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Results 401 - 450 of 989
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Levy Ofir - - 2011
We studied the occurrence of torpor in golden spiny mice in a hot rocky desert near the Dead Sea. In this rodent assemblage, a congener, the nocturnal common spiny mouse, competitively excluded the golden spiny mouse from the nocturnal part of the diel cycle and forced it into diurnal activity; ...
Palma Ana Cristina - - 2011
Howler monkeys are among the most studied primates in the Neotropics, however, behavioral studies including estimation of food availability in Andean forests are scarce. During 12 months we studied habitat use, behavior, and feeding ecology of two groups of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in an isolated fragment in the ...
Boyland Emma J - - 2011
Objective: Our aim was to determine if levels of television viewing (a proxy measure for habitual commercial exposure) affect children's food preference responses to television food commercials. Methods: A total of 281 children aged 6 to 13 years from northwest England viewed toy or food television commercials followed by a ...
Lassen Anne D - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of a relatively novel concept of providing employees with healthy ready-to-heat meals to bring home to their families, here referred to as Canteen Take Away (CTA). DESIGN: Employees' dietary intake on two weekdays when they received free CTA was compared with that on weekdays when ...
Grundy-Warr Carl - - 2011
Opisthorchis viverrini is one of the most common and medically important food-borne parasites in the Lower Mekong area of Southeast Asia. As we learn more about its ecology, pathology and epidemiology we see the need to consider more deeply the socio-cultural dynamics with which food-borne species complexes are associated. This ...
Rumbold P L S - - 2011
The accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported, weighed food diary and 24-h recall technique) in 13 female, adolescent netball players (14-16 years) was explored. The girls were observed for a 12h period (08:00-20:00), during which food and drink items were available ad libitum throughout the day and ...
Ohnishi Akihiro - - 2011
The genus Megasphaera is relevant to the environment, human health and food, and renewable energy for the future. In this study, a primer set was designed for PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses to detect and identify the members of Megasphaera. Direct detection and identification were achieved for environmental samples ...
Brindal Emily - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To assess Australian consumers' perception of portion size of fast-food items and their ability to estimate energy content. DESIGN: Cross-sectional computer-based survey. SETTING: Australia. SUBJECTS: Fast-food consumers (168 male, 324 female) were asked to recall the items eaten at the most recent visit to a fast-food restaurant, rate the ...
Halsey Lewis G - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare the effects of eating or skipping breakfast on energy expenditure, activity levels and dietary habits. DESIGN: A randomised cross-over trial, lasting 2 weeks. Participants were provided breakfast during one week and were required to fast until mid-day during the other week. SETTING: University campus. SUBJECTS: Forty-nine ...
Araújo Joana - - 2011
To identify food sources of nutrients in adolescents' diets and to identify differences in food sources according to individual characteristics. A cross-sectional evaluation was carried out in the 2003/2004 school year. Self-administered questionnaires were used and a physical examination was performed. Diet was evaluated using an FFQ. Public and private ...
Rangan A M - - 2011
Background/Objectives:To assess the changes in the consumption of core foods among Australian children between the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (1995 NNS) and the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007 Children's Survey).Subjects/Methods:Core food consumption was analysed using 24-h recall data from 2-16 year old children using the ...
Geiser Fritz - - 2011
Torpor, the most effective means of energy conservation available to endotherms, is still widely viewed as a specific adaptation in a few high-latitude, cold-climate endotherms with no adaptive function in warm regions. Nevertheless, a growing number of diverse terrestrial mammals and birds from low latitudes (0-30°), including species from tropical ...
Tsourgiannis L - - 2011
This study aims to identify the factors that affect consumers purchasing behaviour towards food products that are free from Genetic Modified Organism (GM Free) in a European Region and more precisely in the Prefecture of Drama-Kavala-Xanthi. Field interviews conducted in a random selected sample consisted of 337 consumers in the ...
Yu Ying-Xin - - 2011
The objective of this study was to investigate the concentrations, seasonal variations, bioaccessibility, and associated human daily intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in in- and out-house dust collected in Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations varied from 131.6 to 3,886.7ngg(-1) (with an average of 948.2ngg(-1)) in in-house dust and from ...
Philippot Laurent - - 2011
Agriculture is an important source of anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and crops can affect the microbial processes controlling these emissions in many ways. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of plant-microbe interactions in relation to the CH(4) and N(2)O budgets and ...
Strickland Dan - - 2011
Variation in habitat quality can have important consequences for fitness and population dynamics. For food-caching species, a critical determinant of habitat quality is normally the density of storable food, but it is also possible that quality is driven by the ability of habitats to preserve food items. The food-caching gray ...
McNaughton Sarah A - - 2011
Measures of dietary patterns have been increasingly used to capture the complex nature of dietary intake. Few studies have investigated the impact of specific dietary patterns on bone health. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and total hip and total body bone mineral content (BMC) were measured ...
Muhlhausler B S - - 2011
There is now clear evidence from population-based and experimental animal studies that maternal obesity and maternal overnutrition, particularly excessive intake of high-fat and high-sugar diets, is associated with an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the offspring. Whilst the physiological reasons for this association are still not ...
Turunen Anu W - - 2011
Our aim was to investigate whether fish consumption is associated with the consumption of other healthy foods. The study population consisted of 2605 men and 3199 women from the nationally representative Health 2000 survey and 114 professional fishermen and 114 fishermen's wives (the Fishermen substudy) in Finland. Dietary data were ...
Burrows Tracy - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: Caloric intake is a major contributor to energy imbalance and is a key modifiable factor for successful treatment of obesity. Long term changes in dietary intake from paediatric obesity treatment programs are rarely reported. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in food intake of ...
Whitton Clare - - 2011
The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of the present paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first ...
Ayala-Berdon Jorge - - 2011
Nectar-feeding bats regulate their food ingestion in response to changes in sugar concentration as a way to achieve a constant energy intake. However, their digestive capability to absorb sugars can limit their total energy intake, particularly when sugar concentration in nectar is low. Our experimental study evaluated the effect that ...
Beets Michael W - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To review and synthesize existing national and state organizations' policies related to the nutritional quality of snacks served in after-school programmes (ASP; 15.00-18.00 hours) in the USA. DESIGN: Systematic review of websites and corresponding documentation describing national and state-level ASP organizations' policies, standards, guidelines and/or recommendations for the nutritional ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2011
This Comment by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to provide a summary of the role of nutrition-related factors on obesity prevention in children ages 2 to 18 years. This Comment emphasizes that dietary interventions should be incorporated into a multidisciplinary ...
Iannotti Lora - - 2011
From 2006 to 2008, there were sharp increases in the prices of major food commodities globally, including maize, rice, and wheat. Few studies have contributed empirical evidence of the nutritional impacts of this food price crisis. To assess changes in energy intake in response to food price shocks and in ...
Dale Virginia H - - 2011
Landscape implications of bioenergy feedstock choices are significant and depend on land-use practices and their environmental impacts. Although land-use changes and carbon emissions associated with bioenergy feedstock production are dynamic and complicated, lignocellulosic feedstocks may offer opportunities that enhance sustainability when compared to other transportation fuel alternatives. For bioenergy sustainability, ...
Günther Anke L B - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to examine the association of pre-pubertal dietary energy density (ED) with both age and body fatness at the start of the pubertal growth spurt (age at take-off, ATO). Analyses included 219 DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants with sufficient height measurements ...
Hopkins Mark - - 2011
The way in which metabolic fuels are utilized can alter the expression of behaviour in the interests of regulating energy balance and fuel availability. This is consistent with the notion that the regulation of appetite is a psychobiological process, in which physiological mediators act as drivers of behaviour. The glycogenostatic ...
Shao Qin - - 2011
The rapid rise in the incidence of obesity has emerged as one of the most pressing global public health issues in recent years. The underlying etiological causes of obesity, whether behavioral, environmental, genetic, or a combination of several of them, have not been completely elucidated. The obesity epidemic has been ...
Preston Alan M AM Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico. - - 2011
Knowledge of the diet of specific populations is of importance in the assessment of nutrient intake. Herein, we assess the reproducibility and validity of an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in Puerto Rican children at two educational levels--elementary (ES) and high school (HS). The FFQ contained 97 items including supplements. ...
Duffey Kiyah J KJ Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2011
Competing theories attempt to explain changes in total energy (TE) intake; however, a rigorous, comprehensive examination of these explanations has not been undertaken. Our objective was to examine the relative contribution of energy density (ED), portion size (PS), and the number of eating/drinking occasions (EOs) to changes in daily TE. ...
Li Gang - - 2011
Even moderate arsenic exposure may lead to health problems, and thus quantifying inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure from food for different population groups in China is essential. By analyzing the data from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) and collecting reported values of iAs in major food groups, we ...
Kubik Martha Y - - 2011
To examine the association between school wellness council structure over 2 years and low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare assessed as a food score (range: 0-7), following enactment of federal legislation. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine 2006/2007 and 2008/2009 data among a cohort of middle (n = 16) and high ...
Day John G - - 2011
Microalgae have significant potential to form the basis of the next biofuel revolution. They have high growth and solar energy conversion rates. Furthermore, their osmotolerance, metabolic diversity and capacity to produce large amounts of lipids have attracted considerable interest. Although there are a handful of commercially successful examples of the ...
de Graaf Cees - - 2011
In their short communication against satiety claims, Booth and Nouwen (2010) neglect dozens of well designed studies that show consistent relations between satiety, energy intake and body weight. Satiety, intake and weight are separate concepts, that need different claims and evidence to support them. Satiety can be measured reliably. A ...
Hendriksen Marieke Ah - - 2011
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence regarding an association between the consumption of energy-dense snack (EDS) foods and the development of overweight. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we examined whether there was an association between the intake of EDS foods and annual weight and waist circumference changes in normal-weight and overweight ...
Singh J - - 2011
A gluten-free diet is the only treatment for patients with coeliac disease, although it can be burdensome to follow and result in inadequate nutrient intake. The cost and availability of a gluten-free diet has been cited as a cause of incomplete dietary compliance; however, this has not been extensively investigated. ...
Kim Mi-Hyung - - 2011
The costs associated with eight food waste disposal options, dry feeding, wet feeding, composting, anaerobic digestion, co-digestion with sewage sludge, food waste disposer, incineration, and landfilling, were evaluated in the perspective of global warming and energy and/or resource recovery. An expanded system boundary was employed to compare by-products. Life cycle ...
Williams Diana L DL Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, - - 2011
Rather than arising from the passive accumulation of excess calories, obesity is a state in which the biologically defended level of body fat stores increases due to defects in the homeostatic process that matches food intake and energy expenditure over time. By deleting leptin receptors from distinct brain regions and ...
Eccard Jana A - - 2011
Indirect resource competition and interference are widely occurring mechanisms of interspecific interactions. We have studied the seasonal expression of these two interaction types within a two-species, boreal small mammal system. Seasons differ by resource availability, individual breeding state and intraspecific social system. Live-trapping methods were used to monitor space use ...
Louie Jimmy Chun Yu - - 2011
There are no published data regarding the overall dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents. We therefore aim to describe the dietary GI and GL of participants of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS), and to identify the main ...
Epstein Leonard H - - 2011
Habituation is a form of learning in which repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to a decrease in responding. Eating involves repeated presentation of the same food stimulus in a meal, and habituation is reliably observed within a meal such that faster rates of habituation are associated with less energy ...
Peier Andrea M - - 2011
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved peptide reported to modulate energy homeostasis. Pharmacological studies have shown that centrally administered NMU inhibits food intake, reduces body weight, and increases energy expenditure. NMU-deficient mice develop obesity, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing NMU become lean and hypophagic. Two high-affinity NMU receptors, NMUR1 and ...
Diéguez Carlos - - 2011
The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. One of the main regulatory factors within the hypothalamus is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is involved in a large number of biological actions including the modulation of energy balance. Leptin and ghrelin-induced changes in ...
Lin Q-B - - 2011
Migration investigations were carried out on paper packaging materials in contact with solid food simulants. The aim was to investigate the migration behaviour of a series of isothiazolinone biocides (2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OIT)) as potential contaminants in paper materials, at varying temperatures and migration times, for the ...
Astbury Nerys M - - 2011
The effects of breakfast consumption on energy intake and the responses to foods consumed later in the day remain unclear. Twelve men of healthy body weight who reported regularly consuming breakfast (mean ± SD age 23.4 ± 7.3 y; BMI 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) completed 2 trials using a randomized ...
Souverein Olga W - - 2011
Portion size estimation is expected to be one of the largest sources of uncertainty in dietary assessment of the individual. Therefore, we demonstrated a method to quantify uncertainty due to portion size estimation in the usual intake distributions of vegetables, fruit, bread, protein, and potassium. Dutch participants of the European ...
Levitsky David A - - 2011
High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the ...
Bessesen Daniel H DH Department of Medicine, Denver Health Medical Center, 777 Bannock Street, Denver, CO 80204, USA. - - 2011
Despite dramatic variations in day to day intake and energy expenditure, weight remains relatively stable in most animals and humans. There are clear physiological responses to over and underfeeding suggesting that the body strives to maintain a constant weight. Despite this, for most humans and experimental animals, there is a ...
Griffioen-Roose Sanne - - 2011
It is posed that protein intake is tightly regulated by the human body. The role of sensory qualities in the satiating effects of protein, however, requires further clarification. Our objective was to determine the effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety. We used a ...
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