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Results 401 - 450 of 955
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Day John G - - 2011
Microalgae have significant potential to form the basis of the next biofuel revolution. They have high growth and solar energy conversion rates. Furthermore, their osmotolerance, metabolic diversity and capacity to produce large amounts of lipids have attracted considerable interest. Although there are a handful of commercially successful examples of the ...
de Graaf Cees - - 2011
In their short communication against satiety claims, Booth and Nouwen (2010) neglect dozens of well designed studies that show consistent relations between satiety, energy intake and body weight. Satiety, intake and weight are separate concepts, that need different claims and evidence to support them. Satiety can be measured reliably. A ...
Hendriksen Marieke Ah - - 2011
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence regarding an association between the consumption of energy-dense snack (EDS) foods and the development of overweight. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we examined whether there was an association between the intake of EDS foods and annual weight and waist circumference changes in normal-weight and overweight ...
Singh J - - 2011
A gluten-free diet is the only treatment for patients with coeliac disease, although it can be burdensome to follow and result in inadequate nutrient intake. The cost and availability of a gluten-free diet has been cited as a cause of incomplete dietary compliance; however, this has not been extensively investigated. ...
Kim Mi-Hyung - - 2011
The costs associated with eight food waste disposal options, dry feeding, wet feeding, composting, anaerobic digestion, co-digestion with sewage sludge, food waste disposer, incineration, and landfilling, were evaluated in the perspective of global warming and energy and/or resource recovery. An expanded system boundary was employed to compare by-products. Life cycle ...
Williams Diana L - - 2011
Rather than arising from the passive accumulation of excess calories, obesity is a state in which the biologically defended level of body fat stores increases due to defects in the homeostatic process that matches food intake and energy expenditure over time. By deleting leptin receptors from distinct brain regions and ...
Eccard Jana A - - 2011
Indirect resource competition and interference are widely occurring mechanisms of interspecific interactions. We have studied the seasonal expression of these two interaction types within a two-species, boreal small mammal system. Seasons differ by resource availability, individual breeding state and intraspecific social system. Live-trapping methods were used to monitor space use ...
Louie Jimmy Chun Yu - - 2011
There are no published data regarding the overall dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents. We therefore aim to describe the dietary GI and GL of participants of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS), and to identify the main ...
Epstein Leonard H - - 2011
Habituation is a form of learning in which repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to a decrease in responding. Eating involves repeated presentation of the same food stimulus in a meal, and habituation is reliably observed within a meal such that faster rates of habituation are associated with less energy ...
Peier Andrea M - - 2011
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved peptide reported to modulate energy homeostasis. Pharmacological studies have shown that centrally administered NMU inhibits food intake, reduces body weight, and increases energy expenditure. NMU-deficient mice develop obesity, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing NMU become lean and hypophagic. Two high-affinity NMU receptors, NMUR1 and ...
Diéguez Carlos - - 2011
The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. One of the main regulatory factors within the hypothalamus is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is involved in a large number of biological actions including the modulation of energy balance. Leptin and ghrelin-induced changes in ...
Lin Q-B - - 2011
Migration investigations were carried out on paper packaging materials in contact with solid food simulants. The aim was to investigate the migration behaviour of a series of isothiazolinone biocides (2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OIT)) as potential contaminants in paper materials, at varying temperatures and migration times, for the ...
Astbury Nerys M - - 2011
The effects of breakfast consumption on energy intake and the responses to foods consumed later in the day remain unclear. Twelve men of healthy body weight who reported regularly consuming breakfast (mean ± SD age 23.4 ± 7.3 y; BMI 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) completed 2 trials using a randomized ...
Souverein Olga W - - 2011
Portion size estimation is expected to be one of the largest sources of uncertainty in dietary assessment of the individual. Therefore, we demonstrated a method to quantify uncertainty due to portion size estimation in the usual intake distributions of vegetables, fruit, bread, protein, and potassium. Dutch participants of the European ...
Levitsky David A - - 2011
High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the ...
Bessesen Daniel H DH Department of Medicine, Denver Health Medical Center, 777 Bannock Street, Denver, CO 80204, USA. - - 2011
Despite dramatic variations in day to day intake and energy expenditure, weight remains relatively stable in most animals and humans. There are clear physiological responses to over and underfeeding suggesting that the body strives to maintain a constant weight. Despite this, for most humans and experimental animals, there is a ...
Griffioen-Roose Sanne - - 2011
It is posed that protein intake is tightly regulated by the human body. The role of sensory qualities in the satiating effects of protein, however, requires further clarification. Our objective was to determine the effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety. We used a ...
Spill Maureen K - - 2011
This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week ...
Temple Jennifer L - - 2011
The purpose of these studies was to test the hypotheses that simplified nutrition labeling and taxation alter food selection and intake. In Experiment 1, participants consumed lunch in the laboratory three times with no labels, standard nutrition labels, or traffic light diet labels at each visit. In Experiment 2, participants ...
Cunneen Sinead - - 2011
Background: Malnutrition and dehydration are life-threatening conditions affecting a large proportion of the elderly community in care homes. Despite the provision of guidelines aimed at ensuring the nutritional requirements of individuals are met, the prevalence of malnutrition remains particularly high in institutionalized older adults. This article describes a study carried ...
Procaccini Claudio - - 2011
For decades, obesity has been considered to be the result of the complex interaction between genes and the environment and its pathogenesis is still unresolved. The discovery of hormones and neural mediators responsible for the control of food intake and metabolism at the hypothalamic level has provided fundamental insights into ...
Bhavan P Saravana - - 2011
This study determines the toxic effect of carbaryl (Sevin50% W.P) on the food utilization parameters in intermoult juveniles of the prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. The prawns (4.5-5.0 cm in length and 1.0-1.25 g wet wt.) were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of carbaryl (5.15, 7.73 and 15.47 microgl-1) for duration of ...
Hagenaars A - - 2011
Fluorosurfactants are the key components in aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). They provide these fire fighting agents with the required low surface tension and they enable film formation on top of lighter fuels to prevent burn back. Development of effective and environmentally acceptable PFOS alternatives is one of the most ...
Killen Shaun S - - 2011
1. Individuals of the same species often exhibit consistent differences in metabolic rate, but the effects of such differences on ecologically important behaviours remain largely unknown. In particular, it is unclear whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between metabolic rate and the tendency to take risks while foraging. Individuals with higher ...
Fissore C - - 2011
Rapid worldwide urbanization calls for a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of those macroelements that have large environmental impacts in cities. This study, part of the Twin Cities Household Ecosystem Project, quantified fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) at the scale of individual households in the ...
Karim M R - - 2011
An operational research was done to explore the effect of targeted food supplementation by comparing the birthweight of the babies of two areas (intervention & nonintervention). This record-based study was carried out in Kapasia and Savar upazila of Dhaka division, relying on the primary organizational data of 565 mothers. In ...
Carter Owen - - 2011
Issues addressed: A single thumbnail variant of the food industry's voluntary front-of-package Daily Intake Guide (DIG) - called the 'Energy Alone' thumbnail (DIG kJ) - has recently appeared on many energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages, especially soft drinks and confectionery. However, there is no published data to date that has ...
Carter Owen - - 2011
A single thumbnail variant of the food industry's voluntary front-of-package Daily Intake Guide (DIG)--called the 'Energy Alone' thumbnail (DIG kJ)--has recently appeared on many energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages, especially soft drinks and confectionery. However, there is no published data to date that has assessed its merit. A quota sample ...
Puértolas E - - 2011
The mass transfer phenomenon occurs in many operations of the food industry with the purpose of obtaining a given substance of interest, removing water from foods, or introducing a given substance into the food matrix. Pretreatments that modify the permeability of the cell membranes, such as grinding, heating, or enzymatic ...
Hormes Julia M - - 2011
Ambivalence is thought to impact consumption of food, alcohol and drugs, possibly via influences on craving, with cravers often being simultaneously drawn toward and repelled from ingestion. So far, little is known about the temporal dynamics of ambivalence, especially as it varies in relationship to consumption. Participants (n=482, 56.8% female) ...
Ito Sumio - - 2011
Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food ...
Kang Ki Sung - - 2011
The goldfish (Carassius auratus) has a number of merits as a laboratory animal, and we have extensively identified the mechanisms by which ghrelin regulates food intake in this species. For the first time, we have purified and characterized 11 molecular variants of ghrelin that are present in goldfish intestine and ...
Pan Wen-Harn - - 2011
The availability of new food choices has increased dramatically in recent times, whilst increasingly sedentary lifestyles have reduced calorie intake requirements. The present study uses 24 hour dietary recall data, and biochemical and anthropometric measurements from the 1993-1996 and 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT) to investigate trends ...
Agarwal K N - - 2011
Infant feeding and weaning practices in India continue to demonstrate that a significant number of infants do not receive colostrum (62.8% according to the National Family Health Survey, NFHS-2), though breastfeeding is universal and continued for a longer period. In NFHS-3 (2005-2006), there is improving trend for breastfeeding within the ...
Ledderose Carola - - 2011
Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, is a potent stimulator of growth hormone release, food intake and weight gain. Besides its functions in regulating energy homeostasis, ghrelin has pronounced cardioprotective effects and was shown to improve cardiac performance in chronic heart failure (CHF). The multifunctional nature of ...
Yao Xuan - - 2011
Brown adipose tissue in mammals plays a critical role in maintaining energy balance by thermogenesis, which means dissipating energy in the form of heat. It is held that in mammals, long-term surplus food intake results in energy storage in the form of triglyceride and may eventually lead to obesity. Stimulating ...
Diz-Chaves Yolanda - - 2011
Obesity has become one of the leading causes of illness and mortality in the developed world. Preclinical and clinical data provide compelling evidence for ghrelin as a relevant regulator of appetite, food intake, and energy homeostasis. In addition, ghrelin has recently emerged as one of the major contributing factors to ...
Kim Kee-Hong - - 2011
Although many food components are reportedly beneficial to body-weight management, lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms and their function in overall adiposity under physiological conditions hinders successful and safe development of antiobesity functional foods. A positive energy balance resulting from an increase in food intake, a reduced energy expenditure, and/or ...
Goldfield Gary S - - 2011
Purpose: Obese people find energy-dense food more reinforcing than do their non-obese peers, and reinforcement influences food intake. We examined how the degree of adiposity, measured by body mass index (BMI), is associated with the relative reinforcing value of energy-dense snack foods versus fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese ...
Robson A A - - 2011
It is crucial that emergent technologies create foods that help prevent the causal mechanisms of the diet induced disease epidemic. Food nanotechnology could create modem convenience foods that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutritious cooked wild foods for humans. Structuring a solid processed food similar ...
Matheson Kelly M - - 2011
Purpose: Effects on energy metabolism of a test meal and a two-week dietary intervention were observed in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Both the meal and the intervention included foods containing fish-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA). Methods: Six men with MetS (46.7 ± 12.1 years, 37.2 ± 5.6 kg/m(2), mean ...
Sato Nanae - - 2011
Aim: In this study, we conducted a dietary assessment of the subjects and investigated the relationship of energy, nutrients and food intake to the indices of masticatory ability and masticatory behavior for identifying the differences in their association with dietary patterns. Methods: The subjects were 61 5-y-old children, of whom ...
Liebman M B - - 2011
Currently more than 3 billion people live in urban areas. The urban population is predicted to increase by a further 3 billion by 2050. Rising oil prices, unreliable rainfall and natural disasters have all contributed to a rise in global food prices. Food security is becoming an increasingly important issue ...
Meyer Nanna L - - 2011
Abstract Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter ...
Devitt A A - - 2011
Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI). This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR) and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults ...
Wu Shin-Jiuan - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate trends in nutrients and sources of dietary intake for Taiwanese people from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996 to 2005-2008. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data were obtained from the 2005-2008 NAHSIT. The results showed that intake of cereals and ...
Hernandez Liza - - 2011
Complementary foods (CF) are introduced earlier or later than appropriate in developing societies. They often contribute poorly to overall adequate micronutrient intake during the critical period for growth and development, which constitutes the period from 6 to 12 months of life. The objective of this study was to determine the ...
Ulziijargal Enkhjargal - - 2011
Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) are a food with high nutritional value. This article summarizes the results of proximate composition studies of 38 fruiting bodies and 19 mycelia of 32 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Antrodia, Auricularia, Boletus, Clitocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Trametes, Dictyophora, Flammulina, Ganoderma, Grifola, ...
Shatenstein Bryna - - 2011
Purpose: Pregnant women's diets should be monitored to ensure adequacy, but few studies have assessed the validity of dietary assessment tools among pregnant women. We examined the relative validity of a self-administered, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) adapted for use in the International Trial of Antioxidants in the Prevention of ...
Savino Francesco - - 2011
Growing evidence suggests that a complex relationship exists between the central nervous system and peripheral organs involved in energy homeostasis. It consists in the balance between food intake and energy expenditure and includes the regulation of nutrient levels in storage organs, as well as in blood, in particular blood glucose. ...
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