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Sabatier Nancy - - 2013
Oxytocin neurons have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus project to ...
Moullé Valentine S - - 2013
Variations in plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations are detected by FA sensing neurons in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus. These neurons play a physiological role in the control of food intake and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Le Foll et al. previously showed in vitro that at ...
Byerly Mardi S MS Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2013
C1q/TNF-related protein 13 (CTRP13), a hormone secreted by adipose tissue (adipokines), helps regulate glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that CTRP13 expression is increased in obese and hyperphagic leptin-deficient mice, suggesting that it may modulate food intake and body weight. CTRP13 is also expressed in the brain, although ...
Zampieri Thais T TT Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, - - 2013
Leucine activates the intracellular mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Although central infusion of leucine reduces food intake, it is still uncertain whether oral leucine supplementation is able to affect the hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. We observed increased phosphorylation of ...
Yang Wanchun W Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. - - 2013
Excessive food/energy intake is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a critical role in the control of food intake and peripheral metabolism. The signaling pathways in hypothalamic neurons that regulate food intake and peripheral metabolism need to be better understood for ...
Smitka Kvido K Institute of Endocrinology, Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Neuroendocrinology, Narodni 8, 116 94 Prague 1, Czech - - 2013
Eating disorders such as anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by abnormal eating behavior. The essential aspect of AN is that the individual refuses to maintain a minimal normal body weight. The main features of BN are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain. The ...
Geha Paul Y PY John B Pierce Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06519, - - 2013
Smoking cessation is often followed by weight gain. Eating behaviors and weight change have been linked to the brain response to food, but it is unknown whether smoking influences this response. We determined the influence of smoking status (smokers compared with nonsmokers) on the brain response to food in regions ...
Jeong Jin Kwon JK Program in Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2013
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus integrate a variety of central and peripheral metabolic inputs, and regulate energy homeostasis by controlling energy expenditure and food intake. To accomplish this, a precise balance of production and degradation of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an anorexigenic neuropeptide and product of the POMC gene, in ...
Haider S - - 2012
Introduction: Over a period of time researchers have become more interested in finding out the potential of various foods to maintain the general health and to treat diseases. Almonds are a very good source of many nutrients which may help to sharpen the memory and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. ...
Kaneko Kentaro - - 2012
Prostaglandin (PG) D(2), the most abundant PG in the central nervous system (CNS), is a bioactive lipid having various central actions including sleep induction, hypothermia and modulation of the pain response. We found that centrally administered PGD(2) stimulates food intake via the DP(1) among the two receptor subtypes for PGD(2) ...
Cason Angie M AM Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Basic Science Building 406, 173 Ashley Avenue, MSC 510, Charleston, SC 29425, - - 2013
The orexin/hypocretin system has recently been implicated in reward-seeking, especially for highly salient food and drug rewards. We reasoned that this system may be strongly engaged during periods of reward restriction, including food restriction. This study examined the involvement of the orexin (Orx) system in responding for sucrose, and in ...
van der Plasse G G Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. - - 2013
Cues that are associated with the availability of food are known to trigger food anticipatory activity (FAA). This activity is expressed as increased locomotor activity and enables an animal to prepare for maximal utilization of nutritional resources. Although the exact neural network that mediates FAA is still unknown, several studies ...
Jastreboff Ania M AM Section of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, - - 2013
Obesity is associated with alterations in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions involved in food motivation and reward. Stress and the presence of food cues may each motivate eating and engage corticolimibic-striatal neurocircuitry. It is unknown how these factors interact to influence brain responses and whether these interactions are influenced by obesity, insulin ...
Wise Roy A RA Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. - - 2013
The question of whether (or to what degree) obesity reflects addiction to high-energy foods often narrows to the question of whether the overeating of these foods causes the same long-term neuroadaptations as are identified with the late stages of addiction. Of equal or perhaps greater interest is the question of ...
Volkow N D ND National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. - - 2013
Drug addiction and obesity appear to share several properties. Both can be defined as disorders in which the saliency of a specific type of reward (food or drug) becomes exaggerated relative to, and at the expense of others rewards. Both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects, which are in ...
Kroemer Nils B NB Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, - - 2013
Ghrelin figures prominently in the regulation of appetite in normal-weighed individuals. The apparent failure of this mechanism in eating disorders and the connection to addictive behavior in general demand a deeper understanding of the endogenous central-nervous processes related to ghrelin. Thus, we investigated processing of pictures showing palatable food after ...
Pan Liping - - 2012
A redesigned food insecurity question that measured food stress was included in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in the Social Context optional module. The objective of our study was to examine the association between food stress and obesity using this question as a surrogate for food insecurity. Our ...
Petrovich G D - - 2012
Associative learning can enable cues from the environment to stimulate feeding in the absence of physiological hunger. How learned cues are integrated with the homeostatic regulatory system is unknown. Here we examined whether the underlying mechanism involves the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide regulators orexin/hypocretin (ORX) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). We used ...
Chawanji A S - - 2012
The use of X-rays to evaluate food microstructure has developed considerably in recent years. In this work we used X-ray micro tomography (XMT) to visualize the microstructure of loose-packed and compacted samples of spray-dried skim milk powder (SMP) and whole milk powder (WMP) and to quantify the proportion of both ...
Kest Karen K Graduate Center, City University of New York, United - - 2012
Neutral stimuli associated with unconditioned stimuli (USs) acquire the ability to act as conditioned stimuli (CSs), which can elicit behaviors similar to the US with which they are associated. The neural mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully known. We have previously proposed a model stipulating CSs function as ...
Veyrune J L - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure modifications of mastication after immediate loading full-arch prosthesis (ILFAP) rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Fourteen patients were observed before and 6 months after ILFAP rehabilitation when masticating two natural, standardized foods (peanut and carrot) and three model foods with increasing hardness. The granulometry of the expectorated ...
Han Bo-Ping - - 2012
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that massive occurrence of cyanobacteria as food source is one of the factors limiting the distribution of the zooplankton Daphnia galeata in the warm water reservoirs of South China. D. galeata was fed with Chlorella pyrenoidosa, 4 strains of cyanobacteria (three strains ...
Sooresh Aishwarya - - 2012
Colloids on the nanometer size scale are beginning to find increased applications in drinks, foods, food-contact surfaces, and food packaging. While these particles add intrinsic value to the food industry, their potential toxicities warrant careful studies. The physicochemical changes and possible perturbations to microbial communities within the gastrointestinal tract have ...
Knutson K M - - 2012
Most neuropsychological research using food as a reward uses single-bid auctions. We wished to determine whether focal brain lesions would affect the ability and motivation to win snack food items in a computerized auction allowing multiple bids. This allowed us to assess participants' abilities under more complex conditions. We enrolled ...
Fritz Julia - - 2012
Ostriches (Struthio camelus) achieve digesta retention times, digesta particle size reduction and digestibilities equal to similar-sized herbivorous mammals, in contrast to some other avian herbivores. The sequence of digestive processes in their gastrointestinal tract, however, is still unexplored. Using two groups of four ostriches (mean body mass 75.1±17.3kg) kept on ...
Kreulen C M - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: To quantify swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with a moderate shortened dental arch dentition (SDA: missing molar teeth, but premolar teeth in occluding position and uninterrupted anterior regions) compared to subjects with a complete dental arch dentition (CDA). METHODS: Fourteen females with SDA (3-4 occlusal premolar units) and 14 ...
Kashima Noriko - - 2012
Methods for quantitative oral administration of various substances to Caenorhabditis elegans are needed. Previously, we succeeded in oral administration of hydrophilic substances using liposomes. However, an adequate system for delivery of hydrophobic chemicals was not available. In this study, we developed a method for oral administration of lipid-soluble substances to ...
Ahmad Asif - - 2012
β-Glucan is a valuable functional ingredient and various extraction techniques are available for its extraction. Choice of an appropriate extraction technique is important as it may affect the quality, structure, rheological properties, molecular weight, and other functional properties of the extracted β-glucan. These properties lead to the use of β-glucan ...
Sugimoto K - - 2012
Summary  Objective parameters that could provide a basis for food texture selection for elderly or dysphagic patients have not been established. We, therefore, aimed to develop a precise method of measuring large particles (>2 mm in diameter) in a bolus and an analytical method to provide a scientific rationale for food ...
Peters Ruud - - 2012
The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products subjected to in vitro digestion ...
Thombre Avinash G - - 2012
Ziprasidone, commercially available as Geodon(®) capsules, is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It is a BCS Class II drug that shows up to a 2-fold increase in absorption in the presence of food. Because compliance is a major issue in this patient population, ...
Rayner Marilyn - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Particle-stabilised emulsions, so-called Pickering emulsions, are known to possess many beneficial properties, including being extremely stable. Starch granules isolated from quinoa have been used as emulsion stabilising particles. The granules were intact, 1-3 µm in diameter and modified with octenyl succinic anhydride to increase their hydrophobicity. Starch granules, as ...
Avery Leon - - 2012
C. elegans feeding depends on the action of the pharynx, a neuromuscular pump that joins the mouth to the intestine. The pharyngeal muscle captures food-bacteria-and transports it back to the intestine. It accomplishes this through a combination of two motions, pumping and isthmus peristalsis. Pumping, the most visible and best ...
Friedland Kevin D - - 2012
The shift in marine resource management from a compartmentalized approach of dealing with resources on a species basis to an approach based on management of spatially defined ecosystems requires an accurate accounting of energy flow. The flow of energy from primary production through the food web will ultimately limit upper ...
Parsons Matthew P - - 2012
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is known to induce food intake when administered into the lateral ventricle or certain brain areas. This is somewhat contradictory to its reward-suppressing role, as food is a strong rewarding stimulus. This discrepancy may be due to the functional diversity of N/OFQ's target brain areas. N/OFQ has ...
Maniscalco James W - - 2012
Neural circuits distributed within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and limbic forebrain interact to control food intake and energy balance under normal day-to-day conditions, and in response to stressful conditions under which homeostasis is threatened. Experimental studies using rats and mice have generated a voluminous literature regarding the functional organization of circuits ...
El Khoury D - - 2012
Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its ...
Shafaghat Ali - - 2011
Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the ...
Yoshimura Hiroshi - - 2011
Feelings of deliciousness during having foods are mainly produced by perceptions of sensory information extracted from foods themselves, such as taste and olfaction. However, environmental factors might modify the feeling of deliciousness. In the present study, we investigated how the condition of audio-visual environments affects the feeling of deliciousness during ...
Hira Tohru - - 2011
A hydrolysate prepared from soybean beta-conglycinin reduced food intake through cholecystokinin release in rats; however, effects of the hydrolysate on human appetites are unknown. In this study, healthy volunteers ingested 3g of the beta-conglycinin hydrolysate (BconB) and/or a soy protein hydrolysate (HN) contained in a beverage or in a jelly. ...
Egea P - - 2011
The principal objective of this study was to assess whether chicken eggshells may be contaminated by ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBLC). Additional analyses were carried out to determine if ESBLEC could be detected in other foodstuffs such as cooked poultry or fresh vegetables. Seventy-two eggshells from different supermarkets and stores as ...
Tolstykh E I - - 2011
Releases of radioactive materials from the Mayak Production Association in 1949-1956 resulted in contamination of the Techa River; a nuclide of major interest was Sr, which downstream residents consumed with water from the river and with milk contaminated by cows' consumption of river water and contaminated pasture. Over the years, ...
Nebbia C - - 2011
Official monitoring of residues in cattle throughout the European Union in 2007 found <0.2% non-compliance for the use of illegal growth-promoters (GPs), including sex steroids, corticosteroids and β-agonists. There is evidence, however, that these figures may underestimate the real incidence of GP abuse in meat cattle breeding. One source of ...
Durso Lisa M - - 2010
The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine ...
Wagenmaker Elizabeth R ER Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology and Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2010
Five experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress interferes with the estrous cycle of sheep. In experiment 1, ewes were repeatedly isolated during the follicular phase. Timing, amplitude, and duration of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were not affected. In experiment 2, follicular-phase ewes were subjected ...
Suekawa Y - - 2010
In Japan, Japanese Black and Holstein cattle are appreciated as popular sources of meat, and imported beef from Australia and the United States is also in demand in the meat industry. Since the BSE outbreak, the problem of false sales has arisen: imported beef has sometimes been mislabeled as domestic ...
Alton Gillian D - - 2010
Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, ...
Favreau A - - 2010
Previous work has shown that herbivores successfully learn to associate food sensory characteristics with postingestive consequences when the conditioning procedure is simple, whereas this ability breaks down when the learning task is made more complex. We hypothesized that sensory characteristics could act as indicators of postingestive consequences and that the ...
Nonga Hezron E - - 2010
An investigation was conducted in Morogoro municipality to assess the likelihood of slaughter cattle posing public health risk of contaminating carcasses with thermophilic Campylobacter. Butchers and meat shopkeepers were interviewed on source of slaughter cattle, method of animal and carcass transportation, carcass dressing, meat storage facilities, access to clean water ...
Hörbrand Thomas - - 2009
Within the countrywide monitoring of Culicoides species established by the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and User Protection (BMELV), the group Regensburg evaluated nine BG-Sentinel Midge traps located at cattle farms in the federal states Baden-Württemberg (BW) and Bavaria (BY) between March 2007 and May 2008. The highest numbers ...
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