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Results 201 - 250 of 435
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Braccia, Amy
Relationships between macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental stressors were assessed from fall 2002 through spring 2004 in five small streams that represented a study design that involved a gradient of increasing stress (increased cattle density). Macroinvertebrate assemblages were related to environmental factors that were quantified at the sample scale. Environmental factors ...
Smith D G - - 2005
The large fluctuations seen in cattle populations during periods of drought in sub-Saharan Africa are not evident in the donkey population. Donkeys appear to have a survival advantage over cattle that is increasingly recognized by smallholder farmers in their selection of working animals. The donkey's survival advantages arise from both ...
Sharpe R T - - 2005
The potential chemical contamination incidents investigated by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) between 1990 and 2002 are reviewed. Incidents were identified in the course of the VLA's surveillance of food animal disease and further investigations were carried out on behalf of the Food Standards Agency in order to identify and ...
Besser Thomas E - - 2005
The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial feedlot cattle was monitored throughout the feeding period by repeated bacteriologic culture of feces. Fecal pats (n = 10) in 20 feedlot pens were sampled at 2-weeks interval beginning at entry into the feedlot and continuing until slaughter. The least-squares mean C. jejuni ...
Eblen D R - - 2005
During 1997 and 1998, the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service completed nationwide microbiological baseline studies on four separate categories of livestock and poultry. Data were collected by sponge-sampling techniques. These studies were designed to provide nationwide estimates of the prevalence of Salmonella and prevalence and concentrations of Escherichia coli ...
Abrial David - - 2005
A spatial analysis was carried out in order to analyse the reason why the risk of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) was spatially heterogeneous in France, during the period following the feed ban of Meat and Bone Meal to cattle. The hypothesis of cross-contamination between cattle feedstuff and monogastric feedstuff, which ...
Tojo Kana - - 2005
Experimental mouse AA amyloidosis can be transmissible by dietary ingestion of amyloid fibrils and it is well known that AA amyloidosis occasionally develops in aged cattle. Bovine liver and intestine have conventionally been used in Oriental foods, and the incidence of visceral AA amyloidosis in slaughtered cattle was evaluated. Renal ...
Gicheha M G - - 2005
Economic values for resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in meat sheep were estimated based on previously published genetic and phenotypic parameters in a selection index objectively optimizing gains on yearling weight (YW). A two-trait index of YW and faecal egg count (FEC) were considered when accounting only for tangible roles ...
Pieroni Andrea - - 2005
An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacognostic survey has been carried out in one of the most isolated mountainous area in Europe: the village of Lepushe and its surrounding territory, in the Northern Albanian Alps. Approximately 70 botanical taxa and 160 preparations, mainly derived from plants, but also derived from animal products or ...
Casalone Cristina - - 2005
Tongue involvement by prion spreading was shown to be a common outcome after oral or intracranial experimental challenge with scrapie and transmissible mink encephalopathy sources in rodent models. It is also known that bovine spongiform encephalopathy, which is pathogenic for humans, is experimentally transmissible to sheep and can lead to ...
Hummel Jürgen - - 2005
Retention time of food in the digestive tract is among the key variables that describe the digestive strategy of a herbivore. Mean retention time (MRT) was measured on 4 captive specimens of the okapi, a strictly browsing ruminant. Retention time was quantified on different diets, using Co-EDTA (fluid phase) and ...
Kühne M - - 2005
The full elimination of all specified risk material (SRM) in food of animal origin is crucial for consumer protection and is of high priority in inner EU trade. Among other tissues, the tonsils of cattle are considered as SRM. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the 'cut ...
Prankel S H - - 2005
Critical limits for cadmium in parts of the human food chain are considered to have too small margins of safety and some limits are regularly exceeded. There is concern about the exposure of some sections of the population to cadmium in the human food chain, in particular regarding offal, which ...
Archer Z A - - 2005
Nutritional feedback provided by systemic hormones, such as insulin and leptin, influences reproductive neuroendocrine output within the hypothalamus, yet the mechanisms and their interaction with photoperiodic cues remain unresolved in seasonal species. Here, peripheral glucose (G) infusion was used to increase endogenous concentrations of insulin and leptin in food-restricted sheep ...
Hussein H S - - 2005
The main objective of this review was to assess the role of dairy cattle and their products in human infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A large number of STEC strains (e.g., members of the serogroups O26, O91, O103, O111, O118, O145, and O166) have caused major outbreaks and ...
Burns J C - - 2005
The preference exhibited by animals in selecting one feed over another is important only if the preferred diet is consumed daily in larger quantities, digested to a greater extent, or both. Six alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays were harvested in pairs at sunset (PM) and sunrise (AM) on consecutive days ...
Hussein Hussein S - - 2005
The large number of cases of human illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) worldwide has raised safety concerns for foods of bovine origin. These human illnesses include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Severe cases end with chronic renal failure, chronic nervous system deficiencies, ...
Ogden N H - - 2005
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, and a longitudinal study in Tanga, to investigate tick-control methods and other factors influencing tick attachment to the cattle of smallholder dairy farms. Most farmers reported applying acaricides at intervals of 1-2 weeks, most used acaricides that require ...
Nkrumah J D - - 2004
Residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed as an index for determining beef cattle energetic efficiency. Although the relationship of RFI with feed conversion ratio (FCR) is well established, little is known about how RFI compares to other measures of efficiency. This study examined the phenotypic relationships among different measures ...
Nakai Yutaka - - 2004
Cryptosporidium muris type oocysts were detected from 21 of 516 beef cattle in a farm. Then we surveyed Cryptosporidium oocysts in 348 beef and dairy cattle, 500 pigs, 101 dogs, 38 wild animals and 11 zoo-kept animals in and around the farm. Oocysts were detected from only 2 of 25 ...
Ajiboye B - - 2004
This study was performed to determine the forms of P and to examine the influence of oven-drying on P forms in different organic amendments. Samples of biosolids, beef and dairy cattle manures, and hog manures from sow and nursery barns were used in this study. Both fresh and oven-dried amendments ...
Zhao G Y - - 2004
The objective of the experiments was to study the suitability of using a faecal suspension of sheep for the estimation of the utilizable crude protein (uCP) of feeds for sheep by an in vitro incubation. Twenty-four single feeds and eight feed mixtures were used as incubation substrates. In Experiment 1, ...
Urech Rudolf - - 2004
Numbers of Lucilia cuprina (Australian sheep blowfly), Chrysomya spp., and Calliphora spp. blowflies caught on sticky traps baited with various synthetic attractants or a standard liver/sodium sulfide attractant in western Queensland were recorded. Numbers of each genus collected were influenced by the composition of the chemical attractants. Attractant mixtures based ...
Dumètre Aurélien - - 2004
We describe the use of a cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient as an improvement for the purification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from concentrated suspensions. After concentration by sucrose flotation, this technique gives a > 96% recovery of very pure unsporulated or sporulated oocysts, but requires "fresh" oocysts (< or = 10 ...
Fleischmann Thomas J - - 2004
Degradation of TNT by bovine rumen fluid, a novel source of anaerobic microbes, was investigated. Whole rumen fluid contents were spiked with TNT and incubated for a 24h time period. Supernatant samples taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 24h were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode array detection. Within ...
Arnold Mark - - 2003
The objective of this study was to contribute to a risk assessment to review the over 30 months (OTM) scheme in cattle, whereby all cattle aged over 30 months slaughtered in the UK are removed from the human food chain. We use back-calculation methods to estimate the impact of changes ...
Wanzala W - - 2003
A study to curb transmission cycle of a zoonotic Taenia cestodiasis between humans and cattle is presented. To evaluate the reliability of meat inspection procedure in detecting carcasses of cattle with T. saginata cysticercosis. A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of artificially (n=30) and naturally (n= 25) ...
Ilha Marcia R S - - 2003
A hyperthermic syndrome (HS) associated with consumption of ration contaminated with Claviceps purpurea is described in 4 dairy cattle herds from different counties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Outbreaks of this mycotoxicosis occurred during the summer of 1999-2000 and autumn of 2002 when 25% to ...
Seifi H A - - 2003
Mandibular pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis was diagnosed in a female Sannen goat. The doe presented for difficulty prehending and chewing food. The left mandible was swollen and firm on palpation. Radiographs revealed changes consistent with osteomyelitis of the affected mandible. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from aspirates of swollen mandible. Despite antimicrobial therapy, ...
Mussa P P - - 2003
Roe deer feeding habits were studied in the western Alps during the summer season using the faecal analysis method. The diet of cattle grazing in the same area was also investigated and the trophical niche overlap between the two species was determined. The roe deer diet was found very variable ...
Meintjes T - - 2002
These studies were conducted to investigate the possible role of certain aspects of the on-host ecology and off-host survival of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, in the dissemination of infestation. All developmental stages of the mite occurred in the fleece both proximally or distal to the skin of infested ...
Perez Andres M - - 2002
The spatial distribution of endemic bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Argentine cattle herds was described using recorded information on the detection of TB-like lesions in cattle slaughtered between March 1995 and 1997 at 126 slaughterhouses with federal inspection. Approximately, 47% (9472396 cattle) of the estimated total number of cattle slaughtered in ...
Crespo M J - - 2002
During a study on the occurrence of Malassezia spp. in 112 animals (50 horses, 25 goats, 25 sheep and 12 cows), Malassezia spp. were isolated from 60% of horses, 28% of sheep, 44% of goats and 58% of cows. In these animals, the occurrence of lipid-dependent species (42%) was much ...
Garnett B T - - 2002
Nocturnal observations, radio telemetry and time-lapse camera surveillance were used to investigate visits by badgers (Meles meles L.) to two cattle farms. During 59 half-nights (ca. 295 h) of observation and 17 nights (ca. 154 h) of camera surveillance, 139 separate visits to farm buildings, by at least 26 individually ...
Hornish Rex E - - 2002
Cephalosporins are an important class of antibacterial agents in use today for both humans and animals. Four generations of cephalosporins have evolved, all of which contain the beta-lactam sub-structure first found in penicillin. The range of cephalosporins available for use in food-producing animals, which is the subject of this review, ...
James Sarah M - - 2002
The short-term consumption of foods that differed in energy density (ED) and/or NaHCO3 supplementation, on subsequent food intake and diet selection in sheep were measured. Thirty sheep weighing 35.9 (sd 2.89) kg were used. Two foods were formulated: H had 11 and L had 8 MJ metabolizable energy/kg fresh matter. ...
Rogers Glenn M - - 2002
Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If ...
Aschfalk A - - 2002
The provision ad libitum of the browse plant Merremia tridentata as a free-choice supplement to the grass Panicum maximum led to a significant increase in the total food intake of groups of five West African Dwarf sheep, although the increase in weight gain was not significant. The protein content of ...
Porath M L - - 2002
The objective of this study was to test the combined effect of offstream water and trace mineral salt on cattle distribution in a riparian meadow and its adjacent uplands. From July 15 to August 26, 1996 and 1997, three treatments were each randomly assigned to one pasture in each of ...
Acheson David W. K. - - 2002
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is just one of a group of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Only recently has it become recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are likely due to proteins known as prions. Although it has been recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies may readily spread within species, the recent ...
Hjartardóttir S - - 2002
In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples ...
Kao R R - - 2001
In accordance with a policy to eliminate all transmissible spongiform encephalopathies from the food chain, a national untargeted ram breeding programme to eliminate scrapie in the UK is in the final stages of planning. Here we formulate a model of flock-to-flock scrapie transmission, in order to consider the effect of ...
Orr P T - - 2001
Microcystin (MCYST) toxins can be produced by the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. They are chemically stable compounds and have both acute and chronic effects on the health of mammals, including cattle and humans. Cattle will drink water containing lethal cell concentrations of M. aeruginosa. When cattle consume sub-lethal doses of ...
Athanasiadou S - - 2001
The aims of the present study were to investigate (1), the potential anthelmintic properties and (2), the nutritional consequences of commercially available condensed tannins on parasitised sheep fed, ad libitum, either a high- or a low-protein food. For this purpose, forty-eight previously parasite-naïve sheep (n 12) were infected with 2000 ...
Vignoles P - - 2001
Experimental infections of Lymaea truncatula, using two susceptible snail populations (Berneuil, or Migné, central France) and four isolates of Fasciola hepatica miracidia differing in their mammalian host of origin (cattle, nutrias, rabbits, or sheep), were performed under laboratory conditions to determine whether the host of origin had an effect on ...
Bøgh C - - 2001
The effect of zooprophylaxis on malaria transmission has not been studied on the African continent despite that the World Health Organization has recommended this intervention method since 1982. The effect of passive zooprophylaxis on malaria vector abundance, mosquito feeding preferences, and infectivity was studied in an area of moderate seasonal ...
Villalba J J - - 2001
Tannins decrease food intake by reducing digestion and by causing illness, whereas polyethylene glycol (PEG) attenuates the aversive effects of tannins. Our objective was to determine whether sheep recognize the benefits of ingesting substances such as PEG when consuming tannins. If so, then ingestion of PEG should be 1) PEG-specific, ...
Boonstra E - - 2001
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the northern part of Botswana in 1996 was contained through eradication of all heads of cattle in Ngamiland district (Ngami East and West) in the period April 1996 to February 1997. This disaster posed a serious threat to those who depended ...
Phillips D - - 2001
Microbiological quality of sheep carcasses and boneless sheep meat produced in Australia was surveyed during the period June to November 1998. Sponge samples were collected from 917 carcasses, and meat samples were drilled from 467 cartons of frozen boneless meat. Carcass and boneless meat samples were respectively collected from 7 ...
Daxenberger A - - 2001
Oestrogens govern reproductive functions in vertebrates, and are present in all animal tissues. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) of oestradiol-17beta by consumption of cattle meat is calculated to be 4.3 ng. Following the use of oestradiol-containing growth-promoting agents, TMDI is increased by a factor of 4.6 to 20 ng ...
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