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Results 251 - 300 of 692
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Spitz Jérôme - - 2012
Understanding the mechanisms that drive prey selection is a major challenge in foraging ecology. Most studies of foraging strategies have focused on behavioural costs, and have generally failed to recognize that differences in the quality of prey may be as important to predators as the costs of acquisition. Here, we ...
Adisakwattana Sirichai - - 2012
Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based ...
Choe Dong-Hwan - - 2012
The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ...
Ehlgen Florian - - 2012
Haemoglobin degradation during the erythrocytic life stages is the major function of the food vacuole (FV) of Plasmodium falciparum and the target of several anti-malarial drugs that interfere with this metabolic pathway, killing the parasite. Two multi-spanning food vacuole membrane proteins are known, the multidrug resistance protein 1 (PfMDR1) and ...
Fenton Carol - - 2012
Food insecurity is an ongoing threat in rural sub-Saharan Africa and is complicated by cultural practices, the rise of chronic conditions such as HIV and land use availability. In order to develop a successful food security intervention program, it is important to be informed of the realities and needs of ...
Rahmatizadeh Masoumeh M Department of Clinical Psychology, Elmo Farhang University, Tehran, IR - - 2012
Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive stimulant which has destructive effects. There is also evidence that methamphetamine use in some females, partly is due to their desire to lose weight. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between family flexibility, food preoccupation and body image among crystal ...
Lv Shuang-Yu - - 2011
Apelin, the novel identified peptide, is the endogenous ligand for the APJ. Previous studies have reported the effect of apelin on food intake, however the action of acute central injected apelin on food intake in mice remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism as well as ...
Yayou Ken-Ichi - - 2011
As a preliminary step to elucidate the involvement of central neurotransmitters in the dip in voluntary feed intake during the perinatal period in cows, we investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of oxytocin, prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the central functions of all of which undergo drastic ...
Chachay Veronique S - - 2011
Nutrapharmacology, or the use of bioactive food compounds at pharmacological doses is emerging as a therapeutic approach to target the complex metabolic dysregulations in ageing and obesity-related chronic disease. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in the skin of grapes, and other edible plants and related food products, has received extensive attention ...
Martucci Michael A - - 2011
Food allergies are an important medical problem in Westernized countries. Allergy to peanuts is a dramatic example of a food allergy that tends to be particularly severe and long-lived. This article examines food allergy-specifically peanut allergy-from the perspective that tolerance to foods is a normal state, just as tolerance to ...
Shah Raj C - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with cognitive loss, behavioural changes, functional ability decline and caregiver burden. Given the worldwide public health impact of AD, novel interventions to reduce suffering experienced by AD patients need to be developed. Foods may offer a mechanism for intervention complementary to drugs, ...
Olson Erik D - - 2011
Foodborne illness and the health risks from chemicals in food are a concern. However, food safety statutes largely unchanged for more than forty years are failing to keep pace with scientific advances and the changing food supply. The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, enacted in January 2011, is intended to help ...
Land Michael H - - 2011
Food allergy has become an increasingly prevalent international health problem. Allergic reactions can result in life-threatening anaphylaxis in a short period of time, so the current standard of care dictates strict avoidance of suspected trigger foods and accessibility to injectable epinephrine. Intervention at the time of exposure is considered a ...
Makita Kohei - - 2011
Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda ...
Lieberman Jay A - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a review of studies examining health-related quality of life (HRQL) in food-allergic individuals, with an emphasis on publications since 2007. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past few years, an increasing number of studies have addressed the impact that food allergy ...
Niehaus Abraham J - - 2011
Abstract Background: Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a universally recognized cause of foodborne disease. In South Africa, outbreaks of foodborne disease are generally under reported. We investigated the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in 216 patients who presented to a rural hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, after consuming a meal at ...
von Deneen Karen M - - 2011
The rising number of obese individuals on a global scale has led the scientific community to determine the causes for this disease. Besides over-consumption of high-caloric foods and/or endocrine dysfunction, food addiction has been found to be a major culprit for weight gain. Food addiction results from craving certain food ...
Gill C O - - 2011
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the cause of Johne's disease, a chronic infection of the gut, in ruminant animals that provide milk and/or meat for human consumption. Map also may be involved in Crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes in humans. Although the role of Map in human diseases ...
Andreasen Claire B - - 2011
The current detection system for animal diseases requires coordination between veterinarians; veterinary medical laboratories; and state, federal, and international agencies, as well as associated private sector industries. Veterinary clinical pathologists in clinical and governmental laboratories often have responsibilities and expertise in one or more laboratory disciplines involved in diagnosing zoonotic ...
Prescott Susan - - 2011
To cite this article: Prescott S, Allen KJ. Food allergy: Riding the second wave of the allergy epidemic. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2011; 22: 155-160. ABSTRACT: Food allergy is a substantial and evolving public health issue, recently emerging over the last 10-15 yr as a 'second wave' of the allergy epidemic. It ...
Kelly A - - 2011
The relationship between HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), food security and nutrition has become increasingly important to practitioners, policy makers and people living with HIV. In this paper we describe for the first time the connection between HIV and antiretroviral therapies, the extent of nutritional counselling for HIV-positive people and food ...
Osterholm Michael T - - 2011
Recent media headlines might have you believe that our food supply is substantially more safe than it was a decade ago and about to get even safer. First, on December 15, 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced a long-awaited reanalysis of the burden of foodborne illness ...
Wood Adrian - - 2011
Several studies suggest that natural salicylates in plant-based foods may benefit health. However, large variation in published values of the salicylate content of foods means that relating dietary intakes to disease risk is problematical. Consequently, we have systematically reviewed the available literature using prescribed selection criteria. By combining these literature ...
Matthias Torsten - - 2011
Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common food intolerances in developed world. It affects genetically susceptible individuals and has severe consequences if it remains undiagnosed. A disease known for more than a century, it is still the focus for experts from various fields of research and development. Geneticists, ...
McCune Letitia M - - 2011
Cherries, and in particular sweet cherries, are a nutritionally dense food rich in anthocyanins, quercetin, hydroxycinnamates, potassium, fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, and melatonin. UV concentration, degree of ripeness, postharvest storage conditions, and processing, each can significantly alter the amounts of nutrients and bioactive components. These constituent nutrients and bioactive food ...
Braun-Fahrländer C - - 2011
Cow's milk is an important part of human diet and a source of food allergy for some individuals. Medical guidance strongly discourages consumption of raw milk because of the known health risk associated with pathogenic bacteria present in unpasteurized milk. Despite these risks there is a growing body of epidemiological ...
Baroni Luciana - - 2011
Although a plant-based diet can provide some benefits in Parkinson's disease (PD), no study to date has evaluated the effectiveness of a plant-food diet in the management of the disease. In this pilot study, we compared the effect of a plant-food menu (PFD) and of a omnivorous menu on motor ...
Sánchez-García S - - 2011
Celiac disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, and urticaria are 3 manifestations of food allergy with different pathogenic mechanisms. We report the case of a 2-year-old child with digestive symptoms, slow growth, and severe asthma. The results of skin prick tests were positive to several foods. Endoscopy revealed eosinophilic esophagitis and celiac disease. ...
Savoca Margaret R MR Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402, USA. - - 2011
This study categorizes older adults living in rural areas by denture status, assesses the frequency of wearing dentures during meals, and determines whether denture status or use is associated with dietary quality or the number of foods avoided. A multi-ethnic population-based sample of adults ≥60 years (N = 635) in the rural ...
Sicherer Scott H - - 2011
This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2010. Key epidemiologic observations include an apparent increase in peanut allergy, with more than 1% of children affected, and increasing evidence that ...
- - 2010
Food allergy is an important public health problem that affects children and adults and may be increasing in prevalence. Despite the risk of severe allergic reactions and even death, there is no current treatment for food allergy: the disease can only be managed by allergen avoidance or treatment of symptoms. ...
Silbergeld Ellen - - 2010
The name of author Beth Feingold was misspelled in the letter New Infectious Diseases and Industrial Food Animal Production (E. Silbergeld et al.). The article has been corrected online (http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/9/1503.htm).
Lipski Elizabeth - - 2010
In traditional cultures, balancing health with a balanced lifestyle was a core belief. The diseases of modern civilization were rare. Indigenous people have patterns of illness very different from Western civilization; yet, they rapidly develop diseases once exposed to Western foods and lifestyles. Food and medicine were interwoven. All cultures ...
Khan Yasir - - 2010
Several contributory factors such as poverty, lack of purchasing power, household food insecurity, and limited general knowledge about appropriate nutritional practices increase the risk of undernutrition in developing countries. The synergistic interaction between inadequate dietary intake and disease burden leads to a vicious cycle that accounts for much of the ...
- - 2010
In 2009, OzFoodNet sites reported 27,037 notifications of 9 diseases or conditions that are commonly transmitted by food. The most frequently notified infections were Campylobacter (15,973 notifications) and Salmonella (9,533 notifications). Public health authorities provided complete serotype and phage type information on 92% of all Salmonella infections in 2009. The ...
Wilson Caroline C Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, UK. - - 2010
The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have ...
de Brito-Ashurst I - - 2011
People of Bangladeshi origin have the highest mortality ratio from coronary heart disease of any minority ethnic group in UK and their rate of kidney disease is three- to five-fold higher than that of the European UK population. However, there is little information regarding their dietary customs or knowledge, beliefs ...
Newkirk Ryan - - 2011
Abstract Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to establish baseline characteristics for milkborne outbreaks, establish an expected milkborne outbreak profile, and identify potential indicators of food terrorism. Materials: This study used 1990-2006 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Annual Listings of Disease Outbreaks and the ...
Horowitz B Zane - - 2010
There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods. In the circumpolar regions of the world, the coastal soils are ...
Pakseresht M - - 2010
The extent to which awareness of chronic disease (CD) diagnosis affects one's healthy food knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions or healthy dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviours remains unexplored among Inuit in Canada. A food frequency questionnaire and an adult impact questionnaire were used in a cross-sectional study to collect self-reported ...
Stewart I - - 2010
Ciguatera poisoning is a food-borne neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of finfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. Ciguatera is a distressing and sometimes disabling condition that presents with a self-limiting though occasionally severe gastro-intestinal illness, progressing to a suite of aberrant sensory symptoms. Recovery can take from days to ...
Morgan Brent W - - 2010
Poisoning events, including exposures to hazardous materials, can involve multiple victims. Regional poison centers often are contacted in such events involving multiple victims. We searched our poison center database over a nine-year time period for all calls involving a poisoning event in which more than two people were exposed to ...
Guinebretière Marie-Hélène - - 2010
Cytotoxic activity levels of culture filtrates and toxin distributions varied according to the phylogenetic group (I to VII) within the Bacillus cereus group, suggesting that these groups are of different clinical significance and are more suitable than species affiliations for determining food poisoning risk. A first-line, simple online tool (https://www.tools.symprevius.org/Bcereus/english.php) ...
Lindström Miia - - 2011
Clostridium perfringens food poisoning ranks among the most common gastrointestinal diseases in developed countries. The disease is caused by C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) encoded by cpe and produced by less than 5% of C. perfringens type A strains. Molecular epidemiological research in the past 15 years has focused on the ...
Harrison Michelle - - 2010
Objective: To assess changes in the cost and availability of a standard basket of healthy food items (the Healthy Food Access Basket [HFAB]) in Queensland. Methods: Analysis of five cross-sectional surveys (1998, 2000, 2001, 2004 and 2006) describes changes over time. Eighty-nine stores in five remoteness categories were surveyed during ...
McCloy Rachel - - 2010
This paper summarizes the theory of simple cumulative risks-for example, the risk of food poisoning from the consumption of a series of portions of tainted food. Problems concerning such risks are extraordinarily difficult for naïve individuals, and the paper explains the reasons for this difficulty. It describes how naïve individuals ...
Lim Jeong-Hyeon JH Animal Medical Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, - - 2010
The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of amitraz on reproductive and developmental parameters in rats. The test chemical was administered via the drinking water containing 0, 40, 120, and 360 ppm to male rats from 2 weeks before mating to the end of 14-day mating ...
Hungerford James M - - 2010
Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of ...
Ostyn A - - 2010
At the end of 2009, six food poisoning outbreaks caused by staphylococci were reported in France. Soft cheese made from unpasteurized milk was found to be the common source of the outbreaks. Staphylococcal enterotoxin type E was identified and quantified in the cheese using both official and confirmatory methods of ...
Bountziouka Vassiliki - - 2010
The contribution of diet to the development of several chronic diseases, such as vascular disease, diabetes or lipid abnormalities has been established. Therefore, clinical trials dealing with these diseases need to adjust for individual dietary habits in order to account for potential confounding. Common practice in the majority of studies ...
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