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Avery Leon - - 2012
C. elegans feeding depends on the action of the pharynx, a neuromuscular pump that joins the mouth to the intestine. The pharyngeal muscle captures food-bacteria-and transports it back to the intestine. It accomplishes this through a combination of two motions, pumping and isthmus peristalsis. Pumping, the most visible and best ...
Friedland Kevin D - - 2012
The shift in marine resource management from a compartmentalized approach of dealing with resources on a species basis to an approach based on management of spatially defined ecosystems requires an accurate accounting of energy flow. The flow of energy from primary production through the food web will ultimately limit upper ...
Parsons Matthew P - - 2012
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is known to induce food intake when administered into the lateral ventricle or certain brain areas. This is somewhat contradictory to its reward-suppressing role, as food is a strong rewarding stimulus. This discrepancy may be due to the functional diversity of N/OFQ's target brain areas. N/OFQ has ...
Maniscalco James W - - 2012
Neural circuits distributed within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and limbic forebrain interact to control food intake and energy balance under normal day-to-day conditions, and in response to stressful conditions under which homeostasis is threatened. Experimental studies using rats and mice have generated a voluminous literature regarding the functional organization of circuits ...
El Khoury D - - 2012
Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its ...
Shafaghat Ali - - 2011
Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the ...
Yoshimura Hiroshi - - 2011
Feelings of deliciousness during having foods are mainly produced by perceptions of sensory information extracted from foods themselves, such as taste and olfaction. However, environmental factors might modify the feeling of deliciousness. In the present study, we investigated how the condition of audio-visual environments affects the feeling of deliciousness during ...
Hira Tohru - - 2011
A hydrolysate prepared from soybean beta-conglycinin reduced food intake through cholecystokinin release in rats; however, effects of the hydrolysate on human appetites are unknown. In this study, healthy volunteers ingested 3g of the beta-conglycinin hydrolysate (BconB) and/or a soy protein hydrolysate (HN) contained in a beverage or in a jelly. ...
Egea P - - 2011
The principal objective of this study was to assess whether chicken eggshells may be contaminated by ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBLC). Additional analyses were carried out to determine if ESBLEC could be detected in other foodstuffs such as cooked poultry or fresh vegetables. Seventy-two eggshells from different supermarkets and stores as ...
Tolstykh E I - - 2011
Releases of radioactive materials from the Mayak Production Association in 1949-1956 resulted in contamination of the Techa River; a nuclide of major interest was Sr, which downstream residents consumed with water from the river and with milk contaminated by cows' consumption of river water and contaminated pasture. Over the years, ...
Nebbia C - - 2011
Official monitoring of residues in cattle throughout the European Union in 2007 found <0.2% non-compliance for the use of illegal growth-promoters (GPs), including sex steroids, corticosteroids and β-agonists. There is evidence, however, that these figures may underestimate the real incidence of GP abuse in meat cattle breeding. One source of ...
Durso Lisa M - - 2010
The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine ...
Wagenmaker Elizabeth R ER Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology and Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2010
Five experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress interferes with the estrous cycle of sheep. In experiment 1, ewes were repeatedly isolated during the follicular phase. Timing, amplitude, and duration of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were not affected. In experiment 2, follicular-phase ewes were subjected ...
Suekawa Y - - 2010
In Japan, Japanese Black and Holstein cattle are appreciated as popular sources of meat, and imported beef from Australia and the United States is also in demand in the meat industry. Since the BSE outbreak, the problem of false sales has arisen: imported beef has sometimes been mislabeled as domestic ...
Alton Gillian D - - 2010
Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, ...
Favreau A - - 2010
Previous work has shown that herbivores successfully learn to associate food sensory characteristics with postingestive consequences when the conditioning procedure is simple, whereas this ability breaks down when the learning task is made more complex. We hypothesized that sensory characteristics could act as indicators of postingestive consequences and that the ...
Nonga Hezron E - - 2010
An investigation was conducted in Morogoro municipality to assess the likelihood of slaughter cattle posing public health risk of contaminating carcasses with thermophilic Campylobacter. Butchers and meat shopkeepers were interviewed on source of slaughter cattle, method of animal and carcass transportation, carcass dressing, meat storage facilities, access to clean water ...
Hörbrand Thomas - - 2009
Within the countrywide monitoring of Culicoides species established by the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and User Protection (BMELV), the group Regensburg evaluated nine BG-Sentinel Midge traps located at cattle farms in the federal states Baden-Württemberg (BW) and Bavaria (BY) between March 2007 and May 2008. The highest numbers ...
Silva Aleksandro Schafer da - - 2009
Duddingtonia flagrans is a nematode-trapping fungus responsible for attacking larval stages of helminths in pasture, which has potential as a biological control method. The aim of this study was to test the magnesium sulphate centrifugal flotation technique for the quantification of D. flagrans chlamydospores in sheep faeces and to verify ...
Lane E A - - 2008
Oestrous synchronisation is an important strategy to improve reproductive management of cattle. The use of oestradiol-17beta, and its related ester derivatives, in food-producing cattle for the purposes of oestrous synchronisation is prohibited in the European Union since October 2006; a serious limitation in the implementation of large-scale use of cost ...
Shin Sung Jae - - 2008
We previously reported that protein antigens of serodiagnostic potential were more abundant in culture filtrates than cellular extracts from liquid cultures of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (D. Cho and M. T. Collins, Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13:1155-1161, 2006). Based on this observation, a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using antigens secreted ...
Munn Adam J - - 2008
It has been suggested that large foregut-fermenting marsupial herbivores, the kangaroos and their relatives, may be less constrained by food intake limitations as compared with ruminants, due mainly to differences in their digestive morphology and management of ingesta particles through the gut. In particular, as the quality of forage declines ...
Lee P-W - - 2008
Undeclared mustard residues in food products could trigger allergic reactions in mustard-allergic consumers. Our objective was to develop and validate a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of mustard residues in foods. A mixture of yellow, brown, and oriental mustard seeds was used to immunize 3 rabbits and 1 sheep. Two ...
Cobbaut Katrijn - - 2008
Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle at the farm level is mostly determined by taking individually rectal samples. From the animal welfare point of view the collection of such samples on the farm is not advisable. The present study evaluated alternative sample types to assess the E. coli O157 ...
Tibbo M - - 2008
We used a partial-budget analysis to evaluate profitability of different management strategies of three genotypes of sheep in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial experiment conducted at Debre Berhan research station in the central highlands of Ethiopia. This involved two anthelmintic-treatment levels (treated vs. non-treated), two supplementary nutrition levels ...
Conington J - - 2008
Mastitis is a problem in the sheep industry, and its incidence varies widely with how it is recorded, the breed of sheep and the farm. Virtually all the published information about the genetics of mastitis refers to dairy breeds of cattle and sheep, and there is little information for meat ...
Inaba Rokuta - - 2009
In Japan, most farm animal excreta has been stored directly on farmland. Runoff from this storage has often caused water pollution. Biogasification is anticipated as an important technology to manage excreta properly, but complex problems hinder its introduction. Economic aspects of management have been especially difficult for dairy farmers. For ...
Molia Sophie - - 2008
We report Marie Galante as one of the Caribbean islands most heavily infested by the tropical bont tick (TBT) Amblyomma variegatum which is associated with two major diseases of ruminants: heartwater and dermatophilosis. In 2005, a survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of TBT infestation in cattle, the prevalence ...
Grego Elena - - 2008
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious disease caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). In the three studies performed, we have obtained data of the importance of colostrum/milk (C/M) in the transmission of JSRV. In the first study, a group of sheep from a flock with a long history of ...
de Almeida André Martinho - - 2008
A survey of the animal production systems and genetic resources was conducted in Northern Cacheu Province, Guinea Bissau. Animal owners and their families, village chiefs, shepherds and local officials were interviewed. The vast majority of the population is dedicated to very small-scale subsistence farming where animal ownership has an important ...
Iannuzzi A - - 2008
Cytogenetic investigations performed in eight Portuguese cattle breeds revealed the presence of rob(1;29) in both heterozygous and homozygous conditions in all, and five breeds, respectively, with variable percentages of carriers as follows: 41.0% in Arouquesa, 69.9% in Barrosa, 39.4% in Maronesa, 2.8% in Mirandesa, 8.5% in Marinhoa, 1.8% in Mertolenga, ...
Hummel Jürgen - - 2008
Retention time of food in the digestive tract is a major aspect describing the digestive physiology of herbivores. Differences in feed retention times have been described for different ruminant feeding types. In this study, a dominantly grazing desert ruminant, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), was investigated in this respect. Eight animals ...
Vinten A J A - - 2008
The objectives of this study were (i) to apportion sources of faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) loads from a dairy farm to a stream in the Irvine catchment; (ii) to assess efficacy of pollution mitigation measures installed on this farm; (iii) to assess frequency with which observed FC ...
Karzis J - - 2007
Intramammary antibiotics are registered and tested for use in dairy cattle. This study investigated withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics (Curaclox LC [Norbrook Pharmacia AH]), Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) and Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac]) in dairy goats and compared them to withdrawal periods recommended for use ...
Hutchings M R - - 2007
Livestock breeding programmes have created resistant (R) and susceptible (S) sheep that differ in their ability to control parasites through their immune function but potentially also their grazing behaviour (i.e. parasite avoidance). Using the Perendale genetic lines, we tested the hypothesis that R-sheep avoid parasites more effectively, reducing their parasite ...
Fonty Gérard - - 2007
The aim of this work was to determine whether reductive acetogenesis can provide an alternative to methanogenesis in the rumen. Gnotobiotic lambs were inoculated with a functional rumen microbiota lacking methanogens and reared to maturity on a fibrous diet. Lambs with a methanogen-free rumen grew well, and the feed intake ...
Soutello R G V - - 2007
The present study was carried out in the northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, to determine the anthelmintic resistance status in cattle naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The anthelmintics tested were levamisole phosphate (Ripercol, Fort Dodge), albendazole sulphoxide (Ricobendazole, Fort Dodge), ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) and moxidectin (Cydectin, Fort Dodge), ...
Hutchison Michael L - - 2007
Statutory microbiological test results were collected from British meat plants over a 4-year period from June 2002 to May 2006. A total of 49,074 carcass test results from 19,409 cattle, 14,706 sheep, and 14,959 pig swabs and 95,179 environmental test results from surface swabs were obtained. These test results were ...
Tsegmed Uranchimeg - - 2007
Staphylococcal food poisoning is considered one of the leading foodborne illnesses in humans worldwide and is associated with contaminated foods of animal origin, such as milk and dairy products. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of staphylococci and the enterotoxigenic properties of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk from ...
Casal J - - 2007
A survey was conducted on 172 farms belonging to the same company in order to ascertain the biosecurity measures applied and the importance that farmers attributed to each measure. A questionnaire about general data, the opinions of farmers about biosecurity measures, and a detailed checklist of the biosecurity measures actually ...
Bewsell Denise - - 2007
The effect of dairy farming on water quality in New Zealand streams has been identified as an important environmental issue. Stream fencing, to keep cattle out of streams, is seen as a way to improve water quality. Fencing ensures that cattle cannot defecate in the stream, prevents bank erosion, and ...
Volanis M - - 2007
The objective of this field study was to depict the extensive system of dairy sheep farming in the semi-arid environment of the island of Crete and to assess the potential margins of improvement through technical intervention. Forty-three family-run farms keeping a total of 13,870 sheep were surveyed in seven representative ...
Sri Jeyakumar C - - 2007
From May to July 2005 a study was conducted on the prevalence and effects of haemonchosis in goats farmed on communal grazing belonging to resource-poor farmers at two study sites, namely Mlungisi (26 degrees 53'E, 31 degrees 53'S) and Ezibeleni (26 degrees 58'E, 31 degrees 53'S), situated within the Chris ...
Lilenbaum Walter - - 2008
Serum samples from 248 adult dairy goats from 13 flocks with lowered fertility farmed in the Rio de Janeiro region of Brazil were examined for Leptospira antibodies by MAT with 24 serovars, cut off 100. A questionnaire was completed for each herd. Antibodies were detected in 20.8% of these goats, ...
Simukoko H - - 2007
On the plateau of eastern Zambia, trypanosomosis is endemic. Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae), the only tsetse species present, is almost entirely dependent on livestock as its source of food with cattle being the most preferred host. To determine if tsetse challenge is distributed equally over the various age ...
Jellison Kristen L - - 2007
Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis are protozoan parasites responsible for cryptosporidiosis, an acute gastrointestinal illness that can be life-threatening for immunocompromised persons. Sources and genotypes of Cryptosporidium oocysts were investigated in two agricultural areas within the Wachusett Reservoir watershed, a drinking water source for Boston, Massachusetts. Two brooks (denoted Brook ...
Ayantunde A A - - 2007
Groundnut haulms along with cowpea hay are major crop residues used for animal fattening in the West African Sahel. In traditional sheep fattening, feeds are always provided ad-hoc and in an unregulated fashion, which is rather wasteful. As a preliminary study to establish the optimal feeding levels of groundnut haulms ...
Mader T L - - 2007
Experiments were conducted to evaluate strategies designed to reduce heat stress of cattle. In the first experiment, cattle were sprinkled for 20 min every 1.5 h between 1000 hours and 1750 hours (WET) versus not sprinkled (DRY). In a second experiment, treatments consisted of: (1) control, no water application; (2) ...
Hone Jim - - 2007
1. The aim of this study was to derive and evaluate a priori models of the relationship between annual instantaneous population growth rate (r) and climate. These were derived from the numerical response of annual r and food, and the effect of climate on a parameter in the numerical response. ...
Negrini R - - 2007
The verification of the breed origin of animal products is relevant for food safety and authenticity. We assessed the suitability of AFLP molecular markers in the assignment of cattle individuals to their breed of origin. Three hundred and ninety-six animals belonging to 16 cattle breeds genotyped with 141 AFLP markers ...
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