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Mason P C - - 2006
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of pour-on anthelmintics against field strains of parasitic nematodes in young cattle on five farms in New Zealand. METHODS: Faecal nematode egg count (FEC) reduction (FECR) tests were carried out on five calf-rearing farms using pour-on formulations of levamisole, ivermectin, eprinomectin, and the simultaneous administration ...
Le Bizec Bruno - - 2006
Boldenone is an androgenic steroid that improves the growth and food conversion in food producing animals. In most countries worldwide, this anabolic steroid is forbidden for meat production. Until recently, the control of its illegal use was based either on 17beta-boldenone or 17alpha-boldenone (its main metabolite in cattle) identification in ...
Rudenko Larisa - - 2007
The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine issued a voluntary request to producers of livestock clones not to introduce food from clones or their progeny into commerce until the agency had assessed whether production of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) posed ...
Ozdemir U - - 2006
The efficacy of danofloxacin (Advocin A180) was evaluated for the treatment of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. Ten healthy Angora goats, confirmed free of CCPP, were exposed to clinically affected animals from a natural outbreak in Thrace, Turkey. After 14 days exposure, 8 goats showed ...
Uslu U - - 2006
Slaughterhouse surveys to determine the prevalence and intensity of larval Oestrus ovis Linnaeus (Diptera: Oestridae) in sheep, were conducted monthly for 1 year in Konya, Turkey. A total of 624 sheep, selected at random, were examined and 59% were found to be infested by O. ovis. A total of 8801 ...
Sharif M - - 2007
Serum samples from 290 cattle, 400 goats and 588 sheep slaughtered for food in various areas of the Mazandaran province, Iran were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), from December 2004 to April 2005. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 30% (120/400) ...
Morgan E R - - 2006
In order to evaluate the epidemiology of parasitism in farmed ruminants in the changed agricultural context in Kazakhstan, 505 cattle, sheep and goats were surveyed for gastrointestinal parasitism using coprological examination, and a further thirty sheep and four goats using post mortem extraction of helminths. The dominant helminth genera were ...
Andréoletti Olivier - - 2006
Oral contamination with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent in susceptible PRNP genotype sheep results in widespread distribution of prion in the host. Because ARR homozygous sheep are considered to be resistant to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, they have been selected to eradicate scrapie from sheep flocks and to protect the human ...
Cola, M.
The intensive fattening in housing conditions of Merino young sheep implies monthey food rations containing approximately 100/110 g RDP/ 1 NMU. Under these conditions the animals can reach almost 48 kg from the initial 28 in about 93 days, so the total growth increase is of 20 kg, accepted by ...
Smith G C - - 2007
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important economic problem. The incidence of TB in cattle herds has steadily risen in the UK, and badgers are strongly implicated in spreading disease. Since the mid-1970s the UK government has adopted a number of badger culling strategies to attempt to reduce infection in cattle. ...
Christodoulopoulos G - - 2006
The objectives of the present study were to study the fauna of fleas infesting dairy goats in Greece, the spectrum of hosts each flea species infests, identify risk factors in the environment, and goat management practices that favour flea infestation of goats, and describe the seasonal variation of infestation in ...
Aaserud,Ragnar Mathias
Invertebrate community responses to grazing were studied within a fully replicated,landscape scale experiment where densities of domestic sheep were manipulated in alpine ecosystems in Hol, Norway. I determined species richness and abundance of beetles and spiders with pitfall trapping in each of the enclosures with three different levels of sheep ...
Derlet Robert W - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The presence of coliform bacteria indicates a watershed risk for harboring microbes capable of causing human disease. We hypothesized that water from watersheds that have different human- or animal-use patterns would have differing risks for the presence of coliform bacteria. METHODS; Water was collected in wilderness areas of the ...
Floate Kevin D - - 2006
Endectocides, or macrocyclic lactones, are veterinary parasiticides used globally to control nematodes and arthropods affecting livestock. Cattle treated with these products fecally excrete residues that are toxic to dung-inhabiting insects, including species that accelerate dung degradation. Concerns have been raised that use of endectocides may reduce insect diversity and cause ...
Braccia, Amy
Relationships between macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental stressors were assessed from fall 2002 through spring 2004 in five small streams that represented a study design that involved a gradient of increasing stress (increased cattle density). Macroinvertebrate assemblages were related to environmental factors that were quantified at the sample scale. Environmental factors ...
Smith D G - - 2005
The large fluctuations seen in cattle populations during periods of drought in sub-Saharan Africa are not evident in the donkey population. Donkeys appear to have a survival advantage over cattle that is increasingly recognized by smallholder farmers in their selection of working animals. The donkey's survival advantages arise from both ...
Sharpe R T - - 2005
The potential chemical contamination incidents investigated by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) between 1990 and 2002 are reviewed. Incidents were identified in the course of the VLA's surveillance of food animal disease and further investigations were carried out on behalf of the Food Standards Agency in order to identify and ...
Besser Thomas E - - 2005
The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial feedlot cattle was monitored throughout the feeding period by repeated bacteriologic culture of feces. Fecal pats (n = 10) in 20 feedlot pens were sampled at 2-weeks interval beginning at entry into the feedlot and continuing until slaughter. The least-squares mean C. jejuni ...
Eblen D R - - 2005
During 1997 and 1998, the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service completed nationwide microbiological baseline studies on four separate categories of livestock and poultry. Data were collected by sponge-sampling techniques. These studies were designed to provide nationwide estimates of the prevalence of Salmonella and prevalence and concentrations of Escherichia coli ...
Abrial David - - 2005
A spatial analysis was carried out in order to analyse the reason why the risk of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) was spatially heterogeneous in France, during the period following the feed ban of Meat and Bone Meal to cattle. The hypothesis of cross-contamination between cattle feedstuff and monogastric feedstuff, which ...
Tojo Kana - - 2005
Experimental mouse AA amyloidosis can be transmissible by dietary ingestion of amyloid fibrils and it is well known that AA amyloidosis occasionally develops in aged cattle. Bovine liver and intestine have conventionally been used in Oriental foods, and the incidence of visceral AA amyloidosis in slaughtered cattle was evaluated. Renal ...
Gicheha M G - - 2005
Economic values for resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in meat sheep were estimated based on previously published genetic and phenotypic parameters in a selection index objectively optimizing gains on yearling weight (YW). A two-trait index of YW and faecal egg count (FEC) were considered when accounting only for tangible roles ...
Pieroni Andrea - - 2005
An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacognostic survey has been carried out in one of the most isolated mountainous area in Europe: the village of Lepushe and its surrounding territory, in the Northern Albanian Alps. Approximately 70 botanical taxa and 160 preparations, mainly derived from plants, but also derived from animal products or ...
Casalone Cristina - - 2005
Tongue involvement by prion spreading was shown to be a common outcome after oral or intracranial experimental challenge with scrapie and transmissible mink encephalopathy sources in rodent models. It is also known that bovine spongiform encephalopathy, which is pathogenic for humans, is experimentally transmissible to sheep and can lead to ...
Hummel Jürgen - - 2005
Retention time of food in the digestive tract is among the key variables that describe the digestive strategy of a herbivore. Mean retention time (MRT) was measured on 4 captive specimens of the okapi, a strictly browsing ruminant. Retention time was quantified on different diets, using Co-EDTA (fluid phase) and ...
Kühne M - - 2005
The full elimination of all specified risk material (SRM) in food of animal origin is crucial for consumer protection and is of high priority in inner EU trade. Among other tissues, the tonsils of cattle are considered as SRM. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the 'cut ...
Prankel S H - - 2005
Critical limits for cadmium in parts of the human food chain are considered to have too small margins of safety and some limits are regularly exceeded. There is concern about the exposure of some sections of the population to cadmium in the human food chain, in particular regarding offal, which ...
Archer Z A - - 2005
Nutritional feedback provided by systemic hormones, such as insulin and leptin, influences reproductive neuroendocrine output within the hypothalamus, yet the mechanisms and their interaction with photoperiodic cues remain unresolved in seasonal species. Here, peripheral glucose (G) infusion was used to increase endogenous concentrations of insulin and leptin in food-restricted sheep ...
Hussein H S - - 2005
The main objective of this review was to assess the role of dairy cattle and their products in human infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A large number of STEC strains (e.g., members of the serogroups O26, O91, O103, O111, O118, O145, and O166) have caused major outbreaks and ...
Burns J C - - 2005
The preference exhibited by animals in selecting one feed over another is important only if the preferred diet is consumed daily in larger quantities, digested to a greater extent, or both. Six alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays were harvested in pairs at sunset (PM) and sunrise (AM) on consecutive days ...
Hussein Hussein S - - 2005
The large number of cases of human illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) worldwide has raised safety concerns for foods of bovine origin. These human illnesses include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Severe cases end with chronic renal failure, chronic nervous system deficiencies, ...
Ogden N H - - 2005
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, and a longitudinal study in Tanga, to investigate tick-control methods and other factors influencing tick attachment to the cattle of smallholder dairy farms. Most farmers reported applying acaricides at intervals of 1-2 weeks, most used acaricides that require ...
Nkrumah J D - - 2004
Residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed as an index for determining beef cattle energetic efficiency. Although the relationship of RFI with feed conversion ratio (FCR) is well established, little is known about how RFI compares to other measures of efficiency. This study examined the phenotypic relationships among different measures ...
Nakai Yutaka - - 2004
Cryptosporidium muris type oocysts were detected from 21 of 516 beef cattle in a farm. Then we surveyed Cryptosporidium oocysts in 348 beef and dairy cattle, 500 pigs, 101 dogs, 38 wild animals and 11 zoo-kept animals in and around the farm. Oocysts were detected from only 2 of 25 ...
Ajiboye B - - 2004
This study was performed to determine the forms of P and to examine the influence of oven-drying on P forms in different organic amendments. Samples of biosolids, beef and dairy cattle manures, and hog manures from sow and nursery barns were used in this study. Both fresh and oven-dried amendments ...
Zhao G Y - - 2004
The objective of the experiments was to study the suitability of using a faecal suspension of sheep for the estimation of the utilizable crude protein (uCP) of feeds for sheep by an in vitro incubation. Twenty-four single feeds and eight feed mixtures were used as incubation substrates. In Experiment 1, ...
Urech Rudolf - - 2004
Numbers of Lucilia cuprina (Australian sheep blowfly), Chrysomya spp., and Calliphora spp. blowflies caught on sticky traps baited with various synthetic attractants or a standard liver/sodium sulfide attractant in western Queensland were recorded. Numbers of each genus collected were influenced by the composition of the chemical attractants. Attractant mixtures based ...
Dumètre Aurélien - - 2004
We describe the use of a cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient as an improvement for the purification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from concentrated suspensions. After concentration by sucrose flotation, this technique gives a > 96% recovery of very pure unsporulated or sporulated oocysts, but requires "fresh" oocysts (< or = 10 ...
Fleischmann Thomas J - - 2004
Degradation of TNT by bovine rumen fluid, a novel source of anaerobic microbes, was investigated. Whole rumen fluid contents were spiked with TNT and incubated for a 24h time period. Supernatant samples taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 24h were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode array detection. Within ...
Arnold Mark - - 2003
The objective of this study was to contribute to a risk assessment to review the over 30 months (OTM) scheme in cattle, whereby all cattle aged over 30 months slaughtered in the UK are removed from the human food chain. We use back-calculation methods to estimate the impact of changes ...
Wanzala W - - 2003
A study to curb transmission cycle of a zoonotic Taenia cestodiasis between humans and cattle is presented. To evaluate the reliability of meat inspection procedure in detecting carcasses of cattle with T. saginata cysticercosis. A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of artificially (n=30) and naturally (n= 25) ...
Ilha Marcia R S - - 2003
A hyperthermic syndrome (HS) associated with consumption of ration contaminated with Claviceps purpurea is described in 4 dairy cattle herds from different counties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Outbreaks of this mycotoxicosis occurred during the summer of 1999-2000 and autumn of 2002 when 25% to ...
Seifi H A - - 2003
Mandibular pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis was diagnosed in a female Sannen goat. The doe presented for difficulty prehending and chewing food. The left mandible was swollen and firm on palpation. Radiographs revealed changes consistent with osteomyelitis of the affected mandible. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from aspirates of swollen mandible. Despite antimicrobial therapy, ...
Mussa P P - - 2003
Roe deer feeding habits were studied in the western Alps during the summer season using the faecal analysis method. The diet of cattle grazing in the same area was also investigated and the trophical niche overlap between the two species was determined. The roe deer diet was found very variable ...
Meintjes T - - 2002
These studies were conducted to investigate the possible role of certain aspects of the on-host ecology and off-host survival of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, in the dissemination of infestation. All developmental stages of the mite occurred in the fleece both proximally or distal to the skin of infested ...
Perez Andres M - - 2002
The spatial distribution of endemic bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Argentine cattle herds was described using recorded information on the detection of TB-like lesions in cattle slaughtered between March 1995 and 1997 at 126 slaughterhouses with federal inspection. Approximately, 47% (9472396 cattle) of the estimated total number of cattle slaughtered in ...
Crespo M J - - 2002
During a study on the occurrence of Malassezia spp. in 112 animals (50 horses, 25 goats, 25 sheep and 12 cows), Malassezia spp. were isolated from 60% of horses, 28% of sheep, 44% of goats and 58% of cows. In these animals, the occurrence of lipid-dependent species (42%) was much ...
Garnett B T - - 2002
Nocturnal observations, radio telemetry and time-lapse camera surveillance were used to investigate visits by badgers (Meles meles L.) to two cattle farms. During 59 half-nights (ca. 295 h) of observation and 17 nights (ca. 154 h) of camera surveillance, 139 separate visits to farm buildings, by at least 26 individually ...
Hornish Rex E - - 2002
Cephalosporins are an important class of antibacterial agents in use today for both humans and animals. Four generations of cephalosporins have evolved, all of which contain the beta-lactam sub-structure first found in penicillin. The range of cephalosporins available for use in food-producing animals, which is the subject of this review, ...
James Sarah M - - 2002
The short-term consumption of foods that differed in energy density (ED) and/or NaHCO3 supplementation, on subsequent food intake and diet selection in sheep were measured. Thirty sheep weighing 35.9 (sd 2.89) kg were used. Two foods were formulated: H had 11 and L had 8 MJ metabolizable energy/kg fresh matter. ...
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