Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 725
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Gugołek A - - 2012
The aim of this study was to determine whether farming leads to changes in gastrointestinal function and nitrogen metabolism in farmed mink (FA), as compared with their wild-living counterparts. Three digestibility and balance trials were carried out. Experiment I was performed in May, and experiments II and III were conducted ...
Higginson Andrew D - - 2012
Abstract Animals live in complex environments in which predation risk and food availability change over time. To deal with this variability and maximize their survival, animals should take into account how long current conditions may persist and the possible future conditions they may encounter. This should affect their foraging activity, ...
Hadley Craig - - 2012
The rise in food prices since 2007 is widely recognized as signaling a crisis of food insecurity among the world's poor. Scholars sought to chart the impacts of the crisis on food insecurity by conducting simulation studies, assessing anthropometric outcomes, and evaluating shifts in experience-based measures of food security. Few ...
Forsyth Ann - - 2012
This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents' eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast ...
Bengmark Stig - - 2012
The microbiota of Westerners is significantly reduced in comparison to rural individuals living a similar lifestyle to our Paleolithic forefathers but also to that of other free-living primates such as the chimpanzee. The great majority of ingredients in the industrially produced foods consumed in the West are absorbed in the ...
Talmi Deborah - - 2012
Because emotional and neutral stimuli typically differ on non-emotional dimensions, it has been difficult to determine conclusively which factors underlie the ability of emotional stimuli to enhance immediate long-term memory. Here we induced arousal by varying participants' goals, a method that removes many potential confounds between emotional and non-emotional items. ...
Chaves Oscar M - - 2012
Habitat loss and fragmentation constrain the survival of most forest-living mammals, particularly strictly arboreal primates. Because fragment size directly affects food availability, primate survival in small fragments may depend on dietary flexibility. Here, we review the literature on the diet of 29 wild groups of Alouatta guariba clamitans inhabiting forest ...
Du Miaomiao - - 2012
In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to two dietary concentrations of individual HBCD diastereoisomers (-, - and -HBCD) for 42 days, followed by clean food for 21 days, to examine bioaccumulation, depuration and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of HBCD diastereoisomers, and to test the bioisomerization of HBCDs in fish. ...
Flower Tom P - - 2012
Animals commonly steal food from other species, termed interspecific kleptoparasitism, but why animals engage in kleptoparasitism compared with alternate foraging tactics, and under what circumstances they do so, is not fully understood. Determining what specific benefits animals gain from kleptoparasitism could provide valuable insight into its evolution. Here, we investigate ...
Grosso Giuseppe - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to test the reliability of a nutrition questionnaire and to assess potential associations between nutrition knowledge, food consumption and lifestyle behaviours, controlling for sociodemographic factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Comprehensive school in the municipality of Butera, a rural area of Sicily, South Italy. SUBJECTS: The survey ...
Riedl Katrin - - 2012
Punishment can help maintain cooperation by deterring free-riding and cheating. Of particular importance in large-scale human societies is third-party punishment in which individuals punish a transgressor or norm violator even when they themselves are not affected. Nonhuman primates and other animals aggress against conspecifics with some regularity, but it is ...
de Assis Costa J - - 2012
Objective: To evaluate the effect of the glycemic index (GI) on food intake, anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with excess body weight. Methods: Crossover study, in which 17 subjects participated in two study sessions (high GI or low GI). Two daily meals were consumed in laboratory for 30 ...
Colucci Ana Carolina A - - 2012
To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates ...
Sharifah Zahhura S A SA School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian Kelantan, Malaysia. - - 2012
A qualitative comparative case study was conducted to compare and contrast food taboos and avoidance practices during pregnancy among Orang Asli or indigenous Temiar women in four distinct locations that represent different lifestyle experiences and cultural practices. Through snowballing sampling, a total of 38 participants took part in five focus ...
Tesoriere L - - 2012
PURPOSE: This study investigated the absorption mechanism of the phytochemicals indicaxanthin and betanin and the influence of their food matrix (cactus pear and red beet) on the intestinal transport. METHODS: Trans-epithelial transport of dietary-consistent amounts of indicaxanthin and betanin in Caco-2 cell monolayers seeded on Transwell(R) inserts was measured in ...
Voorend Carlijn G N CG Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The - - 2013
To explore if and how female adolescents engage in shared eating and joint food choices with best friends within the context of living in urban Soweto, South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, multiple case study was conducted using semi-structured duo interviews of best friend pairs to ascertain their eating patterns, friendship ...
Chopra Harsha - - 2012
RESEARCH QUESTION: Intakes of micronutrient-rich foods are low among women of child-bearing age living in slums. We investigated relationships between consumption of these foods and socio-demographic variables. METHODOLOGY: A 91-item Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to women (n=1651) aged 16-40 yrs living in a Mumbai slum. We identified associations between ...
Schlotz Nina - - 2012
Nutritional ecology of the aquatic model genus Daphnia has received much attention in past years in particular with regard to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which are crucial for growth and reproduction. Besides their significant role as membrane components, C20 PUFAs serve as precursors for eicosanoids, hormone-like mediators of reproduction, ...
Nielsen Marianne J - - 2012
Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead, a sophisticated pathway for specific uptake and transport ...
Bargiota Alexandra - - 2012
To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the ...
Jiang Mengxi - - 2012
Food turns out to be not only the nutrient supplier for our body but also a carrier of regulatory information. Interestingly, a recent study made the discovery that some plant/food-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) accumulate in the serum of humans or plant-feeding animals, and regulate mammalian gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. ...
Argudín M A - - 2012
Staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases, results from ingestion of one or more staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus in foods. In the present study, 64 S. aureus isolates recovered from foods and food handlers, associated or not associated with food-poisoning outbreaks in Spain, were ...
Fisher Mw - - 2012
Abstract AIM: To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter. METHODS: A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were ...
Abou El Hassan Dahlia - - 2012
Purpose: We explored the eating habits of Arab immigrants to determine whether they have maintained their traditional diet or have consumed a more Westernized diet since immigrating to Canada. Methods: Arab immigrants who had been in Canada for at least eight years and were currently living in the Greater Toronto ...
Edfors Ellinor - - 2012
Background. The aim of the study was to describe home-living elderly people's views on the importance of food and meals. Methods. Semistructured interviews with twelve elderly people. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results. Respondents described how their past influenced their present experiences and views on food and ...
Green-Lapierre Rebecca J - - 2012
Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an ...
Nam Hae-Seon - - 2012
House dust mites produce potent allergens that exacerbate asthma in sensitized patients, whom are recommended to practice allergen avoidance within their home environment. We tested the effect of activated charcoal impregnated fibers on house dust mite survival. One hundred live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were added to eight ...
Mannino Marcello A - - 2012
Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue ...
Vannier Jean - - 2012
Present-day ecosystems host a huge variety of organisms that interact and transfer mass and energy via a cascade of trophic levels. When and how this complex machinery was established remains largely unknown. Although exceptionally preserved biotas clearly show that Early Cambrian animals had already acquired functionalities that enabled them to ...
Carter Megan Ann - - 2012
Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data ...
Spitz Jérôme - - 2012
Understanding the mechanisms that drive prey selection is a major challenge in foraging ecology. Most studies of foraging strategies have focused on behavioural costs, and have generally failed to recognize that differences in the quality of prey may be as important to predators as the costs of acquisition. Here, we ...
Adisakwattana Sirichai - - 2012
Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based ...
Choe Dong-Hwan - - 2012
The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ...
Ehlgen Florian - - 2012
Haemoglobin degradation during the erythrocytic life stages is the major function of the food vacuole (FV) of Plasmodium falciparum and the target of several anti-malarial drugs that interfere with this metabolic pathway, killing the parasite. Two multi-spanning food vacuole membrane proteins are known, the multidrug resistance protein 1 (PfMDR1) and ...
Fenton Carol - - 2012
Food insecurity is an ongoing threat in rural sub-Saharan Africa and is complicated by cultural practices, the rise of chronic conditions such as HIV and land use availability. In order to develop a successful food security intervention program, it is important to be informed of the realities and needs of ...
Rahmatizadeh Masoumeh M Department of Clinical Psychology, Elmo Farhang University, Tehran, IR - - 2012
Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive stimulant which has destructive effects. There is also evidence that methamphetamine use in some females, partly is due to their desire to lose weight. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between family flexibility, food preoccupation and body image among crystal ...
Thornton Lukar E LE Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, - - 2012
In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and ...
Fontana Juan M JM Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA. - - 2012
Automatic methods for food intake detection are needed to objectively monitor ingestive behavior of individuals in a free living environment. In this study, a pattern recognition system was developed for detection of food intake through the classification of jaw motion. A total of 7 subjects participated in laboratory experiments that ...
Lv Shuang-Yu - - 2011
Apelin, the novel identified peptide, is the endogenous ligand for the APJ. Previous studies have reported the effect of apelin on food intake, however the action of acute central injected apelin on food intake in mice remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism as well as ...
Yayou Ken-Ichi - - 2011
As a preliminary step to elucidate the involvement of central neurotransmitters in the dip in voluntary feed intake during the perinatal period in cows, we investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of oxytocin, prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the central functions of all of which undergo drastic ...
Chachay Veronique S - - 2011
Nutrapharmacology, or the use of bioactive food compounds at pharmacological doses is emerging as a therapeutic approach to target the complex metabolic dysregulations in ageing and obesity-related chronic disease. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in the skin of grapes, and other edible plants and related food products, has received extensive attention ...
Martucci Michael A - - 2011
Food allergies are an important medical problem in Westernized countries. Allergy to peanuts is a dramatic example of a food allergy that tends to be particularly severe and long-lived. This article examines food allergy-specifically peanut allergy-from the perspective that tolerance to foods is a normal state, just as tolerance to ...
Shah Raj C - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with cognitive loss, behavioural changes, functional ability decline and caregiver burden. Given the worldwide public health impact of AD, novel interventions to reduce suffering experienced by AD patients need to be developed. Foods may offer a mechanism for intervention complementary to drugs, ...
Olson Erik D - - 2011
Foodborne illness and the health risks from chemicals in food are a concern. However, food safety statutes largely unchanged for more than forty years are failing to keep pace with scientific advances and the changing food supply. The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, enacted in January 2011, is intended to help ...
Land Michael H MH Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Medical Sciences Research Building I, DUMC Box 2644, Durham, NC 27710, USA. - - 2011
Food allergy has become an increasingly prevalent international health problem. Allergic reactions can result in life-threatening anaphylaxis in a short period of time, so the current standard of care dictates strict avoidance of suspected trigger foods and accessibility to injectable epinephrine. Intervention at the time of exposure is considered a ...
Makita Kohei - - 2011
Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda ...
Lieberman Jay A - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a review of studies examining health-related quality of life (HRQL) in food-allergic individuals, with an emphasis on publications since 2007. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past few years, an increasing number of studies have addressed the impact that food allergy ...
Niehaus Abraham J - - 2011
Abstract Background: Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a universally recognized cause of foodborne disease. In South Africa, outbreaks of foodborne disease are generally under reported. We investigated the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in 216 patients who presented to a rural hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, after consuming a meal at ...
von Deneen Karen M - - 2011
The rising number of obese individuals on a global scale has led the scientific community to determine the causes for this disease. Besides over-consumption of high-caloric foods and/or endocrine dysfunction, food addiction has been found to be a major culprit for weight gain. Food addiction results from craving certain food ...
Gill C O - - 2011
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the cause of Johne's disease, a chronic infection of the gut, in ruminant animals that provide milk and/or meat for human consumption. Map also may be involved in Crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes in humans. Although the role of Map in human diseases ...
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