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Results 151 - 200 of 417
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Karzis J - - 2007
Intramammary antibiotics are registered and tested for use in dairy cattle. This study investigated withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics (Curaclox LC [Norbrook Pharmacia AH]), Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) and Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac]) in dairy goats and compared them to withdrawal periods recommended for use ...
Hutchings M R - - 2007
Livestock breeding programmes have created resistant (R) and susceptible (S) sheep that differ in their ability to control parasites through their immune function but potentially also their grazing behaviour (i.e. parasite avoidance). Using the Perendale genetic lines, we tested the hypothesis that R-sheep avoid parasites more effectively, reducing their parasite ...
Fonty Gérard - - 2007
The aim of this work was to determine whether reductive acetogenesis can provide an alternative to methanogenesis in the rumen. Gnotobiotic lambs were inoculated with a functional rumen microbiota lacking methanogens and reared to maturity on a fibrous diet. Lambs with a methanogen-free rumen grew well, and the feed intake ...
Soutello R G V - - 2007
The present study was carried out in the northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, to determine the anthelmintic resistance status in cattle naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The anthelmintics tested were levamisole phosphate (Ripercol, Fort Dodge), albendazole sulphoxide (Ricobendazole, Fort Dodge), ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) and moxidectin (Cydectin, Fort Dodge), ...
Hutchison Michael L - - 2007
Statutory microbiological test results were collected from British meat plants over a 4-year period from June 2002 to May 2006. A total of 49,074 carcass test results from 19,409 cattle, 14,706 sheep, and 14,959 pig swabs and 95,179 environmental test results from surface swabs were obtained. These test results were ...
Tsegmed Uranchimeg - - 2007
Staphylococcal food poisoning is considered one of the leading foodborne illnesses in humans worldwide and is associated with contaminated foods of animal origin, such as milk and dairy products. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of staphylococci and the enterotoxigenic properties of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk from ...
Casal J - - 2007
A survey was conducted on 172 farms belonging to the same company in order to ascertain the biosecurity measures applied and the importance that farmers attributed to each measure. A questionnaire about general data, the opinions of farmers about biosecurity measures, and a detailed checklist of the biosecurity measures actually ...
Bewsell Denise - - 2007
The effect of dairy farming on water quality in New Zealand streams has been identified as an important environmental issue. Stream fencing, to keep cattle out of streams, is seen as a way to improve water quality. Fencing ensures that cattle cannot defecate in the stream, prevents bank erosion, and ...
Volanis M - - 2007
The objective of this field study was to depict the extensive system of dairy sheep farming in the semi-arid environment of the island of Crete and to assess the potential margins of improvement through technical intervention. Forty-three family-run farms keeping a total of 13,870 sheep were surveyed in seven representative ...
Sri Jeyakumar C - - 2007
From May to July 2005 a study was conducted on the prevalence and effects of haemonchosis in goats farmed on communal grazing belonging to resource-poor farmers at two study sites, namely Mlungisi (26 degrees 53'E, 31 degrees 53'S) and Ezibeleni (26 degrees 58'E, 31 degrees 53'S), situated within the Chris ...
Lilenbaum Walter - - 2008
Serum samples from 248 adult dairy goats from 13 flocks with lowered fertility farmed in the Rio de Janeiro region of Brazil were examined for Leptospira antibodies by MAT with 24 serovars, cut off 100. A questionnaire was completed for each herd. Antibodies were detected in 20.8% of these goats, ...
Simukoko H - - 2007
On the plateau of eastern Zambia, trypanosomosis is endemic. Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae), the only tsetse species present, is almost entirely dependent on livestock as its source of food with cattle being the most preferred host. To determine if tsetse challenge is distributed equally over the various age ...
Jellison Kristen L - - 2007
Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis are protozoan parasites responsible for cryptosporidiosis, an acute gastrointestinal illness that can be life-threatening for immunocompromised persons. Sources and genotypes of Cryptosporidium oocysts were investigated in two agricultural areas within the Wachusett Reservoir watershed, a drinking water source for Boston, Massachusetts. Two brooks (denoted Brook ...
Ayantunde A A - - 2007
Groundnut haulms along with cowpea hay are major crop residues used for animal fattening in the West African Sahel. In traditional sheep fattening, feeds are always provided ad-hoc and in an unregulated fashion, which is rather wasteful. As a preliminary study to establish the optimal feeding levels of groundnut haulms ...
Mader T L - - 2007
Experiments were conducted to evaluate strategies designed to reduce heat stress of cattle. In the first experiment, cattle were sprinkled for 20 min every 1.5 h between 1000 hours and 1750 hours (WET) versus not sprinkled (DRY). In a second experiment, treatments consisted of: (1) control, no water application; (2) ...
Hone Jim - - 2007
1. The aim of this study was to derive and evaluate a priori models of the relationship between annual instantaneous population growth rate (r) and climate. These were derived from the numerical response of annual r and food, and the effect of climate on a parameter in the numerical response. ...
Negrini R - - 2007
The verification of the breed origin of animal products is relevant for food safety and authenticity. We assessed the suitability of AFLP molecular markers in the assignment of cattle individuals to their breed of origin. Three hundred and ninety-six animals belonging to 16 cattle breeds genotyped with 141 AFLP markers ...
Quigley, Simon
"March 2004"
Mason P C - - 2006
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of pour-on anthelmintics against field strains of parasitic nematodes in young cattle on five farms in New Zealand. METHODS: Faecal nematode egg count (FEC) reduction (FECR) tests were carried out on five calf-rearing farms using pour-on formulations of levamisole, ivermectin, eprinomectin, and the simultaneous administration ...
Le Bizec Bruno - - 2006
Boldenone is an androgenic steroid that improves the growth and food conversion in food producing animals. In most countries worldwide, this anabolic steroid is forbidden for meat production. Until recently, the control of its illegal use was based either on 17beta-boldenone or 17alpha-boldenone (its main metabolite in cattle) identification in ...
Rudenko Larisa - - 2007
The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine issued a voluntary request to producers of livestock clones not to introduce food from clones or their progeny into commerce until the agency had assessed whether production of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) posed ...
Ozdemir U - - 2006
The efficacy of danofloxacin (Advocin A180) was evaluated for the treatment of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. Ten healthy Angora goats, confirmed free of CCPP, were exposed to clinically affected animals from a natural outbreak in Thrace, Turkey. After 14 days exposure, 8 goats showed ...
Uslu U - - 2006
Slaughterhouse surveys to determine the prevalence and intensity of larval Oestrus ovis Linnaeus (Diptera: Oestridae) in sheep, were conducted monthly for 1 year in Konya, Turkey. A total of 624 sheep, selected at random, were examined and 59% were found to be infested by O. ovis. A total of 8801 ...
Sharif M - - 2007
Serum samples from 290 cattle, 400 goats and 588 sheep slaughtered for food in various areas of the Mazandaran province, Iran were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), from December 2004 to April 2005. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 30% (120/400) ...
Morgan E R - - 2006
In order to evaluate the epidemiology of parasitism in farmed ruminants in the changed agricultural context in Kazakhstan, 505 cattle, sheep and goats were surveyed for gastrointestinal parasitism using coprological examination, and a further thirty sheep and four goats using post mortem extraction of helminths. The dominant helminth genera were ...
Andréoletti Olivier - - 2006
Oral contamination with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent in susceptible PRNP genotype sheep results in widespread distribution of prion in the host. Because ARR homozygous sheep are considered to be resistant to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, they have been selected to eradicate scrapie from sheep flocks and to protect the human ...
Cola, M.
The intensive fattening in housing conditions of Merino young sheep implies monthey food rations containing approximately 100/110 g RDP/ 1 NMU. Under these conditions the animals can reach almost 48 kg from the initial 28 in about 93 days, so the total growth increase is of 20 kg, accepted by ...
Smith G C - - 2007
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important economic problem. The incidence of TB in cattle herds has steadily risen in the UK, and badgers are strongly implicated in spreading disease. Since the mid-1970s the UK government has adopted a number of badger culling strategies to attempt to reduce infection in cattle. ...
Christodoulopoulos G - - 2006
The objectives of the present study were to study the fauna of fleas infesting dairy goats in Greece, the spectrum of hosts each flea species infests, identify risk factors in the environment, and goat management practices that favour flea infestation of goats, and describe the seasonal variation of infestation in ...
Aaserud,Ragnar Mathias
Invertebrate community responses to grazing were studied within a fully replicated,landscape scale experiment where densities of domestic sheep were manipulated in alpine ecosystems in Hol, Norway. I determined species richness and abundance of beetles and spiders with pitfall trapping in each of the enclosures with three different levels of sheep ...
Derlet Robert W - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The presence of coliform bacteria indicates a watershed risk for harboring microbes capable of causing human disease. We hypothesized that water from watersheds that have different human- or animal-use patterns would have differing risks for the presence of coliform bacteria. METHODS; Water was collected in wilderness areas of the ...
Floate Kevin D - - 2006
Endectocides, or macrocyclic lactones, are veterinary parasiticides used globally to control nematodes and arthropods affecting livestock. Cattle treated with these products fecally excrete residues that are toxic to dung-inhabiting insects, including species that accelerate dung degradation. Concerns have been raised that use of endectocides may reduce insect diversity and cause ...
Braccia, Amy
Relationships between macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental stressors were assessed from fall 2002 through spring 2004 in five small streams that represented a study design that involved a gradient of increasing stress (increased cattle density). Macroinvertebrate assemblages were related to environmental factors that were quantified at the sample scale. Environmental factors ...
Smith D G - - 2005
The large fluctuations seen in cattle populations during periods of drought in sub-Saharan Africa are not evident in the donkey population. Donkeys appear to have a survival advantage over cattle that is increasingly recognized by smallholder farmers in their selection of working animals. The donkey's survival advantages arise from both ...
Sharpe R T - - 2005
The potential chemical contamination incidents investigated by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) between 1990 and 2002 are reviewed. Incidents were identified in the course of the VLA's surveillance of food animal disease and further investigations were carried out on behalf of the Food Standards Agency in order to identify and ...
Besser Thomas E - - 2005
The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial feedlot cattle was monitored throughout the feeding period by repeated bacteriologic culture of feces. Fecal pats (n = 10) in 20 feedlot pens were sampled at 2-weeks interval beginning at entry into the feedlot and continuing until slaughter. The least-squares mean C. jejuni ...
Eblen D R - - 2005
During 1997 and 1998, the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service completed nationwide microbiological baseline studies on four separate categories of livestock and poultry. Data were collected by sponge-sampling techniques. These studies were designed to provide nationwide estimates of the prevalence of Salmonella and prevalence and concentrations of Escherichia coli ...
Abrial David - - 2005
A spatial analysis was carried out in order to analyse the reason why the risk of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) was spatially heterogeneous in France, during the period following the feed ban of Meat and Bone Meal to cattle. The hypothesis of cross-contamination between cattle feedstuff and monogastric feedstuff, which ...
Tojo Kana - - 2005
Experimental mouse AA amyloidosis can be transmissible by dietary ingestion of amyloid fibrils and it is well known that AA amyloidosis occasionally develops in aged cattle. Bovine liver and intestine have conventionally been used in Oriental foods, and the incidence of visceral AA amyloidosis in slaughtered cattle was evaluated. Renal ...
Gicheha M G - - 2005
Economic values for resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in meat sheep were estimated based on previously published genetic and phenotypic parameters in a selection index objectively optimizing gains on yearling weight (YW). A two-trait index of YW and faecal egg count (FEC) were considered when accounting only for tangible roles ...
Pieroni Andrea - - 2005
An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacognostic survey has been carried out in one of the most isolated mountainous area in Europe: the village of Lepushe and its surrounding territory, in the Northern Albanian Alps. Approximately 70 botanical taxa and 160 preparations, mainly derived from plants, but also derived from animal products or ...
Casalone Cristina - - 2005
Tongue involvement by prion spreading was shown to be a common outcome after oral or intracranial experimental challenge with scrapie and transmissible mink encephalopathy sources in rodent models. It is also known that bovine spongiform encephalopathy, which is pathogenic for humans, is experimentally transmissible to sheep and can lead to ...
Hummel Jürgen - - 2005
Retention time of food in the digestive tract is among the key variables that describe the digestive strategy of a herbivore. Mean retention time (MRT) was measured on 4 captive specimens of the okapi, a strictly browsing ruminant. Retention time was quantified on different diets, using Co-EDTA (fluid phase) and ...
Kühne M - - 2005
The full elimination of all specified risk material (SRM) in food of animal origin is crucial for consumer protection and is of high priority in inner EU trade. Among other tissues, the tonsils of cattle are considered as SRM. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the 'cut ...
Prankel S H - - 2005
Critical limits for cadmium in parts of the human food chain are considered to have too small margins of safety and some limits are regularly exceeded. There is concern about the exposure of some sections of the population to cadmium in the human food chain, in particular regarding offal, which ...
Archer Z A - - 2005
Nutritional feedback provided by systemic hormones, such as insulin and leptin, influences reproductive neuroendocrine output within the hypothalamus, yet the mechanisms and their interaction with photoperiodic cues remain unresolved in seasonal species. Here, peripheral glucose (G) infusion was used to increase endogenous concentrations of insulin and leptin in food-restricted sheep ...
Hussein H S - - 2005
The main objective of this review was to assess the role of dairy cattle and their products in human infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A large number of STEC strains (e.g., members of the serogroups O26, O91, O103, O111, O118, O145, and O166) have caused major outbreaks and ...
Burns J C - - 2005
The preference exhibited by animals in selecting one feed over another is important only if the preferred diet is consumed daily in larger quantities, digested to a greater extent, or both. Six alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays were harvested in pairs at sunset (PM) and sunrise (AM) on consecutive days ...
Hussein Hussein S - - 2005
The large number of cases of human illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) worldwide has raised safety concerns for foods of bovine origin. These human illnesses include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Severe cases end with chronic renal failure, chronic nervous system deficiencies, ...
Ogden N H - - 2005
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, and a longitudinal study in Tanga, to investigate tick-control methods and other factors influencing tick attachment to the cattle of smallholder dairy farms. Most farmers reported applying acaricides at intervals of 1-2 weeks, most used acaricides that require ...
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