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Wichert B - - 2011
The NRC recommendations for cats for energy and protein supply during gestation and lactation are based on limited data. This study aimed to answer the question: Can the energy requirement be met with canned food or is the volume restrictive? Therefore, balance trials were conducted in 10 queens before mating, ...
Harrar Vanessa V Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, United Kingdom. - - 2011
Choosing what to eat is a complex activity for humans. Determining a food's pleasantness requires us to combine information about what is available at a given time with knowledge of the food's palatability, texture, fat content, and other nutritional information. It has been suggested that humans may have an implicit ...
Cohen Jennifer - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of complications such as obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis which have the potential to, in part, be controlled with dietary interventions. To allow the development of appropriate dietary interventions for younger cancer survivors data on their dietary intake as well as information ...
Rollo Megan E - - 2011
We evaluated a mobile phone application (Nutricam) for recording dietary intake. It allowed users to capture a photograph of food items before consumption and store a voice recording to explain the contents of the photograph. This information was then sent to a website where it was analysed by a dietitian. ...
Zhang Lin - - 2011
Variations in environmental factors instigate significant changes in the physiology and behavior of animals, necessary for their survival. The present study investigated the hypothesis that ambient temperature is a cue capable of inducing changes in body mass, energy intake, and thermogenic capacity. Moreover, the current study determined the potential role ...
Levis James W - - 2011
Commercial food waste represents a relatively available high-quality feedstock for landfill diversion to biological treatment. A life-cycle assessment was performed for commercial food waste processed through aerobic composting systems of varying complexity, anaerobic digestion, and landfills with and without gas collection and energy recovery, as well as a bioreactor landfill. ...
Railsback S F - - 2011
Simulation experiments using the inSTREAM individual-based brown trout Salmo trutta population model explored the role of individual adaptive behaviour in food limitation, as an example of how behaviour can affect managers' understanding of conservation problems. The model includes many natural complexities in habitat (spatial and temporal variation in characteristics such ...
Aluja Martín - - 2011
The way energy resources are used under variable environmental conditions lies at the heart of our understanding of resource management and opportunism in many organisms. Here we sought to determine how a time-limited, synovigenic and polyphagous insect with a high reproductive-potential (Anastrephaludens), copes behaviourally and metabolically with environmental unpredictability represented ...
Sadraddini Somayeh - - 2011
We performed dynamic linear modeling analysis on fish contaminant data collected from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada to examine long-term trends of total mercury (THg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Erie. Several sport fish species (walleye, smallmouth bass, rainbow trout) with differences in their diet ...
Zhao Xuewei - - 2011
  In some food processing operations, raw materials sustain shearing and heating simultaneously. These thermomechanical treatments will induce chemical, physicochemical, and biochemical changes, such as starch degradation and gelatinization, protein denaturalization, loss of nutritious components, and inactivation of enzymes and their inhibitors. In this article, only kinetic aspects of these ...
Macdonald A - - 2011
Careful weaning is particularly important in phenylketonuria (PKU). Dietary phenylalanine intake is severely restricted, and the diet is supplemented with phenylalanine-free amino acids and special low protein foods. In PKU, there are no evidence-based weaning guidelines and no studies assessing the introduction of solid foods. We critically review the literature ...
de-Oliveira L D - - 2011
Six dry dog foods and six dry cat foods with different carbohydrate sources were investigated in digestion trials. Food and faecal samples were analysed for CF, TDF and starch. In dogs, also neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) were analysed. N-free extract (NfE) was calculated for CF, ...
Kaushik Susmita - - 2011
Macroautophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway that maintains cellular homeostasis by turning over cellular components. Here we demonstrate a role for autophagy in hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. We show that starvation-induced hypothalamic autophagy mobilizes neuron-intrinsic lipids to generate endogenous free ...
Quarta Carmelo - - 2011
Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a universal and, perhaps, causative feature of obesity. Central nervous system (CNS) circuits that regulate food intake were initially believed to be the targets for dysregulation. However, it is increasingly evident that endocannabinoids affect food intake, energy expenditure and substrate metabolism by acting ...
Scisco Jenna L - - 2011
Slow eating may be associated with reduced energy intake. A device that counts bites can provide bite-rate feedback to the user. The purpose of this study was to explore the bite counter's utility for slowing bite-rate and reducing energy intake. The study was a within-participants design with three conditions. From ...
Moreno-Tamayo Karla - - 2011
To analyze quantitative indicators of food insecurity (FI), and estimate if FI modifies the association between maternal and child Zinc and energy intake as evidence for maternal dietary compromise in favor of her child. Cross-sectional study (n=2 563), data derived from baseline impact evaluation of the Mexican Programa de Apoyo ...
Poti Jennifer M - - 2011
Little is known about the influence of location of food consumption and preparation upon daily energy intake of children. To examine trends in daily energy intake by children for foods eaten at home or away from home, by source of preparation, and for combined categories of eating location and food ...
Golsteijn Laura - - 2011
In current Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), the focus of ecotoxicity is on cold-blooded species. We developed a method to calculate Characterization Factors (CFs) for the impact assessment of chemical emissions on warm-blooded predators in freshwater food chains. The method was applied to 329 organic chemicals. The CF for these ...
Olsen Annemarie - - 2011
We investigated effects of manipulating fat content of familiar foods at two test-meals in 74, 4-6-year-old children. Liking, energy intake, and weight-based food intake were assessed for a meal consisting of macaroni and cheese, pudding, chocolate milk and regular milk in high-fat and low-fat versions. Liking ratings and consumption by ...
Roemmich James N - - 2011
The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy intake and food choices. A total of 40 boys and ...
Matthews Aimee - - 2011
The objective of this work was to determine the effect of consumption of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) in the evening in place of a normal evening snack on body weight, anthropometric measurements and energy intake in overweight individuals. Seventy overweight participants who were self-reported habitual evening snackers were assigned to either ...
Georg Jensen Morten - - 2011
Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, ...
Atkinson Louise F - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Nutritionally promoted foods are now available at fast-food establishments. Little is known about their popularity, who is purchasing them, or their impact on dietary intake. Our study aimed to determine: how often nutritionally promoted fast foods were purchased; the demographic characteristics of people purchasing these foods; and if purchasing ...
Hampton Paul M - - 2011
The skull of squamates has many functions, with food acquisition and ingestion being paramount. Snakes vary interspecifically in the frequency, size, and types of prey that are consumed. Natural selection should favor phenotypes that minimize the costs of energy acquisition; therefore, trophic morphology should reflect a snake's primary prey type ...
Li Jie - - 2011
BACKGROUND: As the first step in ingesting food, the effects of mastication on energy intake and gut hormones in both obese and lean subjects have not been extensively evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to compare the differences in chewing activities between obese and lean subjects and to examine the ...
Spill Maureen K - - 2011
Strategies are needed to increase children's intake of a variety of vegetables, including vegetables that are not well liked. We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables into entrées to reduce the energy density (ED; in kcal/g) affected vegetable and energy intake over 1 d in preschool children. In this crossover study, ...
Cribb V L VL School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2012
Complementary feeding is a critical developmental time for establishing variety, and appropriate feeding practices are important. These include recommendations for a maximum intake of sodium (salt), because of the potential harmful effect of excessive intake on the developing kidneys and blood pressure in later life. Sodium intakes were examined to ...
Urban Lorien E LE Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111, - - 2011
National recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake. Foods purchased in restaurants provide approximately 35% of the daily energy intake in US individuals but the accuracy of the energy contents listed for these foods is unknown. To examine the accuracy of stated energy contents of ...
Dick Kenneth B - - 2011
SummaryWe measure genetic variation in lifespan and fecundity at two food levels in 34 core lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel collection. Lines were significantly different from each other in lifespan and fecundity at both restricted and full food. There was a strong food-by-line interaction for the slope of ...
Prentice Ross L RL Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA. - - 2011
The food frequency questionnaire approach to dietary assessment is ubiquitous in nutritional epidemiology research. Food records and recalls provide approaches that may also be adaptable for use in large epidemiologic cohorts, if warranted by better measurement properties. The authors collected (2007-2009) a 4-day food record, three 24-hour dietary recalls, and ...
Steuer Patrick - - 2011
The relation between body mass (BM) and digesta mean retention time (MRT) in herbivores was the focus of several studies in recent years. It was assumed that MRT scaled with BM(0.25) based on the isometric scaling of gut capacity (BM(1.0)) and allometric scaling of energy intake (BM(0.75)). Literature studies that ...
Armstrong Jonathan B - - 2011
A central challenge for predators is achieving positive energy balance when prey are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Ecological heterogeneity produces evolutionary trade-offs in the physiological design of predators; this is because the ability to capitalize on pulses of food abundance requires high capacity for food-processing, yet maintaining such capacity imposes ...
Elliott S A - - 2011
Background/Objectives:Dietary assessment in humans is hampered by the phenomena of under and overreporting of energy intake, when food records are used to evaluate habitual dietary intake. Different methods to evaluate mis-reporting have been proposed using cut-offs derived from estimates of reported energy intake and basal metabolic rate, or, from predictions ...
Cripps Jemma K - - 2011
Lactation is the most energetically expensive component of reproduction in mammals. Theory predicts that reproducing females will adjust their behaviour to compensate for increased nutritional demands. However, experimental tests are required, since comparisons of the behaviour of naturally reproducing and non-reproducing females cannot distinguish between true costs of reproduction, individual ...
Tam C S CS Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, - - 2011
Bariatric surgery is the most effective method for promoting dramatic and durable weight loss in morbidly obese subjects. Furthermore, type 2 diabetes is resolved in over 80% of patients. The mechanisms behind the amelioration in metabolic abnormalities are largely unknown but may be due to changes in energy metabolism, gut ...
Dehghan Mahshid - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (DRs) that could be used for Colombian adults. METHODS: A convenience sample of 219 individuals participated in the study. The validity of the FFQ was evaluated against multiple DRs. Four dietary recalls were collected during the year, ...
Hebden Lana A - - 2011
To assess the impact of the quick-service restaurant industry (QSRI) self-regulatory initiative on fast-food advertising to children on Australian commercial television. Analysis of advertisements for foods on the three main free-to-air commercial television channels (channels 7, 9 and 10) in Sydney, Australia, over 4 days in both May 2009 and ...
Shen Zhiping - - 2011
Tuna oil, containing 53 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 241 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per gram oil, delivered as a neat microencapsulated tuna oil powder (25% oil loading) or in food matrices (orange juice, yogurt or cereal bar) fortified with microencapsulated tuna oil powder were digested in simulated gastric fluid, ...
Konishi Shoko - - 2011
Tongan adults show one of the highest prevalences of obesity in the world. The present study aims to estimate Tongans' energy and nutrient intakes and food sources using a 24-hour recall survey for 14 days targeting 15 men and 19 women. The mean (SD) daily energy intake was 12.2 (2.3) ...
Trolle E - - 2011
Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 × 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the ...
Hall Laura - - 2011
Parental dietary intake, lifestyle behavior, and parenting style influence a child's weight status. Few studies have examined associations between parent-child dietary intake, or specific father-child associations. This cross-sectional study examined associations between father-child dietary intakes of fruit, vegetables, and selected energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The study population consisted of overweight fathers ...
Virtue Sam - - 2011
Two crucial biological processes are (1) the sensing and coordination of responses to low oxygen levels and (2) the control of food intake and energy expenditure. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of proteins is known to regulate responses to low oxygen, whereas neuropeptides derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are implicated in ...
Leonetti Donna L - - 2011
Men's hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women's roles as critical to household formation, pair-bonding, and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be ...
Teixeira Juliana Araujo - - 2011
The Natural History of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Men: The HIM Study is a prospective multicenter cohort study that, among other factors, analyzes participants' diet. A parallel cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) used in the Brazilian center ...
Houchins Jenny A - - 2011
Beverage consumption has been implicated in weight gain, but questions remain about the veracity of the association, whether the relationship is causal and what property of beverages is responsible. It was hypothesized that food form is the most salient attribute. Thus, a randomized controlled trial of food form was conducted. ...
Potvin Kent Monique - - 2011
Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated ...
Makris Angela P - - 2011
Although high protein and low glycemic index (GI) foods are thought to promote satiety, little is known about the effects of GI, protein, and their interaction on hunger and energy intake several hours following a mixed meal. This study investigated the long term effects of GI, protein, and their combined ...
Levy Ofir - - 2011
We studied the occurrence of torpor in golden spiny mice in a hot rocky desert near the Dead Sea. In this rodent assemblage, a congener, the nocturnal common spiny mouse, competitively excluded the golden spiny mouse from the nocturnal part of the diel cycle and forced it into diurnal activity; ...
Palma Ana Cristina - - 2011
Howler monkeys are among the most studied primates in the Neotropics, however, behavioral studies including estimation of food availability in Andean forests are scarce. During 12 months we studied habitat use, behavior, and feeding ecology of two groups of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in an isolated fragment in the ...
Boyland Emma J - - 2011
Objective: Our aim was to determine if levels of television viewing (a proxy measure for habitual commercial exposure) affect children's food preference responses to television food commercials. Methods: A total of 281 children aged 6 to 13 years from northwest England viewed toy or food television commercials followed by a ...
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