Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 817
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Fardet Anthony A Unité de Nutrition Humaine, INRA de Theix & Université d'Auvergne, 63122, Saint-Genès-Champanelle, Auvergne, - - 2014
Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed ...
Jiménez Esther E Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, - - 2014
Bile is a biological fluid synthesized in the liver, stored and concentrated in the gall bladder (interdigestive), and released into the duodenum after food intake. The microbial populations of different parts of mammal's gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small and large intestine) have been extensively studied; however, the characterization of bile microbiota ...
Tschiedel Eva E Department of Pediatrics 1, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, - - 2014
Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium that causes food poisoning presenting with either emesis or diarrhea. Diarrhea is caused by proteinaceous enterotoxin complexes, mainly hemolysin BL, non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), and cytotoxin K. In contrast, emesis is caused by the ingestion of the depsipeptide toxin cereulide, which is produced in ...
Tan Caihong C Department of Pharmacy, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, - - 2014
Milk Thistle fruit is an important herb popularly consumed worldwide for a very long time. Silybin is the main bioactive constituent of the herb, and it has been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medicine to treat liver diseases. Presently, using conventional technology, the meal of ...
Shibata Katsumi K a Department of Nutrition, School of Human Cultures , The University of Shiga Prefecture , Hikone , - - 2014
The conversion of tryptophan (Trp) → nicotinamide (Nam) is an important pathway for supplying vitamin niacin. We reported the following two phenomena: (1) severe food restriction led to an increase in the Trp → Nam conversion compared with free-access control group; (2) the conversion of Trp → Nam is also ...
Reindl Andrzej R AR Department of Marine Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, University of Gdansk, Al. Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378, Gdynia, Poland, - - 2014
The present study estimated hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) as a sum of three main isomers (α, β, and γ) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) from Gdansk Zoo and in their sole food, Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), from Gdansk Bay. The average concentration of HBCD in whole herring was ...
Lentjes M A H MA Department of Public Health & Primary Care, EPIC-Norfolk Study, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
Total nutrient intake (TNI) is intake from food and supplements. This provides an assessment of nutrient adequacy and the prevalence of excessive intake, as well as the response with respect to biomarkers. Cod liver oil (CLO) is the most frequently consumed supplement in the UK, containing nutrients that might have ...
Catal F F Inonu University Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Pediatric Allergy and Asthma Department, Malatya, - - 2014
In recent years, the number of studies regarding newly-diagnosed food allergies after liver transplantation has been increasing. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency, aetiology, risk factors, and severity of IgE-mediated food allergies after liver transplantation in children. Paediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation at Inonu University Faculty ...
Leslie Timothy T Betty and Guy Beatty Center for Integrated Research, Inova Health System, Falls Church, VA, United States; Department of Geography & Geoinformation Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, United - - 2014
Background. Obesity, a complex disease determined both by genetic and environmental factors, is strongly associated with NAFLD, and has been demonstrated to have a negative impact on HCV and other chronic liver diseases (CLD). Rationale. This study assessed the association between type and location of food sources and chronic liver ...
Makovicky Peter P Laboratory of Veterinary Histopathology in Komarno, Slovak Republic. Electronic address: - - 2014
Non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by a variety of hepatic injury patterns without significant alcohol use. It has a close association with obesity, so treatment includes weight loss, control of insulin sensitivity, interventions directed at inflammation and fibrosis. There is a certain relationship between the grade and duration ...
Lazarus Maja - - 2014
Abstract Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from ...
Iio Wataru W United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Japan; College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Ami, - - 2014
Depression induces anorexia, leading to suppressed feeding behaviors and energy intake. Previously, we revealed that chronic social defeat induced a mild suppression of feeding in rats with elevated levels of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA which regulates feeding. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the effects of chronic mild food restriction on behavior and ...
Combet Emilie E Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow,New Lister Building, Alexandra Parade,GlasgowG31 - - 2014
Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for ...
Sharma Punita - - 2014
In recent years, it has been well documented that gut flora not only influence mosquito physiology, but also significantly alter vector competency. Although, salivary gland and gut constitute key partners of the digestive system, it is still believed that salivary glands may harbor less flora than gut (Parasit Vectors 6: ...
Irisarri Jade J Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, C/ Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, - - 2014
We traced the food sources of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis cultured in suspension in Ría Ares-Betanzos (N.W. Spain) by means of fatty acid (FA) biomarkers. The FA profile of seston, mussels' mantle, digestive gland and faeces was analyzed during five seasons. Due to the proximity of a fish farm to the ...
de Vries Jan J Institute of Molecular Evolution, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstrasse 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, - - 2014
Some marine slugs sequester plastids from their algae food, which can remain photosynthetically functional in the animal's digestive gland cells in the absence of algal nuclei. The sequestered plastids (kleptoplasts) appear to maintain functional photosystems through a greater autonomy than land plant plastids. If so, kleptoplast robustness is a plastid-intrinsic ...
Morrissey Christy A CA Dept. of Biology and School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United - - 2014
Avian studies of endocrine disruption have focussed traditionally on reproductive impairment given that many environmental contaminants affect sex steroid hormones. There is also increasing interest in altered thyroid function, and associated early development, particularly in altricial species with extended developmental windows. Both types of effect are relevant under the complex ...
Pedersen Knud Ladegaard KL Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense, - - 2014
Accumulation of cadmium in aquatic invertebrates may compromise human food safety and anthropogenic additions of cadmium to coastal areas cause concern. Induction of crustacean metallothionein has been suggested as a useful biomarker for contamination of the aquatic environment with cadmium. We investigated how exposure to low concentrations of cadmium in ...
Weng Huan-Xin HX Institute of Environment and Biogeochemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, People's Republic of China, - - 2014
Iodine, as one of the essential trace elements for human body, is very important for the proper function of thyroid gland. In some regions, people are still suffering from iodine deficiency disorder (IDD). How to provide an effective and cost-efficient iodine supplementation has been a public health issue for many countries. ...
Leung Angela M AM Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard (111D), Los Angeles, CA 90073, - - 2013
Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily ...
De Falco Maria - - 2013
Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor widely distributed in the environment. It accumulates in the lipids of living organisms and enters the human food chain. The main source of human exposure is expected to be food, drinking water and foodstuff contaminated through leaching from packaging or pesticide formulation applications. NP ...
Ueda Hirotaka - - 2013
Obesity has a prevalence of 15-30% among European and American populations. It is an incurable chronic disease associated with considerable mortality and co-morbidity. The co-morbidity risk can be reduced substantially by a moderate weight loss of 5-15%. Notably, additional weight gain exacerbates the morbidity of any concurrent disease. Obesity is ...
Fokidis H Bobby - - 2013
Aggression enables individuals to obtain and retain limited resources. Studies of the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression have focused on territorial and reproductive contexts. By contrast, little is understood concerning the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression over other resources, such as food. Here, we developed a paradigm to examine the role of ...
Pestitschek Marianne - - 2013
AIM: The present study was undertaken to estimate the selenium intake of thyroid patients and investigate the possible relation between thyroid abnormalities and the selenium intake. METHODS: The selenium intake through foods and the nutritional habits of thyroid patients in general were analyzed. Total 212 subjects from thyroid outpatient clinic ...
Michels Nathalie - - 2013
PURPOSE: Psychological stress has been suggested to result in hormonal effects (e.g. changes in cortisol pattern) that may change food selection in unhealthy ways. This study examines whether children's dietary pattern is indeed related to salivary cortisol levels. METHODS: In 323 children (5-10 years old) participating in the Belgian ChiBS ...
Stoffolano John G JG - - 2013
The diverticulated crop is a unique and overlooked foregut organ in the Diptera that affects many physiological and behavioral functions. Historically, the crop was viewed simply as a reservoir for excess nutrients. The crop lobes and crop duct form an elaborate sphincter and pump system that moves stored nutrients to ...
Alva-Sanchez Claudia - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the contribution of the thyroid hormones to the long-term maintenance of feeding behavior and body weight, while distiguishing their direct central effects from those resulting from the metabolic rate in the peripheral tissues. Methods: We assessed the effect of hypothyroidism on the long-term (6 months) regulation of ...
Boison Joe - - 2012
In the late 1970s, concerns were raised regarding why antithyroid drugs were being administered to food animals to promote growth despite the fact that they had been implicated as being carcinogenic and teratogenic; the growth promotion process produced an inferior quality meat with increased water retention in the animal's gastrointestinal ...
Waschatko Gustav - - 2012
ABSTRACT Soy milk is a highly stable emulsion, the stability being mainly due to the presence of oleosomes or oil bodies, spherical structures filled with triacylglycerides (TAGs) and surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids and proteins called oleosins. For oleosomes purified from raw soymilk, surface pressure investigations and Brewster angle ...
Feng Meiqin M College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural Univ, Nanjing 210095, PR - - 2012
Lactic acid bacteria isolated from various traditional Chinese fermented foods were screened for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The strain 70810 from Chinese Paocai, which was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (HQ259238) by morphological, physiological, biochemical, and 16S rDNA tests, was selected due to its highest EPS production capability (0.859 g/L) ...
Masuku S M SM Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, - - 2012
  To test the efficacy of four wipe cloth types (cotton bar towel, nonwoven, microfibre and blended cellulose/cotton) with either quaternary ammonia cleaning solution or silver dihydrogen citrate (SDC) in cleaning food contact surfaces.   Swab samples collected from untreated, cloth-treated and cloth disinfectant-treated surfaces were subjected to hygiene monitoring ...
Sospedra I - - 2012
A set of 53 Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from food handlers and foodservice establishments in Spain was analyzed for toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) production. S. aureus strains were isolated from 908 samples collected from different surfaces such as dish towels, workers' hands, cutting boards, stainless steel tables and slicers, ...
Gibson Kristen E - - 2012
Contamination of food contact surfaces with pathogens is considered an important vehicle for the indirect transmission of food-borne diseases. Five different cleaning cloths were assessed for the ability to remove viruses from food contact surfaces (stainless steel surface and nonporous solid surface) and to transfer viruses back to these surfaces. ...
Li F - - 2012
Food foraging behavior involves food removing, hoarding, and competitive preying upon other animals. It is also associated with high cognitive functions such as investing effort into decision making, but no established laboratory model is available to detect the behaviors. In the present study, we have developed a novel laboratory rodent ...
Eirmann Laura - - 2012
Food safety is of concern for both human and companion animal health. Government agencies, pet food manufacturers, and veterinarians play crucial roles in ensuring the safety of pet food and safeguarding pets and their owners. Recent legislation will increase the governmental role in regulating pet food and will affect many ...
Sillam-Dussès David - - 2012
Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general ...
Hardman Charlotte A CA School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 12a Priory Road, Bristol, BS8 1TU, UK. - - 2012
It has been suggested that obese individuals over-eat in order to compensate for deficits in the dopaminergic reward system. The current study used acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) to investigate the effect of reduced dopamine function on appetite and the reward value of food in healthy volunteers. The compensatory-eating hypothesis would ...
McCutcheon James E JE Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA. - - 2012
Cues that have been paired with food evoke dopamine in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and drive approach behavior. This cue-evoked dopamine signaling could contribute to overconsumption of food. One manner in which individuals try to restrict caloric intake is through the consumption of foods containing artificial (non-nutritive) sweeteners. We were interested ...
Banks Matthew L ML Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA. - - 2011
Monoamine releasers constitute one class of candidate medications for the treatment of cocaine abuse, and concurrent cocaine-versus-food choice procedures are potentially valuable as experimental tools to evaluate the efficacy and safety of candidate medications. This study assessed the choice between cocaine and food by rhesus monkeys during treatment with five ...
Beeler Jeff A JA Department of Neurobiology, The University of Chicago, 924 E 57th St. R222, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. - - 2012
Recent work has implicated dopaminergic mechanisms in overeating and obesity with some researchers suggesting parallels between the dopamine dysregulation associated with addiction and an analogous dysregulation in obesity. The precise role of dopamine in mediating reward and reinforcement, however, remains controversial. In contrast to drugs of abuse, pursuit of a ...
Domingos Ana I AI Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, - - 2011
We developed an assay for quantifying the reward value of nutrient and used it to analyze the effects of metabolic state and leptin. In this assay, mice chose between two sippers, one of which dispensed water and was coupled to optogenetic activation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and the other of ...
De Luca M A - - 2012
Cannabinoid receptor agonists are known to stimulate feeding in humans and animals and this effect is thought to be related to an increase in food palatability. On the other hand, highly palatable food stimulates dopamine (DA) transmission in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and this effect undergoes one ...
Zheng Danielle D Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, - - 2012
Cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) is more persistent in food-restricted than ad libitum fed rats. This study assessed whether food restriction acts during conditioning and/or expression to increase persistence. In Experiment 1, rats were food-restricted during conditioning with a 7.0 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of cocaine. After the first CPP test, ...
Kitanaka Nobue N Department of Pharmacology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo 663-8501, - - 2012
Repeated intermittent administration of amphetamines acutely increases appetitive and consummatory aspects of motivated behaviors as well as general activity and exploratory behavior, including voluntary running wheel activity. Subsequently, if the drug is withdrawn, the frequency of these behaviors decreases, which is thought to be indicative of dysphoric symptoms associated with ...
Mollard Rebecca C - - 2011
Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and ...
van de Giessen Elsmarieke - - 2011
The novel triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine blocks dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake and is a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity. Obesity is associated with lower striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability, which may be related to disturbed regulation of food intake. This study assesses the effects of chronic tesofensine ...
Meyer Paul J PJ Department of Psychology, The University of Michigan, East Hall, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1109, USA. - - 2012
Individuals vary considerably in the extent to which they attribute incentive salience to food-associated cues. We asked whether individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to a food cue are also prone to attribute incentive properties to a stimulus associated with a drug of abuse-cocaine. We first identified those rats that ...
Jackowiak Hanna - - 2011
Using LM and SEM methods, the study describes microstructures in particular areas of the tongue of the goose. A thick multilayered keratinized epithelium forms the "lingual nail" and covers small and giant conical papillae, whereby the first functions as an exoskeleton of the tongue apex, and the latter are arranged ...
Galuska Chad M CM Department of Psychology, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina 29424, USA. - - 2011
This study examined whether continued access to methamphetamine or food reinforcement changed economic demand for both. The relationship between demand elasticity and cue-induced reinstatement was also determined. Male Long-Evans rats were lever pressed under increasing fixed-ratio requirements for either food pellets or methamphetamine (20 μg/50 μl infusion). For two groups, ...
Saladié Palmira - - 2011
Pleistocene foragers used several prey acquisition and processing strategies. These strategies and their associated decisions are elucidated by taphonomic studies that cover animal transport, modifications by different agents and archaeological remains. Interpretative models of archaeological sites are by necessity based on natural and experimental observations. Ethno-archaeological data shows that several ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >