungal population composed of the main species usually found in ruminants in the rumen of gnotobiotic lambs did not significantly alter the in sacco digestibility of meat meal and soybean cake. The proteolytic activity of the rumen fluid against 14C-casein was not affected by the fungi. ...
DeRouen S M - - 1992
Carcass data from 1,494 straightbred and rotational crossbred steers were collected over four generations. Mating systems included straightbreds (Angus [A], Brahman [B], Charolais [C], and Hereford [H]); two-breed rotations (A-B, C-B, and H-B); three-breed rotations (A-B-C, A-B-H, and B-C-H); and a four-breed rotation (A-B-C-H). Steers were randomly allocated to one ...
Horak I G - - 1992
Four to 10 Dorper sheep on each of 12 farms in the Cape Province and 3 farms in the Orange Free State were examined for adult ixodid ticks at approximately 2- to 4-weekly intervals over periods varying from 4 to 18 months, commencing during January, February or April 1989. The ...
Gabaj M M - - 1992
In 1985-1988, 2287 farm animals (cattle, camels, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, dogs and rabbits) suspected of carrying parasitic mites were examined at 58 farms throughout Libya. Mites were identified on 1303 of these animals. The commonest parasites on cattle were Psoroptes and Chorioptes, on camels and sheep were Sarcoptes and ...
Wierzcho?? E - - 1992
The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of a porcine pituitary gonadotrophin extract with a defined pLH content in the superovulation of sheep. Estrus was synchronized in 61 Polish Mountain ewes with intravaginal fluorogestone acetate sponges. Twenty-four hours before the sponges were removed, the ewes underwent different ...
el-Azazy O M - - 1992
Data on traumatic myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in Libya were reported from August 1988 until February 1989. A total of 468 cases of screwworm myiasis were recorded in seven species of livestock and 229 humans, mainly children, were also found to be infested. Cattle and sheep were the most ...
Marović G - - 1992
After the Chernobyl nuclear accident, game meat and, in particular, sheep meat in the Republic of Croatia showed a high degree of radioactive contamination compared to large livestock. The activity concentrations of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were measured in meat and internal organs (i.e., lung, liver, kidney, and heart) of ...
Wosu L O - - 1992
In the tropical rain forest zone of Southern Nigeria Fulani zebus were investigated for the incidence of trypanosomes. The animals had been settled in this area for at least 3 years. Although cattle in the southern part of the country exhibited a significantly higher incidence of trypanosomes than cattle in ...
Gezon H M - - 1991
From 1973 through 1988, 518 external and internal abscesses were diagnosed in a large commercial goat herd. Of the 518 abscesses, 238 were primary and 280 were secondary abscesses in the same or other anatomic locations. During this period, the herd varied in size from 94 goats in 1973 to ...
Kimberlin R H - - 1991
None of the diseases caused by the "unconventional slow viruses" is highly infectious in its natural host. Transmission of infection to other species only occurs if the effective dose is high enough to overcome the species barrier. The current epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the U.K. is believed ...
Binienda Z - - 1990
Food deprivation during pregnancy leads to an increase in maternal and fetal prostaglandin (PG) production and increased uterine contractility. We investigated the effect of maintaining fetal normoglycemia during food withdrawal-induced maternal hypoglycemia on uterine 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) production and myometrial activity in late pregnant sheep. Pregnant sheep were surgically ...
Majak W - - 1990
Strained ruminal fluid was collected from cattle fed five diets at two locations to determine in vitro rates of cyanogenesis from the glycosides amygdalin, prunasin and linamarin. Rates of dissociation for the corresponding aglycones, benzaldehyde cyanohydrin and acetone cyanohydrin, also were determined. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in ruminal fluid was determined ...
McGuirk S M - - 1990
Bradycardia was documented in 12 cattle from which food has been withheld for 48 hours in preparation for general anesthesia and an elective surgical procedure. The heart rates decreased by a mean of 14 beats/min, and 4 cows had sinus arrhythmia. To evaluate this finding, the heart rates of 21 ...
Parker R J - - 1990
Post-weaning coccidiosis occurs in dry conditions in the dry tropics of north Queensland. Despite heavy faecal contamination, oocysts are difficult to detect in cattle yards. Experiments demonstrated the destruction of Eimeria bovis, E. ellipsoidalis and E. zuernii oocysts by natural factors in simulated yard conditions. Desiccation was rapid and temperatures ...
Du Preez J H - - 1990
The Livestock Weather Safety Index (LWSI) indicates that in large areas of South Africa and South West Africa/Namibia and for prolonged periods of the year warm conditions are causing heat stress in food-producing animals, especially dairy cattle, thereby hampering their performance. South Africa and South West Africa/Namibia have been mapped ...
Holtenius K - - 1990
Fluid and electrolyte movements across the ruminal epithelium of sheep were studied using the temporarily isolated rumen technique. The sheep were all subjected to the following treatments: (1) fed sheep (fed twice daily), after rumen emptying, received rumen contents from a fed sheep; (2) food-deprived sheep (two meals were omitted), ...
Grenet E - - 1989
Four types of hay were used: an early-cut and a late-cut lucerne (Medicago sativa) and an early-cut and a late-cut ryegrass (Lolium italicum). Digestibility and voluntary intake were measured on six adult sheep maintained in metabolism crates and fed 10% above the previous day's consumption, in equal portions at 08.00 ...
Narasimhalu P - - 1989
Spring grass consisting of Lolium perene L. (81%), Poa pratensis L. (9%), and annual weeds (5%) was stored as direct-cut or as wilted silage and used in feeding trials to determine the effects of wilting on N utilization. Six mature Friesian cattle, fitted with rumen and simple duodenal cannulae, were ...
Imai S - - 1989
Rumen ciliate populations were surveyed in 11 Holstein cattle and 6 sheep in Lethbridge (Alta., Canada) to determine species distribution in this Western Canadian environment. A total of 28 ciliate species were identified in cattle and 17 in sheep. The average total number of ciliates per millilitre of rumen content ...
Pfister J A - - 1989
Recurrent photosensitization of cattle in Montana has been blamed on Descurainia pinnata, tansy mustard. Two feeding trials were conducted to determine if tansy mustard was phototoxic. Pen-fed cattle consumed 2.4 and 4.1 kg/hd/day of tansy mustard in the 2 trials, and no photosensitization was detected. Liver clearance of BSP was ...
Gilmour J S - - 1989
Cattle and sheep, grazed successively on the same pasture and given the same supplementary feeding, developed ataxia and several animals became recumbent. Three cattle died within two weeks and the worst affected sheep were killed for laboratory examination. The supplementary diet which consisted largely of a distillery by-product, malt culms, ...
Towne G - - 1989
A series of experiments with bison and cattle were conducted to obtain information on the relatively uncommon ruminal protozoan Microcetus lappus. Although M. lappus is a holotrich, diurnal changes in concentrations indicate that it follows a cycle unlike most other holotrichs, decreasing shortly after feed is offered and then gradually ...
Stratil A - - 1989
This study presents evidence that sheep haemopexin phenotypes are genetically controlled by three alleles, HpxA, HpxB1 and HpxB2, of a single autosomal locus. Frequencies of two alleles, HpxA and HpxB (HpxB encompasses two isoalleles, HpxB1 and HpxB2), were studied in eight sheep breeds in Czechoslovakia. The frequency of the HpxA ...
McSweeney C S - - 1988
The structure of the omasum was compared in 10 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), 10 Shorthorn cattle (Bos indicus), 9 Merino sheep (Ovis aries) and 10 cross-bred goats (Capra hircus), and the functional significance of the differences is discussed. The weight of the omasum and area of the internal laminae appeared ...
Entrocasso C M - - 1988
Gastrointestinal parasitism has been recognized by practitioners as the most common disease in beef cattle, mainly in weaning calves and fattening steers. Among the different genera, Ostertagia ostertagi is the predominant parasite in the temperate climate, in which the major beef and dairy cattle area of South America is situated. ...
Williams A R - - 1988
Data were collected by the Virgin Islands Beef Cattle Improvement Program and the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station staff to establish the breed structure of the Senepol cattle. Data for the analysis were limited to the two Virgin Islands Senepol breeders with the most complete and largest set of records, ...
Silanikove N - - 1987
Sheep fully exposed to Mediterranean summer conditions had a higher respiration rate and a higher body temperature than sheep with access to shade. Nevertheless, feed intake and water intake of non-sheltered animals was not different from that of sheltered ones and both maintained their body weight on medium quality hay. ...
Soll M D - - 1987
Seven trials including 768 cattle were conducted in South Africa and Namibia to evaluate the efficacy of the systemic parasiticide ivermectin when administered subcutaneously at a dose rate of 200 micrograms/kg against sarcoptic (Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis), chorioptic (Chorioptes bovis) and psoroptic (Psoroptes ovis var. bovis) mange mites. The efficacy ...
Heath A C - - 1987
A single, artificially-induced fly-strike with Lucilia sericata larvae was associated with a rapid (decline in food intake in sheep, with a consequent reduction in liveweight. Loss of weight ranged from 0.5 to 5.5 kg over four to six days and recovery to pre-infestation liveweight took three to 36 days. Pair-fed, ...
Baile C A - - 1987
Opioid peptides, particularly beta-endorphin, methionine- (MEK) and leucine-enkephalin, and dynorphin, are involved in the regulation of food intake in mammals. The precursor molecules of these peptides undergo differential processing in brain areas producing regional concentration differences in opioids. Intraregional concentration changes also accompany alterations in feeding states. For example, MEK ...
Bekesi J G - - 1987
In 1973, inadvertent contamination occurred in a special farm feed supplement for lactating cows. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were used in place of magnesium oxide resulting in serious harm to farm animals, including cattle, chickens, geese, ducks. Farm families, accustomed to eating their own products, were most heavily exposed. To study ...
Kendrick K M - - 1986
The technique of intracranial dialysis was used to sample changes in monoamine metabolite and uric acid concentrations in the zona incerta (ZI) of the subthalamic region of conscious sheep during rumination and in response to the presentation of feeding and drinking stimuli. Sequential 10-min dialysis samples were taken over a ...
Dehority B A - - 1986
Parentodinium africanum was observed in rumen contents of four Brazilian cattle and constituted 4.4, 0.9, less than 0.1, and 10.0% of the total ciliates. This appears to be the first observation of the family Cycloposthiidae in the rumen habitat. Blepharoconus krugerensis, previously observed in the intestines of the elephant, and ...
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