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Walker D Carey - - 2004
A second-generation solar disinfection (SODIS) system (pouch) was constructed from food-grade, commercially available packaging materials selected to fully transmit and amplify the antimicrobial properties of sunlight. Depending upon the season, water source, and challenge organism, culturable bacteria were reduced between 3.5 and 5.5 log cycles. The system was also capable ...
Chen Yingru - - 2004
Understanding the acid-tolerance ability of enteric human pathogens is critical in determining microbial food safety and the associated risk. We have discovered naturally occurring compounds in the spent growth media, which inhibit the acid-tolerance ability of several enteric human pathogens when challenged at pH 3.0 for 2 h at 37 ...
Mokhalalati Jalal K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Blenderized tube feedings (BTF) may present disadvantages over commercially prepared formulas (CPF). This study compares the microbial safety, nutritional content, and physical properties of BTF versus CPF. METHODS: A total of 18 samples of BTF were collected from 3 hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from August 1999 ...
Barza Michael - - 2004
The transmission of pathogenic microorganisms by the hands of workers continues to be a problem in the medical field and the food industry. Compliance with hand hygiene is often poor, and gloves may be contaminated after being donned and may transmit microorganisms. A novel, patented technology allows materials to be ...
Elliot R M - - 2004
Biopreservatives are being developed to inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens and thus improve food safety. The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) is a naturally occurring system that has potential for use as an antimicrobial agent in foods. Growth of single strains of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, ...
Edmonds C - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential microbiological and metal contamination of watercress and to assess the public health risks associated with harvesting and consumption of watercress. METHOD: During March and April 2000, samples were taken from 11 known or potential watercress collection sites in the Wellington region. Microbiological testing included bacterial counts ...
Grant Michael A - - 2004
Analysis of food samples for E. coli O157:H7 using the standard U.S. Food and Drug Administration procedure is frequently complicated by overgrowth of nontarget microorganisms. A new procedure was developed for enrichment of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) which utilizes exposure to pH 2.00 for 2 h. This procedure yielded larger ...
Drysdale M - - 2004
AIMS: To compare immunomagnetic separation (IMS) protocols (enrichment media and temperature) for the isolation of Escherichia coli serotypes O26 and O111 from four different foods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Foods (minced beef, cheese, apple juice and pepperoni) spiked with low numbers (<100 g(-1)) of stressed nalidixic mutant E. coli serotypes O26 ...
Kim S - - 2004
AIMS: To evaluate the effect of crude water-soluble arrowroot tea extracts on microbial growth of food-borne pathogens in liquid medium and to confirm the damage to bacterial cells using Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM). METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and ...
Azevedo N F - - 2004
Three different media-Columbia agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, and Helicobacter pylori special peptone agar-were prepared in a diluted version and compared to the standard medium formulation in order to study a possible nutrient shock effect observed when recovering H. pylori from water by counting the number of CFU. This same parameter was ...
Callaway T R - - 2004
Many human foodborne illnesses can be caused by consumption of foodstuffs (including meat products) contaminated with pathogenic bacteria from animal intestinal contents or hides. Steps that have been taken in the slaughter plant to decrease the spread of foodborne pathogenic bacteria (e.g., hazard analysis and critical control point methods) have ...
Wong T L - - 2004
AIMS: To obtain preliminary data on the microbiology and hurdles to pathogen growth in the traditional Pacific Island food, povi masima, which is essentially beef brisket cured in brine. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six containers of povi masima were prepared and two were inoculated with five enterotoxigenic strains of Staphyloccocus aureus. ...
Montville Rebecca - - 2004
Data on the microbial quality of food service kitchen surfaces and ready-to-eat foods were collected over a period of 10 years in Rutgers University dining halls. Surface bacterial counts, total aerobic plate counts, and total and fecal coliform counts were determined using standard methods. Analysis was performed on foods tested ...
Rickard A H - - 2004
AIM: To investigate the potential of non-antibacterial consumer products to act as inducers of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon of Escherichia coli SPC105. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wells were cut into chemically defined agar medium (CDM) contained within Petri dishes. Molten agar slurries were prepared by mixing known quantities of ...
Ouwehand Arthur C - - 2004
The fecal and mucosal microbiota of infants with rectal bleeding and the fecal microbiota of healthy age-matched controls were investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Bifidobacteria were the main genus in both the feces and mucosa. The other genera tested, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia coli and lactobacilli/enterococci, represented only minor constituents. ...
Selvakumar Ariamalar - - 2004
This research investigated the effects of extending the holding time of samples for microbial analysis beyond the standard of 24 hours for purposes such as watershed characterization. Experiments were conducted with both sanitary wastewater and stormwater samples. The refrigerated samples (4 degrees C) were held for up to 9 days ...
Capps Katherine L - - 2004
An interlaboratory study was conducted for the validation of 3 methods for the detection of all verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in foods. The methods were a multi-analyte 1-step lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for detection of E. coli O157 and verotoxin (VT); an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay targeted against VT1, VT2, and ...
Bakr Wafaa M K - - 2004
Microbiological examination of 200 meat products collected from 30 supermarkets in Alexandria revealed that CHROMagar Staph aureus yielded higher counts than Baird Parker medium that were significant in all examined products except sausage. The prevalence of coagulase positive staphylococci was 4%, moreover, CHROMagar Staph aureus showed higher recovery rate and ...
Willis Caroline - - 2003
The shopping basket approach to food sampling, in which ready-to-eat food items from a shopping list were sampled at premises chosen at random, was adopted by 15 Environmental Health Departments in the Wessex region. A total of 2037 samples were analysed over a 30-month period. The microbiological quality varied considerably ...
Ritchie Jennifer M - - 2003
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a group of food-borne pathogens that can cause diarrhea, colitis, and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The importance of several of the proposed EHEC virulence factors lacks experimental verification in animal models. The limitations of current animal models led us to reexamine the infant rabbit ...
Domig Konrad J - - 2003
Due to their significance in food, feed, environmental and clinical samples, the detection and enumeration of enterococci have become an important issue not only in daily routine but also in current research activities. Several media and protocols have been published for diverse purposes, but there is no single method, which ...
Smith Sarah - - 2003
Many microorganisms (including a number of important foodborne pathogens) can be present on raw fruits and vegetables. Since these products are frequently eaten raw, any pathogens present represent a potential risk to the consumer. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a commercial produce wash with ...
Nishimura Eisaku - - 2003
We established a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay that permits rapid and sensitive screening of foods that increase the human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) mRNA level in human foreskin keratinocyte (HFK) cells. The range of hBD-2 mRNA concentrations suitable for the assay was between 8 x 10(-11) M (39-cycle amplification) and 8 x ...
Fukushima Hiroshi - - 2003
A duplex real-time SYBR Green LightCycler PCR (LC-PCR) assay with DNA extraction using the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini kit was evaluated with regard to detection of 8 of 17 species of food- or waterborne pathogens in five stool specimens in 2 h or less. The protocol used the same LC-PCR ...
Yaron Sima - - 2003
Dermaseptin S4 and its substituted derivative K(4)-S4 were investigated against various food-related pathogenic bacteria in culture media. K(4)-S4, but not the native peptide displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against all bacteria tested. Next, activity of K(4)-S4 against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was defined in terms of milieu dependencies. Salt-dependent kinetic studies ...
Chen Chin Yi - - 2003
A protocol was developed using 96-well plates and multichannel pipettes for serial dilutions, followed by drop plating on agar in a 6 x 6 format. This protocol permits simultaneous plating of six dilutions which greatly decreases the number of plates utilized thereby saving incubator space for organisms such as Campylobacter ...
Chawla S P - - 2003
Kwamegi (semidried raw Pacific saury) is traditional seafood available in Korea. It has water activity in the range of 0.90 to 0.95. Spoilage and the growth of most pathogenic bacteria is retarded because of low water activity, low temperature, and packaging. However, it is contaminated with bacteria of public health ...
Jiang Xiuping - - 2003
Rates of inactivation of a five-strain mixture of green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 in autoclaved and unautoclaved commercial cow manure compost with a moisture content of ca. 38% were determined at temperatures of 50, 55, 60, 65, and 70 degrees C. Trypticase soy agar with ampicillin was determined to ...
Chaidez Cristobal - - 2003
Outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria infections associated with the consumption of fresh produce has occurred with increased frequency in recent years. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of three commonly used disinfectants in packing-houses of Culiacan, Mexico (sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl], trichlor-s-triazinetrione [TST] and thrichlormelamine [TCM]) for inactivation of viral ...
Silbernagel Karen M - - 2003
The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--ice cream, raw milk, yogurt, whey powder, and cheese--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 ...
de Jong A E I - - 2003
Many media have been developed to enumerate Clostridium perfringens from foods. In this study, six media [iron sulfite (IS) agar, tryptose sulfite cycloserine (TSC) agar, Shahidi Ferguson perfringens (SFP) agar, sulfite cycloserine azide (SCA), differential clostridial agar (DCA), and oleandomycin polymyxin sulfadiazine perfringens (OPSP) agar] were compared in a prestudy, ...
Dodd Charles C - - 2003
Comparisons of enrichment methods (with or without antibiotics and with or without a preenrichment step) using gram-negative (GN) broth or tryptic soy broth (TSB) were conducted with feeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. TSB was more sensitive than GN broth, and TSB with a preenrichment step followed by TSB with ...
McMahon Wendy A - - 2003
The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Four foods--cooked, diced chicken; cured ham; smoked salmon; and pepperoni--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 ...
Silbernagel Karen M - - 2003
The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--frozen lasagna, custard, frozen mixed vegetables, frozen hashbrowns, and frozen batter-coated mushrooms--were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the ...
Mattick Karen - - 2003
In this study, the survival of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157: H7, when exposed to a range of constant temperatures (47-60 degrees C), in hard or soft water, in the presence/absence of detergent (0-0.3%) and organic matter, and during drying, was investigated. Further experiments used a washing-up process simulation, ...
Favrin Stacy J - - 2003
Salmonella infection is the second most prevalent cause of foodborne illness in most developing countries. Meat, poultry, and dairy products are frequently implicated in outbreaks. The objective of this study was to apply a novel immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-bacteriophage assay to the detection of Salmonella enteritidis in artificially inoculated skimmed milk ...
Howard Guy - - 2003
A study of water quality variation in shallow protected springs in Kampala was undertaken over a 12-month period to assess the causes of microbiological contamination. The microbiological quality of water was assessed using thermotolerant coliforms and faecal streptococci. Sanitary inspections and hazard assessments were undertaken to identify faecal sources (hazards), ...
Gilbert Carl - - 2003
A triplex PCR assay was developed and evaluated for efficacy in detecting Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a variety of raw and ready-to-eat food products. Following a short enrichment period, artificially contaminated food samples were subjected to a triplex PCR assay, which incorporated published primers for ...
Russell S M - - 2003
A study was conducted to determine if the presence of airsacculitis in broiler chickens contributes to loss of saleable yield, lack of uniformity, fecal contamination, processing errors, and increases in populations of pathogenic and indicator bacteria. In a commercial processing facility, groups of carcasses from airsacculitis (AS)-positive (ASP) and airsacculitis-negative ...
Thomas Jennifer L - - 2003
Since 1995, raw vegetable sprouts have been implicated as the vehicle of infection in 15 foodborne outbreaks involving Salmonella and 2 foodborne outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7. To reduce the numbers of sprout-related outbreaks, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published Guidance for Industry: Reducing Microbial Food Safety Hazards ...
Yamaguchi Nobuyasu - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Rapid and simple methods to detect viable pathogenic microbes in foods and drinks are required. Flow cytometry was used for the rapid detection of respiring Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in apple juice, milk, and ground beef. METHODS: CTC (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride) was used to estimate the respiratory activity of ...
Taylor, Thomas Matthew
Escherichia coli O157:H7, first identified in 1982, is linked to approximately 73,500 cases of foodborne illness per year. Sensitive and efficient methods to detect this organism are crucial. Current bacterial concentration methods from foods, such as centrifugation and filtration, are problematic, often co-precipitating or becoming clogged with food particulates. Metal ...
De Buyser M L - - 2003
The methods of European and International Organisations for Standardization for the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, Staphylococcus aureus and other species) described in EN ISO 6888 Part 1 and Part 2: 1999 were validated by order of the European Commission (Standards, Measurement and Testing Fourth Framework Programme Project SMT4-CT96-2098). EN ...
Yokoigawa Kumio - - 2003
We examined the acid tolerance and gad mRNA levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (three strains) and nonpathogenic E. coli (strains K12, W1485, and B) grown in foods. The E. coli cells (approximately 30,000 cells) were inoculated on the surface of 10 g of solid food samples (asparagus, broccoli, carrot, celery, ...
Guentert Ann M - - 2003
Although margarine-style table spreads can have a pH above 4.6 and a water activity greater than 0.85, there is some question if such products can support the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and survival of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli ...
Drees Kevin P - - 2003
Electric fields and currents have been shown to be capable of disinfecting drinking water and reducing the numbers of bacteria and yeast in food. However, little research has been conducted regarding the effectiveness of electric fields and currents in the inactivation of viruses. The objective of this study was to ...
Brashears M M - - 2003
Fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pens and on carcasses and hides, and cattle performance as a result of daily dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) were evaluated in a feeding trial involving 180 beef steers. Steers were evaluated for shedding of ...
Hussein Hussein S - - 2003
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) have emerged in the past two decades as food-borne pathogens that can cause major outbreaks of human illnesses worldwide. The number of outbreaks has increased in recent years due to changes in food production and processing systems, eating habits, microbial adaptation, and methods of VTEC transmission. ...
Holliday Sarah L - - 2003
A study was conducted to characterize the survival and inactivation kinetics of a five-serotype mixture of Salmonella (6.23 to 6.55 log10 CFU per 3.5-ml or 4-g sample), a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (5.36 to 6.14 log10 CFU per 3.5-ml or 4-g sample), and a six-strain mixture of Listeria ...
Sagoo S K - - 2003
A study was undertaken to determine the microbiological status of surfaces used in the preparation of ready-to-eat foods, and to assess cleaning standards and practices in food premises in the UK. A total of 6,533 environmental samples were examined from 1,502 catering (such as restaurants, cafés, and sandwich bars) or ...
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