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Results 201 - 250 of 419
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Hussein Hussein S - - 2005
The large number of cases of human illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) worldwide has raised safety concerns for foods of bovine origin. These human illnesses include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Severe cases end with chronic renal failure, chronic nervous system deficiencies, ...
Ogden N H - - 2005
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, and a longitudinal study in Tanga, to investigate tick-control methods and other factors influencing tick attachment to the cattle of smallholder dairy farms. Most farmers reported applying acaricides at intervals of 1-2 weeks, most used acaricides that require ...
Nkrumah J D - - 2004
Residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed as an index for determining beef cattle energetic efficiency. Although the relationship of RFI with feed conversion ratio (FCR) is well established, little is known about how RFI compares to other measures of efficiency. This study examined the phenotypic relationships among different measures ...
Nakai Yutaka - - 2004
Cryptosporidium muris type oocysts were detected from 21 of 516 beef cattle in a farm. Then we surveyed Cryptosporidium oocysts in 348 beef and dairy cattle, 500 pigs, 101 dogs, 38 wild animals and 11 zoo-kept animals in and around the farm. Oocysts were detected from only 2 of 25 ...
Ajiboye B - - 2004
This study was performed to determine the forms of P and to examine the influence of oven-drying on P forms in different organic amendments. Samples of biosolids, beef and dairy cattle manures, and hog manures from sow and nursery barns were used in this study. Both fresh and oven-dried amendments ...
Zhao G Y - - 2004
The objective of the experiments was to study the suitability of using a faecal suspension of sheep for the estimation of the utilizable crude protein (uCP) of feeds for sheep by an in vitro incubation. Twenty-four single feeds and eight feed mixtures were used as incubation substrates. In Experiment 1, ...
Urech Rudolf - - 2004
Numbers of Lucilia cuprina (Australian sheep blowfly), Chrysomya spp., and Calliphora spp. blowflies caught on sticky traps baited with various synthetic attractants or a standard liver/sodium sulfide attractant in western Queensland were recorded. Numbers of each genus collected were influenced by the composition of the chemical attractants. Attractant mixtures based ...
Dumètre Aurélien - - 2004
We describe the use of a cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient as an improvement for the purification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from concentrated suspensions. After concentration by sucrose flotation, this technique gives a > 96% recovery of very pure unsporulated or sporulated oocysts, but requires "fresh" oocysts (< or = 10 ...
Fleischmann Thomas J - - 2004
Degradation of TNT by bovine rumen fluid, a novel source of anaerobic microbes, was investigated. Whole rumen fluid contents were spiked with TNT and incubated for a 24h time period. Supernatant samples taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 24h were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode array detection. Within ...
Arnold Mark - - 2003
The objective of this study was to contribute to a risk assessment to review the over 30 months (OTM) scheme in cattle, whereby all cattle aged over 30 months slaughtered in the UK are removed from the human food chain. We use back-calculation methods to estimate the impact of changes ...
Wanzala W - - 2003
A study to curb transmission cycle of a zoonotic Taenia cestodiasis between humans and cattle is presented. To evaluate the reliability of meat inspection procedure in detecting carcasses of cattle with T. saginata cysticercosis. A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of artificially (n=30) and naturally (n= 25) ...
Ilha Marcia R S - - 2003
A hyperthermic syndrome (HS) associated with consumption of ration contaminated with Claviceps purpurea is described in 4 dairy cattle herds from different counties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Outbreaks of this mycotoxicosis occurred during the summer of 1999-2000 and autumn of 2002 when 25% to ...
Seifi H A - - 2003
Mandibular pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis was diagnosed in a female Sannen goat. The doe presented for difficulty prehending and chewing food. The left mandible was swollen and firm on palpation. Radiographs revealed changes consistent with osteomyelitis of the affected mandible. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from aspirates of swollen mandible. Despite antimicrobial therapy, ...
Mussa P P - - 2003
Roe deer feeding habits were studied in the western Alps during the summer season using the faecal analysis method. The diet of cattle grazing in the same area was also investigated and the trophical niche overlap between the two species was determined. The roe deer diet was found very variable ...
Meintjes T - - 2002
These studies were conducted to investigate the possible role of certain aspects of the on-host ecology and off-host survival of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, in the dissemination of infestation. All developmental stages of the mite occurred in the fleece both proximally or distal to the skin of infested ...
Perez Andres M - - 2002
The spatial distribution of endemic bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Argentine cattle herds was described using recorded information on the detection of TB-like lesions in cattle slaughtered between March 1995 and 1997 at 126 slaughterhouses with federal inspection. Approximately, 47% (9472396 cattle) of the estimated total number of cattle slaughtered in ...
Crespo M J - - 2002
During a study on the occurrence of Malassezia spp. in 112 animals (50 horses, 25 goats, 25 sheep and 12 cows), Malassezia spp. were isolated from 60% of horses, 28% of sheep, 44% of goats and 58% of cows. In these animals, the occurrence of lipid-dependent species (42%) was much ...
Garnett B T - - 2002
Nocturnal observations, radio telemetry and time-lapse camera surveillance were used to investigate visits by badgers (Meles meles L.) to two cattle farms. During 59 half-nights (ca. 295 h) of observation and 17 nights (ca. 154 h) of camera surveillance, 139 separate visits to farm buildings, by at least 26 individually ...
Hornish Rex E - - 2002
Cephalosporins are an important class of antibacterial agents in use today for both humans and animals. Four generations of cephalosporins have evolved, all of which contain the beta-lactam sub-structure first found in penicillin. The range of cephalosporins available for use in food-producing animals, which is the subject of this review, ...
James Sarah M - - 2002
The short-term consumption of foods that differed in energy density (ED) and/or NaHCO3 supplementation, on subsequent food intake and diet selection in sheep were measured. Thirty sheep weighing 35.9 (sd 2.89) kg were used. Two foods were formulated: H had 11 and L had 8 MJ metabolizable energy/kg fresh matter. ...
Rogers Glenn M - - 2002
Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If ...
Aschfalk A - - 2002
The provision ad libitum of the browse plant Merremia tridentata as a free-choice supplement to the grass Panicum maximum led to a significant increase in the total food intake of groups of five West African Dwarf sheep, although the increase in weight gain was not significant. The protein content of ...
Porath M L - - 2002
The objective of this study was to test the combined effect of offstream water and trace mineral salt on cattle distribution in a riparian meadow and its adjacent uplands. From July 15 to August 26, 1996 and 1997, three treatments were each randomly assigned to one pasture in each of ...
Acheson David W. K. - - 2002
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is just one of a group of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Only recently has it become recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are likely due to proteins known as prions. Although it has been recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies may readily spread within species, the recent ...
Hjartardóttir S - - 2002
In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples ...
Kao R R - - 2001
In accordance with a policy to eliminate all transmissible spongiform encephalopathies from the food chain, a national untargeted ram breeding programme to eliminate scrapie in the UK is in the final stages of planning. Here we formulate a model of flock-to-flock scrapie transmission, in order to consider the effect of ...
Orr P T - - 2001
Microcystin (MCYST) toxins can be produced by the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. They are chemically stable compounds and have both acute and chronic effects on the health of mammals, including cattle and humans. Cattle will drink water containing lethal cell concentrations of M. aeruginosa. When cattle consume sub-lethal doses of ...
Athanasiadou S - - 2001
The aims of the present study were to investigate (1), the potential anthelmintic properties and (2), the nutritional consequences of commercially available condensed tannins on parasitised sheep fed, ad libitum, either a high- or a low-protein food. For this purpose, forty-eight previously parasite-naïve sheep (n 12) were infected with 2000 ...
Vignoles P - - 2001
Experimental infections of Lymaea truncatula, using two susceptible snail populations (Berneuil, or Migné, central France) and four isolates of Fasciola hepatica miracidia differing in their mammalian host of origin (cattle, nutrias, rabbits, or sheep), were performed under laboratory conditions to determine whether the host of origin had an effect on ...
Bøgh C - - 2001
The effect of zooprophylaxis on malaria transmission has not been studied on the African continent despite that the World Health Organization has recommended this intervention method since 1982. The effect of passive zooprophylaxis on malaria vector abundance, mosquito feeding preferences, and infectivity was studied in an area of moderate seasonal ...
Villalba J J - - 2001
Tannins decrease food intake by reducing digestion and by causing illness, whereas polyethylene glycol (PEG) attenuates the aversive effects of tannins. Our objective was to determine whether sheep recognize the benefits of ingesting substances such as PEG when consuming tannins. If so, then ingestion of PEG should be 1) PEG-specific, ...
Boonstra E - - 2001
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the northern part of Botswana in 1996 was contained through eradication of all heads of cattle in Ngamiland district (Ngami East and West) in the period April 1996 to February 1997. This disaster posed a serious threat to those who depended ...
Phillips D - - 2001
Microbiological quality of sheep carcasses and boneless sheep meat produced in Australia was surveyed during the period June to November 1998. Sponge samples were collected from 917 carcasses, and meat samples were drilled from 467 cartons of frozen boneless meat. Carcass and boneless meat samples were respectively collected from 7 ...
Daxenberger A - - 2001
Oestrogens govern reproductive functions in vertebrates, and are present in all animal tissues. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) of oestradiol-17beta by consumption of cattle meat is calculated to be 4.3 ng. Following the use of oestradiol-containing growth-promoting agents, TMDI is increased by a factor of 4.6 to 20 ng ...
Van den Bossche P - - 2001
Bovine trypanosomosis occurs in vast areas of southern Africa. Its epidemiology and impact on cattle production is determined largely by the level of interaction between tsetse and cattle. Four situations can be distinguished. First, areas where cattle are absent. Second, zones where cattle have been introduced in game areas but ...
Budras K D - - 2001
Semireserves were created by the European Conservation Project for scientific research in preparation for reintroduction in the wilderness. They are defined as enclosures large enough to carry a group of Przewalski horses throughout the year without any additional feeding. The semireserve offers diverse opportunities for significant scientific research. As part ...
Pulikeshi M B - - 2001
For understanding the potential utility in field scale production of vermicompost and vermiprotein economically, Eisenia fetida was cultured to establish the influence of (i) prevailing tropical semiarid (North-East region of Karnataka, India) environmental factors and (ii) different animal manures (cattle, horse and 1:1 mixture of cattle and horse) (on its ...
Oka H - - 2001
A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of tetracycline antibiotic (TCAs) residues in the kidneys of slaughtered animals that did not pass inspection for human consumption by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law and the Meat Inspection Law at the slaughterhouses in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, from April 1985 to March ...
Arsenos G - - 2001
The objective of the experiment was threefold: (1) to test whether an 'unlearned appetite' for dietary protein exists in sheep, (2) whether such an appetite and subsequent diet selection depend on the degree of previous protein deprivation, and (3) whether the N-source in the foods offered as choice influences diet ...
Van Donkersgoed J - - 2001
The second beef quality audit was conducted in Canada in 1998-99 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in slaughtered cattle and to monitor changes since the first audit in 1995. Approximately 0.6% of the number of cattle processed annually in Canada were evaluated. Brands were observed on 49% and ...
Skerrett H E - - 2001
Levels of Cryptosporidium infection in a group of red deer were monitored over a period of 1 year. Faecal samples were examined on an approximate monthly basis from adult hinds and calves for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The water-ether sedimentation method followed by sucrose flotation and a monoclonal antibody ...
Clarke I J - - 2001
Seasonal changes in voluntary food intake (VFI) are seen in various species, including sheep. This paper reviews recent work in this area, especially in relation to alterations in the expression of appetite-regulating peptides in the brain of the sheep. Work in the hamster is also reviewed because this is another ...
Hooijer G A - - 2001
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed gynecological findings in dairy cattle. It causes temporary infertility and is likely to affect reproduction as well as production parameters in cows. The objectives of this study were to investigate the heritability of COD in a Dutch Black and ...
Griffon D J - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological properties of idealized, morsellised impacted Corglaes, a soluble silicate-free glass. Twenty-two sheep underwent implantation of pellets in six metaphyseal defects in both rear limbs. Particle size distribution of all aggregates (except the autograft) approached the ideal logarithmic grading line and ...
Alvarez L I - - 2000
The pattern of in vivo uptake of albendazole (ABZ) and its major metabolite, ABZ-sulphoxide (ABZSO), by Haemonchus contortus and Fasciola hepatica recovered from ABZ-treated sheep, was investigated. Concentration profiles of both compounds were simultaneously measured in target tissues/fluids from the same infected sheep. In addition, the proportion of the (+) ...
Chaillou E - - 2000
The hypothalamus plays an important role in the control of food intake in different species, but there is little relevant information for ruminants like sheep. In order to study the putative role of several hypothalamic nuclei in food intake in sheep, Fos expression, a marker of cellular activity, was compared ...
Gould D H - - 2000
Sulfur-related polioencephalomalacia is frequently associated with a high total sulfur intake by ruminants. The onset of clinical signs coincides with excessive ruminal sulfide production. Measurement of ruminal gas cap hydrogen sulfide makes it possible to identify cattle with potentially hazardous total sulfur intake. Evaluation of all potential sulfur sources is ...
Athanasiadou S - - 2000
Naive wethers were used to investigate the long-term effects of dietary condensed tannins from Quebracho extract, during an intestinal parasitic infection in sheep. Sheep were allocated to eight groups; seven groups were daily infected with 3000 L(3) Trichostrongylus colubriformis for 10 weeks and the eighth group was the uninfected control. ...
Moll L - - 2000
In the winter of 1998/1999, sheep on a farm in the province of North Holland, The Netherlands, died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with triclabendazole (TCBZ). Faecal examinations of sheep and cattle on the farm showed high number of liver fluke eggs. In a ...
Appleton J - - 2000
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