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Results 451 - 500 of 983
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Killen Shaun S - - 2011
1. Individuals of the same species often exhibit consistent differences in metabolic rate, but the effects of such differences on ecologically important behaviours remain largely unknown. In particular, it is unclear whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between metabolic rate and the tendency to take risks while foraging. Individuals with higher ...
Fissore C - - 2011
Rapid worldwide urbanization calls for a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of those macroelements that have large environmental impacts in cities. This study, part of the Twin Cities Household Ecosystem Project, quantified fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) at the scale of individual households in the ...
Karim M R - - 2011
An operational research was done to explore the effect of targeted food supplementation by comparing the birthweight of the babies of two areas (intervention & nonintervention). This record-based study was carried out in Kapasia and Savar upazila of Dhaka division, relying on the primary organizational data of 565 mothers. In ...
Carter Owen - - 2011
Issues addressed: A single thumbnail variant of the food industry's voluntary front-of-package Daily Intake Guide (DIG) - called the 'Energy Alone' thumbnail (DIG kJ) - has recently appeared on many energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages, especially soft drinks and confectionery. However, there is no published data to date that has ...
Carter Owen - - 2011
A single thumbnail variant of the food industry's voluntary front-of-package Daily Intake Guide (DIG)--called the 'Energy Alone' thumbnail (DIG kJ)--has recently appeared on many energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages, especially soft drinks and confectionery. However, there is no published data to date that has assessed its merit. A quota sample ...
Puértolas E - - 2011
The mass transfer phenomenon occurs in many operations of the food industry with the purpose of obtaining a given substance of interest, removing water from foods, or introducing a given substance into the food matrix. Pretreatments that modify the permeability of the cell membranes, such as grinding, heating, or enzymatic ...
Hormes Julia M - - 2011
Ambivalence is thought to impact consumption of food, alcohol and drugs, possibly via influences on craving, with cravers often being simultaneously drawn toward and repelled from ingestion. So far, little is known about the temporal dynamics of ambivalence, especially as it varies in relationship to consumption. Participants (n=482, 56.8% female) ...
Ito Sumio - - 2011
Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food ...
Kang Ki Sung - - 2011
The goldfish (Carassius auratus) has a number of merits as a laboratory animal, and we have extensively identified the mechanisms by which ghrelin regulates food intake in this species. For the first time, we have purified and characterized 11 molecular variants of ghrelin that are present in goldfish intestine and ...
Pan Wen-Harn - - 2011
The availability of new food choices has increased dramatically in recent times, whilst increasingly sedentary lifestyles have reduced calorie intake requirements. The present study uses 24 hour dietary recall data, and biochemical and anthropometric measurements from the 1993-1996 and 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT) to investigate trends ...
Agarwal K N - - 2011
Infant feeding and weaning practices in India continue to demonstrate that a significant number of infants do not receive colostrum (62.8% according to the National Family Health Survey, NFHS-2), though breastfeeding is universal and continued for a longer period. In NFHS-3 (2005-2006), there is improving trend for breastfeeding within the ...
Ledderose Carola - - 2011
Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, is a potent stimulator of growth hormone release, food intake and weight gain. Besides its functions in regulating energy homeostasis, ghrelin has pronounced cardioprotective effects and was shown to improve cardiac performance in chronic heart failure (CHF). The multifunctional nature of ...
Yao Xuan - - 2011
Brown adipose tissue in mammals plays a critical role in maintaining energy balance by thermogenesis, which means dissipating energy in the form of heat. It is held that in mammals, long-term surplus food intake results in energy storage in the form of triglyceride and may eventually lead to obesity. Stimulating ...
Diz-Chaves Yolanda - - 2011
Obesity has become one of the leading causes of illness and mortality in the developed world. Preclinical and clinical data provide compelling evidence for ghrelin as a relevant regulator of appetite, food intake, and energy homeostasis. In addition, ghrelin has recently emerged as one of the major contributing factors to ...
Kim Kee-Hong - - 2011
Although many food components are reportedly beneficial to body-weight management, lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms and their function in overall adiposity under physiological conditions hinders successful and safe development of antiobesity functional foods. A positive energy balance resulting from an increase in food intake, a reduced energy expenditure, and/or ...
Goldfield Gary S - - 2011
Purpose: Obese people find energy-dense food more reinforcing than do their non-obese peers, and reinforcement influences food intake. We examined how the degree of adiposity, measured by body mass index (BMI), is associated with the relative reinforcing value of energy-dense snack foods versus fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese ...
Robson A A - - 2011
It is crucial that emergent technologies create foods that help prevent the causal mechanisms of the diet induced disease epidemic. Food nanotechnology could create modem convenience foods that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutritious cooked wild foods for humans. Structuring a solid processed food similar ...
Matheson Kelly M - - 2011
Purpose: Effects on energy metabolism of a test meal and a two-week dietary intervention were observed in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Both the meal and the intervention included foods containing fish-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA). Methods: Six men with MetS (46.7 ± 12.1 years, 37.2 ± 5.6 kg/m(2), mean ...
Sato Nanae - - 2011
Aim: In this study, we conducted a dietary assessment of the subjects and investigated the relationship of energy, nutrients and food intake to the indices of masticatory ability and masticatory behavior for identifying the differences in their association with dietary patterns. Methods: The subjects were 61 5-y-old children, of whom ...
Liebman M B - - 2011
Currently more than 3 billion people live in urban areas. The urban population is predicted to increase by a further 3 billion by 2050. Rising oil prices, unreliable rainfall and natural disasters have all contributed to a rise in global food prices. Food security is becoming an increasingly important issue ...
Meyer Nanna L - - 2011
Abstract Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter ...
Devitt A A - - 2011
Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI). This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR) and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults ...
Wu Shin-Jiuan - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate trends in nutrients and sources of dietary intake for Taiwanese people from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996 to 2005-2008. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data were obtained from the 2005-2008 NAHSIT. The results showed that intake of cereals and ...
Hernandez Liza - - 2011
Complementary foods (CF) are introduced earlier or later than appropriate in developing societies. They often contribute poorly to overall adequate micronutrient intake during the critical period for growth and development, which constitutes the period from 6 to 12 months of life. The objective of this study was to determine the ...
Ulziijargal Enkhjargal - - 2011
Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) are a food with high nutritional value. This article summarizes the results of proximate composition studies of 38 fruiting bodies and 19 mycelia of 32 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Antrodia, Auricularia, Boletus, Clitocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Trametes, Dictyophora, Flammulina, Ganoderma, Grifola, ...
Shatenstein Bryna - - 2011
Purpose: Pregnant women's diets should be monitored to ensure adequacy, but few studies have assessed the validity of dietary assessment tools among pregnant women. We examined the relative validity of a self-administered, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) adapted for use in the International Trial of Antioxidants in the Prevention of ...
Savino Francesco - - 2011
Growing evidence suggests that a complex relationship exists between the central nervous system and peripheral organs involved in energy homeostasis. It consists in the balance between food intake and energy expenditure and includes the regulation of nutrient levels in storage organs, as well as in blood, in particular blood glucose. ...
Moen Inger E - - 2011
Malnutrition is a well-known complication in cystic fibrosis (CF). There is good evidence that maintaining a normal body-weight correlates well with improved survival in CF. Energy intake in excess of 120% of the estimated average requirement (EAR) has been advised since 1980s. To investigate the nutritional intake and status in ...
De Keyzer Willem - - 2011
The methodology used in the first Belgian food consumption survey followed to a large extent the instructions of the European Food Consumption (EFCOSUM) reports, where repeated 24-hour recalls (24HR) using EPIC-SOFT were recommended. To evaluate the relative validity of two non-consecutive 24HR using EPIC-SOFT by comparison with 5-day estimated dietary ...
Peuhkuri Katri - - 2011
Proteins play a crucial role in almost all biological processes. Dietary proteins are generally considered as energy yielding nutrients and as a source of amino acids for various purposes. In addition, they may have a role in food-related reward signals. The purpose of this review was to give an overview ...
Marques-Vidal Pedro - - 2011
Due to the distinct cultural and language differences that exist in Switzerland, there is little information on the dietary intake among the general Swiss population. Adequately assessing dietary intake is thus paramount if nutritional epidemiological studies are to be conducted. To assess the reproducibility and validity of a food-frequency questionnaire ...
Thurnham David I - - 2011
In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine ...
Cuomo Rosario - - 2011
There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid ...
Burger Kyle S - - 2011
Visual presentation of food provides considerable information such as its potential for palatability and availability, both of which can impact eating behavior. We investigated the subjective ratings for food appeal and desire to eat when exposed to food pictures in a fed sample (n=129) using the computer paradigm ImageRate. Food ...
Oganessian Edgar - - 2011
The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made ...
Girardet Clémence - - 2011
Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one ...
Melzner Frank - - 2011
Progressive ocean acidification due to anthropogenic CO(2) emissions will alter marine ecosystem processes. Calcifying organisms might be particularly vulnerable to these alterations in the speciation of the marine carbonate system. While previous research efforts have mainly focused on external dissolution of shells in seawater under saturated with respect to calcium ...
Weijs Peter J m - - 2011
Combined effects of early exposure to beverage sugar and animal protein and later life overweight risk have not been studied. A prospective longitudinal study was initiated in 2001 with 226 infants between 4 and 13 months of age. Dietary intake was assessed with a 2 day food record. Also information ...
Nässl Anna-Maria - - 2011
High-protein diets are effective in achieving weight loss which is mainly explained by increased satiety and thermogenic effects. Recent studies suggest that the effects of protein-rich diets on satiety could be mediated by amino acids like leucine or arginine. Although high-protein diets require increased intestinal amino acid absorption, amino acid ...
Shepard Emily L C - - 2011
Current understanding of how animals search for and exploit food resources is based on microeconomic models. Although widely used to examine feeding, such constructs should inform other energy-harvesting situations where theoretical assumptions are met. In fact, some animals extract non-food forms of energy from the environment, such as birds that ...
Zulu Rodah M - - 2011
Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the ...
Lemmens Sofie G - - 2011
Consumption of meals with different macronutrients, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence stress-related eating behavior. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meals influences stress-related mood, food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting', and post-meal energy intake. Participants (n = 38, 19m/19f, age = 25 ± 9 y, ...
Thurber Andrew R - - 2011
Vent and seep animals harness chemosynthetic energy to thrive far from the sun's energy. While symbiont-derived energy fuels many taxa, vent crustaceans have remained an enigma; these shrimps, crabs, and barnacles possess a phylogenetically distinct group of chemosynthetic bacterial epibionts, yet the role of these bacteria has remained unclear. We ...
Narayanan Narayanan N - - 2011
Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain ...
Margalida Antoni - - 2011
The reduction in the amount of food available for European avian scavengers as a consequence of restrictive public health policies is a concern for managers and conservationists. Since 2002, the application of several sanitary regulations has limited the availability of feeding resources provided by domestic carcasses, but theoretical studies assessing ...
Bowen Liza - - 2011
Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to ...
Xia Wei - - 2011
This study aims to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for female adolescents in the Suihua area of North China. The FFQ was evaluated against the average of 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs). A total of 168 female adolescents aged 12 to 18 completed nine ...
Dumanovsky Tamara - - 2011
To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants' menus to contain details of the ...
Gosby Alison K AK School of Biological Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. - - 2011
A significant contributor to the rising rates of human obesity is an increase in energy intake. The 'protein leverage hypothesis' proposes that a dominant appetite for protein in conjunction with a decline in the ratio of protein to fat and carbohydrate in the diet drives excess energy intake and could ...
Benson Victoria S - - 2010
To determine the relationship between the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and daily intake of drinking water and dietary components, including nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines, during the year prior to diagnosis. Controls (n = 105) were matched by age at diagnosis and sex to T1D cases (n = 57) ...
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