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Lozinsky Oleksandr V - - 2012
The toxicity of the nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was tested on the Drosophila melanogaster model system. Fly larvae were raised on food supplemented with GSNO at concentrations of 1.0, 1.5 or 4.0mM. Food supplementation with GSNO caused a developmental delay in the flies. Biochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers ...
Guan Xinfu - - 2012
Glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1/2) are cosecreted from endocrine L cells in the gut and preproglucagonergic neurons in the brain. Peripheral GLP-2 action is essential for maintaining intestinal homeostasis, improving absorption efficiency and blood flow, promoting immune defense, and producing efficacy in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. However, it is unknown if CNS ...
Relkovic Dinko - - 2012
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by lack of paternally derived gene expression from the imprinted gene cluster on human chromosome 15q11-q13. PWS is characterized by severe hypotonia, a failure to thrive in infancy and, on emerging from infancy, evidence of learning disabilities and overeating behavior due to an abnormal satiety ...
Kawakami Shinpei - - 2012
Food intake stimuli, including taste, somatosensory, and tactile stimuli, are received by receptors in the oral cavity, and this information is then transferred to the cerebral cortex. Signals from recently ingested food during the weaning period can affect synaptic transmission, resulting in biochemical changes in the cerebral cortex that modify ...
Wu Wenda - - 2012
While induction of food refusal by the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) has been described in several animal models, much less is known about the anorectic effects of structurally related 8-ketotrichothecenes, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX) and nivalenol (NIV). Here, we compared the capacities of these congeners to induce ...
Azuma Kazuo - - 2012
We examined effects of N-acetyl-D: -glucosamine (GlcNAc) on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) mouse models and effects of GlcNAc and glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN) on several serum cytokine productions in RA mouse models. SKG/jcl mice were divided into control, GlcNAc, and GlcN groups. For 56 days, the control group received normal food, the GlcNAc ...
Maherani Behnoush - - 2012
Natural dipeptide antioxidants (l-carnosine) are recieving increasing attention because of their noticeable potential as biopreservatives in food recent technology. Encapsulation of antioxidants by nanoliposomes could represent an ameliorative approach to overcome the problems related to the direct application of these antioxidant peptides in food. In this study, nanoliposomes prepared from ...
Scott Karen A - - 2012
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has markedly increased during the past few decades. Stress has been suggested as one environmental factor that may contribute to the development of obesity. In this review, we discuss the role that exposure to chronic stress may play in the development of obesity, with ...
Kim Hyo Yeol - - 2012
Despite the importance of olfactory function, no effective medications have been identified to treat olfactory disorders. This study was performed to evaluate the functional recovery of olfaction damaged by 3-methylindole (3MI) in a mouse model with hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins). In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, 24 healthy female BALB/c ...
Shell William E - - 2012
To study the safety and efficacy of a new medical food (Theramine) in the treatment of low back pain, we performed a 28-day double-blind randomized controlled trial in 129 patients. Back pain was present for at least 6 weeks and was not mild. Patients were randomly assigned to receive medical ...
Lindeberg S - - 2012
Increasing evidence suggests that optimal food choice is critical for sizable prevention of western diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Mediterranean diet is an important step in this direction. Moreover, substantially lower rates of Western disease, even compared to Mediterranean countries, have been observed among hunter-gatherers and other ...
Gao G - - 2012
Aims:  To functionally express the recombinant mouse insulin-like growth factor-I (rtmIGF-I) in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 with a food-grade vector. Methods and Results:  The rtmIGF-I encoding sequence was inserted into secreted food-grade vector pLEB688 and transformed into Lc. lactis NZ9000. The expression of the recombinant protein rtmIGF-I was confirmed by tricine-SDS-PAGE ...
Black Katherine E - - 2012
Endurance events >10 hr are becoming increasingly popular but provide numerous physiological challenges, several of which can be attenuated with optimal nutritional intakes. Previous studies in ultraendurance races have reported large energy deficits during events. The authors therefore aimed to assess nutritional intakes in relation to performance among ultraendurance cyclists. ...
Shin Andrew C - - 2012
To determine the role of the common hepatic branch of the abdominal vagus on the beneficial effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on weight loss, food intake, food choice, and energy expenditure in a rat model. Although changes in gut hormone patterns are the leading candidates in RYGB's effects on ...
Yeo Giles S H GS Metabolic Research Labs, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
It is an inescapable fact that obesity results from consuming more energy than you burn. The interesting question, however, is why some people eat more than others? Recent genetic analyses have revealed that variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are robustly associated with obesity and increased food ...
Schebendach Janet E - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To compare self-reported and measured energy intake in weight-restored patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), weight-stable obese individuals (OB), and normal weight controls (NC). METHOD: Forty participants (18 AN, 10 OB, and 12 NC) in a laboratory meal study simultaneously completed a prospective food record. RESULTS: AN patients significantly (p ...
Blatt Alexandria D - - 2012
Pre-portioned entrées are commonly consumed to help control portion size and limit energy intake. The influence of entrée characteristics on energy intake, however, has not been well studied. We determined how the effects of energy content and energy density (ED, kcal/g) of pre-portioned entrées combine to influence daily energy intake. ...
Palais F - - 2012
A 12-month active biomonitoring study was performed in 2008-2009 on the Vesle river basin (Champagne-Ardenne, France) using the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha as a sentinel species; allochthonous mussels originating from a reference site (Commercy) were exposed at four sites (Bouy, Sept-Saulx, Fismes, Ardre) within the Vesle river basin. Selected core ...
Cassady Bridget A - - 2012
Beverage consumption is implicated in the overweight/obesity epidemic through the weaker energy compensation response it elicits compared with solid food forms. However, plausible mechanisms are not documented. This study assessed the cognitive and sensory contributions of differential postingestive responses to energy- and macronutrient-matched liquid (in beverage form) and solid food ...
McNeil Jessica - - 2012
Given the limitations associated with the measurement of food intake, we aimed to determine the reliability of a food menu to measure energy intake (EI) and macronutrient intake within the laboratory and under free-living conditions. A total of eight men and eight women (age 25·74 (sd 5·9) years, BMI 23·7 ...
Thomas Y - - 2012
Bivalve larvae and hydrographic parameters were sampled over a range of spatio-temporal scales in a deep atoll lagoon. Bivalve larvae abundances were very high throughout the year: 18,550m(-3) in average. Larvae were (i) concentrated at mid-depth with nocturnal ascent and diurnal descent, (ii) heterogeneously dispersed at the lagoon scale, (iii) ...
Muoki Penina N - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The nutritional quality of cassava complementary porridge was improved through extrusion cooking and compositing with either defatted or full fat soy flour (65:35 w/w), and product acceptability by mothers with children of the target population was evaluated. RESULTS: The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of extrusion- and conventionally ...
Guan Tianpei - - 2012
Mammals maximize fitness by optimizing time and energy allocation between reproduction and survival. Describing time budgets is a way to understand a species' constraints in energy allocation. We describe a time budget for male takin (Budorcas taxicolor) in Tangjiahe Nature Reserve, China, to better understand rut-induced hypophagia, which is frequently ...
Epstein Leonard H - - 2012
The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is positively associated with energy consumed and overweight status. One hypothesis relating these variables is that food reinforcement is related to BMI through usual energy intake. Using a sample of two hundred fifty-two adults of varying weight and BMI levels, results showed that ...
Kanoski Scott E SE University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychology, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. - - 2012
Since the late 1970s obesity prevalence and per capita food intake in the USA have increased dramatically. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the hyperphagia that drives obesity requires focus on the cognitive processes and neuronal systems controlling feeding that occurs in the absence of metabolic need (i.e., "non-homeostatic" intake). Given that ...
Guyenet Stephan J SJ Diabetes and Obesity Center of Excellence, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, South Lake Union, 815 Mercer Street, N334, Box 358055, Seattle, Washington 98109, - - 2012
Obesity has emerged as one of the leading medical challenges of the 21st century. The resistance of this disorder to effective, long-term treatment can be traced to the fact that body fat stores are subject to homeostatic regulation in obese individuals, just as in lean individuals. Because the growing obesity ...
Lofink Hayley E - - 2012
Objectives: This article examines how aspects of a specific locality, history and set of practices interact to produce an obesogenic environment. The Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework and a biocultural approach are used to examine one obesogenic environment - that experienced by British Bangladeshi adolescents (ages ...
Kim Jun Ho - - 2012
It is well established that the lack of physical activity can lead to weight gain or obesity. However, there is limited information on influences of diet components on physical activity. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of major dietary components on energy expenditure by affecting ...
Ibrügger Sabine - - 2012
We conducted two single-blinded randomized crossover acute studies with 24 and 20 subjects, respectively, to compare (I) Control vs. Flax drink; and (II) Flax drink vs. Flax tablets. The subjects were exposed to one of the treatments after an overnight fast, and rated appetite sensation for 120min using visual analog ...
Soussignan Robert R Developmental Ethology and Cognitive Group, Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, CNRS (UMR 6265), Université de Bourgogne, 1324 INRA, 9E boulevard Jeanne D'arc, Dijon, - - 2012
Whether food liking may be a risk factor of overconsumption and overweight/obesity remains a controversial issue. So far, most studies used subjective reports to assess consummatory behavior, approaches that might overlook subtle or implicit hedonic changes to sensory properties of foods. Therefore, we used a cue-exposure approach by recording different ...
Kirchner Henriette - - 2012
Ghrelin is the only potent orexigenic peptide in circulation. It stimulates food intake and leads to positive energy balance, adipogenesis, and body weight gain. However, the physiological significance of ghrelin in the regulation of energy homeostasis is controversial, since loss of ghrelin function in rodents does not necessarily lead to ...
Rolland Benjamin - - 2012
Oxidative stress has been implicated in neurodevelopmental theories of schizophrenia. Antioxidant Peroxysome Proliferator-Activated Receptors α (PPARα) agonist fenofibrate has neuroprotective properties and could reverse early preclinical infringements that could trigger the illness. We have evaluated the neuroprotective interest of fenofibrate in a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. The oxidative lesion ...
Kim Dong-Hoon - - 2012
Recent tremendous advances in our understanding of the regulation of food intake are expected to contribute to the treatment of obesity in the near future. The hypothalamus is a center for regulation of food intake and NPY/AgRP and POMC neurons are key regulators of food intake in the arcuate nucleus. ...
Agarwal Megha - - 2012
To determine the relationship of vitamin c intake from supplements vs food on early atherosclerosis detected by carotid intima media thickness (IMT). Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Dietary vitamin C appears to have anti-oxidant properties and beneficial relations to endothelial function, ...
Yamamoto Takeshi - - 2012
We examined whether maternal exposure to food antigens during lactation and maternal allergic status would affect the development of food allergy in offspring. OVA-sensitized or OVA-nonsensitized BALB/c female mice were exposed or unexposed to OVA during lactation. After weaning, their offspring were systemically sensitized twice with OVA and repeatedly given ...
Perea-Blázquez Alejandra - - 2012
Despite the importance of trophic interactions between organisms, and the relationship between primary production and benthic diversity, there have been few studies that have quantified the carbon flow from pelagic to benthic environments as a result of the assemblage level activity of suspension-feeding organisms. In this study, we examine the ...
Stein Leslie J - - 2012
Sodium intake is related to hypertension and other diseases, but little is known about the early development of salty taste acceptance. The prospective study asked whether dietary experience with foods containing sodium is associated with development of infant salty taste preference. Infants (n = 61) were tested at 2 and ...
Pophaly Sarang Dilip - - 2012
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a ...
Van der Mieren Gerry - - 2012
The number of patients with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome reaches epidemic proportions. On top of their diabetic cardiomyopathy, these patients experience frequent and severe cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) insults, which further aggravate their degree of heart failure. Food restriction and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I) are standard therapies in these patients ...
Menzies John R W JR Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. - - 2012
The pleasure derived from eating may feel like a simple emotion, but the decision to eat, and perhaps more importantly what to eat, involves central pathways linking energy homeostasis and reward and their regulation by metabolic and endocrine factors. Evidence is mounting that modulation of the hedonic aspects of energy ...
Madonna Michael E - - 2012
The agouti-related protein (AgRP) plays a central role in energy balance by reducing signaling through the hypothalamic melanocortin receptors (McRs) 3 and 4, in turn stimulating feeding and decreasing energy expenditure. Mature AgRP(83-132), produced by endoproteolytic processing, contains a central region that folds as an inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) stabilized ...
Savage Jennifer S - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Previous portion size research in children has focused on the impact of large entrée portions on children's intake, but less attention has been given to how intake at a meal is affected across a broader range of entrée portions.Objective: The objective was to assess the effect of serving a ...
Park Subin - - 2011
Ziprasidone, a novel antipsychotic agent with a unique receptor-binding profile, has been reported to have lower propensity for weight gain compared with other atypical antipsychotics. Here, we examined the effects of ziprasidone on resting energy expenditure, physical activity, thermogenesis, food intake, and weight gain in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Ziprasidone (20 ...
Sivakumar Ganapathy - - 2011
Sustainable non-food energy biomass and cost-effective ways to produce renewable energy technologies from this biomass are continuously emerging. Algae are capable of producing lipids and hydrocarbons quickly and their photosynthetic abilities make them a promising candidate for an alternative energy source. In addition, their favorable carbon life cycle and a ...
Drew Liam J - - 2011
Sirtuins are thought to form crucial links between energy levels and cellular metabolism. Libert et al. now provide evidence that SIRT1 activity in the brain modifies mammalian emotional behavior via monoamine signaling and that changes in this pathway might contribute to human affective disorders.
Almoosawi S S MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
Associations between timing of eating occasions and their nutrient composition and health have been described in interventional and cross-sectional studies. However, data from longitudinal data are limited. This study examined 17-year changes in energy and macronutrient intake across eating occasions in the 1946 British birth cohort. Data were obtained from ...
Vitolo Marcia Regina - - 2012
To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. A randomized controlled trial. São Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home visits, or control (n = ...
Chu Yen Li - - 2011
Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among ...
Xu Ge-Yang - - 2011
The obesity epidemic imposes a significant health burden on human beings. Current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of obesity is incomplete and contemporary treatment is often ineffective. Gastrointestinal hormones are important regulators of food intake and energy metabolism. Previous studies indicate that the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling ...
Canale Cindy I - - 2011
Torpor is an energy-saving mechanism that allows endotherms to overcome energetic challenges. Torpor should be avoided during reproduction because of potential incompatibility with offspring growth. To test if torpor can be used during gestation and lactation to compensate for food shortage, we exposed reproductive female grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), ...
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