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Veiga Patrick P Danone Nutricia Research, Palaiseau, - - 2014
The gut microbiota (GM) consists of resident commensals and transient microbes conveyed by the diet but little is known about the role of the latter on GM homeostasis. Here we show, by a conjunction of quantitative metagenomics, in silico genome reconstruction and metabolic modeling, that consumption of a fermented milk ...
French Alice S AS Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, - - 2013
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is involved in the regulation of feeding and digestion in many animals from worms to mammals. In insects, 5-HT functions both as a neurotransmitter and as a systemic hormone. Here we tested its role as a neurotransmitter in feeding and crop contractions and its role as a ...
Byerly Mardi S MS Johns Hopkins University, United - - 2013
CTRP4 is a unique member of the C1q family, possessing two tandem globular C1q domains; its physiological function is poorly defined. Here, we show that CTRP4 is an evolutionarily conserved ~34 kDa secretory protein expressed in the brain. In human, mouse, and zebrafish brain, CTRP4 expression begins early in development ...
Roccisano D D Biological Anthropology and Comparative Anatomy Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2013
Alzheimer's data indicate that at present, approximately one new case of this form of dementia is identified in the USA every 68s and that by 2050 the incidence will be about every 33s, with projections from the Alzheimer Association (USA) indicating that nearly 25% of Americans will be affected by ...
Szőke B - - 2013
The effect of 40% partial food deprivation was studied on the immunohistochemically detectable amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) - the specific marker of astroglia - in the dorsal subnucleus of lateral septum (LS) of male, intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Animals were either fed ad libitum (control) ...
Penney Carla C - - 2013
The effects of intraperitoneal injections of cholecystokinin(CCK), apelin, ghrelin and orexin on food intake were examined in the blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus. CCK (50 ng/g) induced a decrease in food intake whereas apelin (100 ng/g), orexin (100 ng/g) and ghrelin (100 ng/g) induced an increase in food intake as ...
Sousa-Ferreira Lígia - - 2013
The recently described generation of new neurons in the adult hypothalamus, the center for energy regulation, suggests that hypothalamic neurogenesis is a crucial part of the mechanisms that regulate food intake. Accordingly, neurogenesis in both the adult and embryonic hypothalamus is affected by nutritional cues and metabolic disorders such as ...
Baik Ja-Hyun JH Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea - - 2013
Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA signaling in mesolimbic neurotransmission are widely believed to modify reward-related behaviors and are therefore closely associated with drug addiction. Recent evidence now suggests that as with drug addiction, obesity with compulsive eating behaviors involves reward ...
Hulsken Sjoerd - - 2013
The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on the availability of the food-derived precursor tryptophan, ...
Beshel Jennifer J Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York - - 2013
Odors are highly evocative, yet how and where in the brain odors derive meaning remains unknown. Our analysis of the Drosophila brain extends the role of a small number of hunger-sensing neurons to include food-odor value representation. In vivo two-photon calcium imaging shows the amplitude of food odor-evoked activity in ...
Bruce Amanda S - - 2013
Few studies have examined brain changes in response to effective weight loss; none have compared different methods of weight-loss intervention. We compared functional brain changes associated with a behavioral weight loss intervention to those associated with bariatric surgery. 15 obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery and ...
Killgore William D S - - 2013
Physical exercise has many health benefits, including improved cardiovascular fitness, lean muscle development, increased metabolism, and weight loss, as well as positive effects on brain functioning and cognition. Recent evidence suggests that regular physical exercise may also affect the responsiveness of reward regions of the brain to food stimuli. We ...
Wahls Terry - - 2013
To evaluate dietary adequacy of patients presenting for evaluation at an outpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinic. We identified 14 key micronutrients with defined dietary intake reference ranges that are considered important for brain health. Adult patients completed the Brief NutritionQuest Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to calculate estimated nutrient intake. ...
Wagner Dylan D DD Dartmouth - - 2013
To be successful at self-regulation, individuals must be able to resist impulses and desires. The strength model of self-regulation suggests that when self-regulatory capacity is depleted, self-control deficits result from a failure to engage top-down control mechanisms. Using functional neuroimaging, we examined changes in brain activity in response to viewing ...
Duan Yale Y Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, - - 2013
Metformin may reduce food intake and body weight, but the anorexigenic effects of metformin are still poorly understood. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single intracere-broventricular dose of metformin and compound C, in a broader attempt to investigate the regula-tory effects of metformin on food intake and to ...
Zhang Ting T Department of Cellular Biology and Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute, University of Georgia, Athens, GA - - 2013
The easy accessibility of energy-rich palatable food makes it difficult to resist food temptation. Drosophila larvae are surrounded by sugar-rich food most of their lives, raising the question of how these animals modulate food-seeking behaviors in tune with physiological needs. Here we describe a circuit mechanism defined by neurons expressing ...
Kim Kwang Kon KK Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Natural Sciences, Ulsan, - - 2013
Reduced appetite and body weight loss are typical symptoms of inflammatory diseases. A number of inflammatory stimuli are responsible for the imbalance in energy homeostasis, leading to metabolic disorders. The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) protein plays an important role in the development of various inflammatory diseases, such as intestinal ...
Tarasuk Valerie - - 2013
Analyses of cross-sectional population survey data in Canada and the United States have indicated that household food insecurity is associated with poorer self-rated health and multiple chronic conditions. The causal inference has been that household food insecurity contributes to poorer health, but there has been little consideration of how adults' ...
Lundgren Jennifer D JD University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Psychology, 5030 Cherry Street, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
Evening hyperphagia (EH; consumption of ≥25% of total daily calories after the evening meal) is a circadian delay in the pattern of daily food intake and is a core criterion of night eating syndrome (Allison et al., 2010). This preliminary study examined the brain response to food cues using functional ...
Wang G-J - - 2013
Objective:The significant weight loss observed with combination naltrexone sustained-release (SR) 32 mg and bupropion SR 360 mg (NB32) therapy is thought to be due, in part, to bupropion stimulation of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, and naltrexone blockade of opioid receptor-mediated POMC auto-inhibition, but the neurobiological mechanisms are not fully understood. We assessed ...
Nakhate Kartik T - - 2013
Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor active neurosteroid, elicits hyperphagic response in rodents. Since GABA-A receptors are present on the peptidergic neurons in the hypothalamus, we were interested in finding out if ALLO and neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) interact and influence feeding behavior. While subcutaneous ...
Bubak Andrew N - - 2013
Understanding the physiological mechanisms that influence conflict resolution is of great importance because the outcome of contests over limited resources such as mates, territories, and food has significant fitness consequences. Male stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni) compete over territory and mates and provide an excellent model system to study aggression. To ...
Pandit R - - 2013
The Neuropeptide Y and the melanocortin peptides are two well-described hypothalamic feeding peptides regulating energy balance. Predominantly expressed within the arcuate nucleus, these neurons project to different brain areas and modulate various aspects of feeding. Hedonic feeding, where one overindulges in palatable food consumption beyond one's nutritional necessities, is one ...
Sánchez-Lara Karla - - 2013
The aim of this study was to examine the brain activity manifested while non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with and without anorexia were exposed to visual food stimuli. We included 26 treatment-naïve patients who had been recently diagnosed with advanced NSCLC. Patients with brain metastasis were excluded. The patients ...
Shi Yan-Chuan - - 2013
Objective: PYY3-36 and PP potently inhibit food intake in rodents and humans, however, it is unclear whether they have any synergistic/additive interaction in decreasing food intake. Design and Methods: Fasted WT, Y2(-/-) , Y4(-/-) or Y2Y4(-/-) mice were i.p. administrated with saline, PYY3-36 and/or PP. Results: We demonstrate that combined ...
Iemolo Attilio - - 2013
Highly palatable foods and dieting are major contributing factors for the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. We previously demonstrated that intermittent access to palatable food results in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist-reversible behaviors, which include excessive palatable food intake, hypophagia of regular chow and anxiety-like behavior. ...
Mancebo María J - - 2013
Mammalian studies have shown a link between serotonin (5-HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the acute regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Taking into account that the actions of 5-HT and NPY on food intake in fish are similar to those observed in mammals, the objective of this study was ...
Leal Esther - - 2013
Dopamine is synthesized from L-dopa and subsequently processed into norepinephrine and epinephrine. Any excess neurotransmitter can be taken up again by the neurons to be broken down enzymatically into DOPAC. The effect of dopamine on mammalian food intake is controversial. Mice unable to synthesize central dopamine die of starvation. However, ...
Gu Yian - - 2013
Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability and mortality. Mounting evidence from observational studies suggests that among lifestyle factors, diet may be playing an important role for the prevention of stroke. Neuroimaging markers, particularly white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and brain infarcts (BI) are more sensitive measurements ...
Kenny Paul J PJ Laboratory of Behavioral and Molecular Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA, - - 2013
Drug addiction and obesity share the core feature that those afflicted by the disorders express a desire to limit drug or food consumption yet persist despite negative consequences. Emerging evidence suggests that the compulsivity that defines these disorders may arise, to some degree at least, from common underlying neurobiological mechanisms. ...
Cardoso Armando - - 2013
Several studies have demonstrated the vulnerability of the hippocampal formation to malnutrition. In this study, we compared the effects of food restriction and protein malnutrition in the total number of neurons of the dentate gyrus and in the number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons, which are related to the control of ...
da Silva Amanda Alves Marcelino AA Postgraduate Nutrition, Universidade Federal Pernambuco-UFPE, Recife, PE, Brazil. - - 2013
Experiments in animals have revealed that perinatal nutritional restriction, which manifests in adulthood, increases food intake and preference for palatable foods. Considering this, we aimed to evaluate the effects of perinatal malnutrition on hedonic control of feeding behavior. In this study, we divided Wistar rats into two groups according to ...
Murakami Kentaro - - 2013
Inconsistent associations between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) and body fatness may be partly due to differences in the underlying dietary patterns or energy under-reporting. In the present study, we examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and general and ...
Borah Anupom - - 2013
While the cause of dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not yet understood, many endogenous molecules have been implicated in its pathogenesis. β-phenethylamine (β-PEA), a component of various food items including chocolate and wine, is an endogenous molecule produced from phenylalanine in the brain. It has been ...
Byerly Mardi S MS Department of Physiology and Center for Metabolism and Obesity Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2013
Disruption of finely coordinated neuropeptide signals in the hypothalamus can result in altered food intake and body weight. We identified neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NENF) as a novel secreted protein through a large-scale screen aimed at identifying novel secreted hypothalamic proteins that regulate food intake. We observed robust Nenf expression in ...
Tavares Eva - - 2013
Aminoprocalcitonin (N-PCT), a neuroendocrine peptide encoded by the calcitonin-I (CALC-I) gene, suppresses food intake when administered centrally in rats. However, the neural pathways underlying this effect remain unclear. N-PCT and calcitonin receptors (CT-R) have been identified in hypothalamic regions involved in energy homeostasis including the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Here, we ...
Connolly L L Oppenheimer Family Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7378, USA. - - 2013
Ingestion of sweet food is driven by central reward circuits and restrained by endocrine and neurocrine satiety signals. The specific influence of sucrose intake on central affective and reward circuitry and alterations of these mechanisms in the obese are incompletely understood. For this, we hypothesized that (i) similar brain regions ...
Smeets Paul A M PA Image Sciences Institute, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands. - - 2013
Typically, it is believed that palatable, high caloric foods signal reward and trigger indulgent responses. However, Counteractive Control Theory suggests that, to the extent that people are concerned about their weight, a confrontation with palatable foods should also trigger 'alarm bell responses' which promote successful self-control. Our study is the ...
Blessing William - - 2013
Laboratory rats alternate between behaviorally active and inactive states every 1-2hours throughout the 24hourday, the ultradian basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC). During the behaviorally active phases of the BRAC, brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperature, body and brain temperature, and arterial pressure and heart rate increase in an integrated manner. Since the ...
Salamone John D - - 2013
Manipulations affecting mesolimbic dopamine transmission exert specific effects on normal and pathological aspects of motivation, altering some functions while sparing others. Labouèbe et al. (2013) show that insulin induced long-term depression in ventral tegmental neurons, which was associated with reduced responsiveness to food-related stimuli but spared aspects of food-seeking behavior.
Osiezagha Kenneth K All authors are from Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Meharry Medical College in Nashville, - - 2013
Thiamine is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives. Deficiency of this vitamin leads to a very serious clinical condition known as delirium. Studies performed in the United States and other parts of the world have ...
Stengel Andreas - - 2013
Nesfatin-1 was recently identified in the rat brain as a potential post-translational processing product derived from nucleobindin2 (NUCB2). The first biological action identified for nesfatin-1 was the reduction of nocturnal food intake in rats. The anorexigenic effect of nesfatin-1 was corroborated by several independent laboratories and is now established as ...
Mori Masatomo - - 2013
Obesity arises from an impairment of energy homeostasis, which essentially involves the balance of food intake and energy dissipation. Some secreted molecules in the hypothalamus have become the focus of recent attention for their important roles in the regulation of food intake. One such molecule, nesfatin-1, is a novel molecule ...
Avena Nicole M NM University of Florida, Department of Psychiatry, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. - - 2013
Both caloric restriction and overeating have been shown to affect neural processes associated with reinforcement. Both preclinical and some clinical studies have provided evidence that food restriction may increase reward sensitivity, and while there are mixed findings regarding the effects of overeating on reward sensitivity, there is strong evidence linking ...
Luo Shan - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to high-calorie foods may promote overeating by stimulating brain reward pathways and appetite. Abdominal fat has particularly adverse metabolic consequences and may alter brain pathways that regulate feeding behavior. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to test the hypothesis that high-calorie food cues activate brain reward regions ...
Hollmann Maurice M Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany. - - 2013
Eating behavior depends heavily on brain function. In recent years, brain imaging has proved to be a powerful tool to elucidate brain function and brain structure in the context of eating. In this review, we summarize recent findings in the fast growing body of literature in the field and provide ...
Young Colin N CN Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401, - - 2013
The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts within the central nervous system to decrease food intake and body weight and to increase renal and thermogenic brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Previous studies have focused on hypothalamic brain regions, although recent findings have identified leptin receptors (ObR) in a distributed brain ...
Killgore William D S - - 2013
The recent epidemic of obesity corresponds closely with the decline in the average number of hours of sleep obtained nightly. While growing research suggests that sleep loss may affect hormonal and other physiological systems related to food intake, no studies have yet explored the role that sleepiness may play in ...
Rios Maribel M Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Boston, MA 02111, USA. - - 2013
A considerable body of evidence links diminished brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling to energy balance dysregulation and severe obesity in humans and rodents. Because BDNF exhibits broad neurotrophic properties, the underpinnings of these effects and its true role in the central regulation of food intake remain topics of debate in ...
Takayama Kiyoshige - - 2013
Lycopene, a reddish pigment contained in tomato, belongs to the carotenoid family along with beta-carotene and rutein. This study examined whether administration of lycopene to rats would induce excitation of neurons in the central nervous system. Continuous intake of lycopene-rich food was found to induce accumulation of lycopene in the ...
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