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Cason Angie M AM Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Basic Science Building 406, 173 Ashley Avenue, MSC 510, Charleston, SC 29425, - - 2013
The orexin/hypocretin system has recently been implicated in reward-seeking, especially for highly salient food and drug rewards. We reasoned that this system may be strongly engaged during periods of reward restriction, including food restriction. This study examined the involvement of the orexin (Orx) system in responding for sucrose, and in ...
van der Plasse G G Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. - - 2013
Cues that are associated with the availability of food are known to trigger food anticipatory activity (FAA). This activity is expressed as increased locomotor activity and enables an animal to prepare for maximal utilization of nutritional resources. Although the exact neural network that mediates FAA is still unknown, several studies ...
Jastreboff Ania M AM Section of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, - - 2013
Obesity is associated with alterations in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions involved in food motivation and reward. Stress and the presence of food cues may each motivate eating and engage corticolimibic-striatal neurocircuitry. It is unknown how these factors interact to influence brain responses and whether these interactions are influenced by obesity, insulin ...
Wise Roy A RA Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. - - 2013
The question of whether (or to what degree) obesity reflects addiction to high-energy foods often narrows to the question of whether the overeating of these foods causes the same long-term neuroadaptations as are identified with the late stages of addiction. Of equal or perhaps greater interest is the question of ...
Volkow N D ND National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. - - 2013
Drug addiction and obesity appear to share several properties. Both can be defined as disorders in which the saliency of a specific type of reward (food or drug) becomes exaggerated relative to, and at the expense of others rewards. Both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects, which are in ...
Kroemer Nils B NB Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, - - 2013
Ghrelin figures prominently in the regulation of appetite in normal-weighed individuals. The apparent failure of this mechanism in eating disorders and the connection to addictive behavior in general demand a deeper understanding of the endogenous central-nervous processes related to ghrelin. Thus, we investigated processing of pictures showing palatable food after ...
Pan Liping - - 2012
A redesigned food insecurity question that measured food stress was included in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in the Social Context optional module. The objective of our study was to examine the association between food stress and obesity using this question as a surrogate for food insecurity. Our ...
Petrovich G D - - 2012
Associative learning can enable cues from the environment to stimulate feeding in the absence of physiological hunger. How learned cues are integrated with the homeostatic regulatory system is unknown. Here we examined whether the underlying mechanism involves the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide regulators orexin/hypocretin (ORX) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). We used ...
Chawanji A S - - 2012
The use of X-rays to evaluate food microstructure has developed considerably in recent years. In this work we used X-ray micro tomography (XMT) to visualize the microstructure of loose-packed and compacted samples of spray-dried skim milk powder (SMP) and whole milk powder (WMP) and to quantify the proportion of both ...
Kest Karen K Graduate Center, City University of New York, United - - 2012
Neutral stimuli associated with unconditioned stimuli (USs) acquire the ability to act as conditioned stimuli (CSs), which can elicit behaviors similar to the US with which they are associated. The neural mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully known. We have previously proposed a model stipulating CSs function as ...
Veyrune J L - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure modifications of mastication after immediate loading full-arch prosthesis (ILFAP) rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Fourteen patients were observed before and 6 months after ILFAP rehabilitation when masticating two natural, standardized foods (peanut and carrot) and three model foods with increasing hardness. The granulometry of the expectorated ...
Han Bo-Ping - - 2012
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that massive occurrence of cyanobacteria as food source is one of the factors limiting the distribution of the zooplankton Daphnia galeata in the warm water reservoirs of South China. D. galeata was fed with Chlorella pyrenoidosa, 4 strains of cyanobacteria (three strains ...
Sooresh Aishwarya - - 2012
Colloids on the nanometer size scale are beginning to find increased applications in drinks, foods, food-contact surfaces, and food packaging. While these particles add intrinsic value to the food industry, their potential toxicities warrant careful studies. The physicochemical changes and possible perturbations to microbial communities within the gastrointestinal tract have ...
Knutson K M - - 2012
Most neuropsychological research using food as a reward uses single-bid auctions. We wished to determine whether focal brain lesions would affect the ability and motivation to win snack food items in a computerized auction allowing multiple bids. This allowed us to assess participants' abilities under more complex conditions. We enrolled ...
Fritz Julia - - 2012
Ostriches (Struthio camelus) achieve digesta retention times, digesta particle size reduction and digestibilities equal to similar-sized herbivorous mammals, in contrast to some other avian herbivores. The sequence of digestive processes in their gastrointestinal tract, however, is still unexplored. Using two groups of four ostriches (mean body mass 75.1±17.3kg) kept on ...
Kreulen C M - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: To quantify swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with a moderate shortened dental arch dentition (SDA: missing molar teeth, but premolar teeth in occluding position and uninterrupted anterior regions) compared to subjects with a complete dental arch dentition (CDA). METHODS: Fourteen females with SDA (3-4 occlusal premolar units) and 14 ...
Kashima Noriko - - 2012
Methods for quantitative oral administration of various substances to Caenorhabditis elegans are needed. Previously, we succeeded in oral administration of hydrophilic substances using liposomes. However, an adequate system for delivery of hydrophobic chemicals was not available. In this study, we developed a method for oral administration of lipid-soluble substances to ...
Ahmad Asif - - 2012
β-Glucan is a valuable functional ingredient and various extraction techniques are available for its extraction. Choice of an appropriate extraction technique is important as it may affect the quality, structure, rheological properties, molecular weight, and other functional properties of the extracted β-glucan. These properties lead to the use of β-glucan ...
Sugimoto K - - 2012
Summary  Objective parameters that could provide a basis for food texture selection for elderly or dysphagic patients have not been established. We, therefore, aimed to develop a precise method of measuring large particles (>2 mm in diameter) in a bolus and an analytical method to provide a scientific rationale for food ...
Peters Ruud - - 2012
The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products subjected to in vitro digestion ...
Thombre Avinash G - - 2012
Ziprasidone, commercially available as Geodon(®) capsules, is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It is a BCS Class II drug that shows up to a 2-fold increase in absorption in the presence of food. Because compliance is a major issue in this patient population, ...
Rayner Marilyn - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Particle-stabilised emulsions, so-called Pickering emulsions, are known to possess many beneficial properties, including being extremely stable. Starch granules isolated from quinoa have been used as emulsion stabilising particles. The granules were intact, 1-3 µm in diameter and modified with octenyl succinic anhydride to increase their hydrophobicity. Starch granules, as ...
Avery Leon - - 2012
C. elegans feeding depends on the action of the pharynx, a neuromuscular pump that joins the mouth to the intestine. The pharyngeal muscle captures food-bacteria-and transports it back to the intestine. It accomplishes this through a combination of two motions, pumping and isthmus peristalsis. Pumping, the most visible and best ...
Friedland Kevin D - - 2012
The shift in marine resource management from a compartmentalized approach of dealing with resources on a species basis to an approach based on management of spatially defined ecosystems requires an accurate accounting of energy flow. The flow of energy from primary production through the food web will ultimately limit upper ...
Parsons Matthew P - - 2012
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is known to induce food intake when administered into the lateral ventricle or certain brain areas. This is somewhat contradictory to its reward-suppressing role, as food is a strong rewarding stimulus. This discrepancy may be due to the functional diversity of N/OFQ's target brain areas. N/OFQ has ...
Maniscalco James W - - 2012
Neural circuits distributed within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and limbic forebrain interact to control food intake and energy balance under normal day-to-day conditions, and in response to stressful conditions under which homeostasis is threatened. Experimental studies using rats and mice have generated a voluminous literature regarding the functional organization of circuits ...
El Khoury D - - 2012
Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its ...
Shafaghat Ali - - 2011
Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the ...
Yoshimura Hiroshi - - 2011
Feelings of deliciousness during having foods are mainly produced by perceptions of sensory information extracted from foods themselves, such as taste and olfaction. However, environmental factors might modify the feeling of deliciousness. In the present study, we investigated how the condition of audio-visual environments affects the feeling of deliciousness during ...
Hira Tohru - - 2011
A hydrolysate prepared from soybean beta-conglycinin reduced food intake through cholecystokinin release in rats; however, effects of the hydrolysate on human appetites are unknown. In this study, healthy volunteers ingested 3g of the beta-conglycinin hydrolysate (BconB) and/or a soy protein hydrolysate (HN) contained in a beverage or in a jelly. ...
Egea P - - 2011
The principal objective of this study was to assess whether chicken eggshells may be contaminated by ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBLC). Additional analyses were carried out to determine if ESBLEC could be detected in other foodstuffs such as cooked poultry or fresh vegetables. Seventy-two eggshells from different supermarkets and stores as ...
Tolstykh E I - - 2011
Releases of radioactive materials from the Mayak Production Association in 1949-1956 resulted in contamination of the Techa River; a nuclide of major interest was Sr, which downstream residents consumed with water from the river and with milk contaminated by cows' consumption of river water and contaminated pasture. Over the years, ...
Nebbia C - - 2011
Official monitoring of residues in cattle throughout the European Union in 2007 found <0.2% non-compliance for the use of illegal growth-promoters (GPs), including sex steroids, corticosteroids and β-agonists. There is evidence, however, that these figures may underestimate the real incidence of GP abuse in meat cattle breeding. One source of ...
Durso Lisa M - - 2010
The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine ...
Wagenmaker Elizabeth R - - 2010
Five experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress interferes with the estrous cycle of sheep. In experiment 1, ewes were repeatedly isolated during the follicular phase. Timing, amplitude, and duration of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were not affected. In experiment 2, follicular-phase ewes were subjected ...
Suekawa Y - - 2010
In Japan, Japanese Black and Holstein cattle are appreciated as popular sources of meat, and imported beef from Australia and the United States is also in demand in the meat industry. Since the BSE outbreak, the problem of false sales has arisen: imported beef has sometimes been mislabeled as domestic ...
Alton Gillian D - - 2010
Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, ...
Favreau A - - 2010
Previous work has shown that herbivores successfully learn to associate food sensory characteristics with postingestive consequences when the conditioning procedure is simple, whereas this ability breaks down when the learning task is made more complex. We hypothesized that sensory characteristics could act as indicators of postingestive consequences and that the ...
Nonga Hezron E - - 2010
An investigation was conducted in Morogoro municipality to assess the likelihood of slaughter cattle posing public health risk of contaminating carcasses with thermophilic Campylobacter. Butchers and meat shopkeepers were interviewed on source of slaughter cattle, method of animal and carcass transportation, carcass dressing, meat storage facilities, access to clean water ...
Hörbrand Thomas - - 2009
Within the countrywide monitoring of Culicoides species established by the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and User Protection (BMELV), the group Regensburg evaluated nine BG-Sentinel Midge traps located at cattle farms in the federal states Baden-Württemberg (BW) and Bavaria (BY) between March 2007 and May 2008. The highest numbers ...
Silva Aleksandro Schafer da - - 2009
Duddingtonia flagrans is a nematode-trapping fungus responsible for attacking larval stages of helminths in pasture, which has potential as a biological control method. The aim of this study was to test the magnesium sulphate centrifugal flotation technique for the quantification of D. flagrans chlamydospores in sheep faeces and to verify ...
Lane E A - - 2008
Oestrous synchronisation is an important strategy to improve reproductive management of cattle. The use of oestradiol-17beta, and its related ester derivatives, in food-producing cattle for the purposes of oestrous synchronisation is prohibited in the European Union since October 2006; a serious limitation in the implementation of large-scale use of cost ...
Shin Sung Jae - - 2008
We previously reported that protein antigens of serodiagnostic potential were more abundant in culture filtrates than cellular extracts from liquid cultures of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (D. Cho and M. T. Collins, Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13:1155-1161, 2006). Based on this observation, a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using antigens secreted ...
Munn Adam J - - 2008
It has been suggested that large foregut-fermenting marsupial herbivores, the kangaroos and their relatives, may be less constrained by food intake limitations as compared with ruminants, due mainly to differences in their digestive morphology and management of ingesta particles through the gut. In particular, as the quality of forage declines ...
Lee P-W - - 2008
Undeclared mustard residues in food products could trigger allergic reactions in mustard-allergic consumers. Our objective was to develop and validate a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of mustard residues in foods. A mixture of yellow, brown, and oriental mustard seeds was used to immunize 3 rabbits and 1 sheep. Two ...
Cobbaut Katrijn - - 2008
Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle at the farm level is mostly determined by taking individually rectal samples. From the animal welfare point of view the collection of such samples on the farm is not advisable. The present study evaluated alternative sample types to assess the E. coli O157 ...
Tibbo M - - 2008
We used a partial-budget analysis to evaluate profitability of different management strategies of three genotypes of sheep in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial experiment conducted at Debre Berhan research station in the central highlands of Ethiopia. This involved two anthelmintic-treatment levels (treated vs. non-treated), two supplementary nutrition levels ...
Conington J - - 2008
Mastitis is a problem in the sheep industry, and its incidence varies widely with how it is recorded, the breed of sheep and the farm. Virtually all the published information about the genetics of mastitis refers to dairy breeds of cattle and sheep, and there is little information for meat ...
Inaba Rokuta - - 2009
In Japan, most farm animal excreta has been stored directly on farmland. Runoff from this storage has often caused water pollution. Biogasification is anticipated as an important technology to manage excreta properly, but complex problems hinder its introduction. Economic aspects of management have been especially difficult for dairy farmers. For ...
Molia Sophie - - 2008
We report Marie Galante as one of the Caribbean islands most heavily infested by the tropical bont tick (TBT) Amblyomma variegatum which is associated with two major diseases of ruminants: heartwater and dermatophilosis. In 2005, a survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of TBT infestation in cattle, the prevalence ...
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