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Results 201 - 250 of 713
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Flanagan Tatiana P - - 2013
Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates ...
Denzinger Annette - - 2013
Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share ...
Dworkin Mark S - - 2013
Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities ...
Aloia Christopher Robert - - 2013
Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to ...
Wang Ruiping - - 2013
In April 2013, a hospital in Suzhou City notified authorities of a patient with nitrite poisoning with two other family members who had similar toxic symptoms five days prior. We investigated the event to identify the cause, source and possible route of contamination. A case was defined as any person ...
Szczepańska Elzbieta - - 2013
In childhood and adolescence, adequate nutrition is vital for ensuring correct physical, mental and emotional development as well as effective learning ability. Thus, the acquiring of such healthy lifestyle behaviour is also important later in adult health. To assess and compare the dietary habits of pupils attending middle school in ...
Dudarev Alexey A AA Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, - - 2013
The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of ...
Porkka Miina M Water & Development Research Group, Aalto University, Espoo, - - 2013
Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary ...
Grosso Giuseppe - - 2013
The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13-16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score ...
Esteban-Gonzalo Laura L Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. Faculty of Medicine. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Spain.. - - 2013
Objectives: This study compares the adherence of immigrant and Spanish adolescents residing in the Madrid region (Spain) to national dietary recommendations. The factors compared were the consumption of items from the eight basic food groups (vegetables, fruits, bread/cereals, meat, eggs, fish, legumes and milk/dairy products), including the excessive or deficient ...
Fahrion Anna Sophie AS Veterinary Public Health Institute, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern 3097, Switzerland. - - 2013
Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food ...
Díaz-Perales Araceli A Center for Plant Biotechnology and Genomics (UPM-INIA), Pozuelo de Alarcón , Madrid , - - 2013
The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which ...
Howard Larry L LL 0000-0003-4670-3839 Department of Economics, California State University, Fullerton, 800 N. State College Boulevard, Fullerton, CA 92834-6848, - - 2013
This research analyses the longitudinal relationships between household food insecurity (very low and low food security) experiences and children's consumption (servings/week) of fruit, green salad, carrots, potatoes, and other types of vegetables. Using a panel of 5,670 children aged 10-13 years who were first observed in spring 2004 and then ...
Dworkin Mark S MS University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 1603 W. Taylor Street, MC 923, Chicago, Illinois, 60612, - - 2013
Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections including recurrent Salmonella septicemia and toxoplasmosis of the brain with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with immunologic AIDS in Chicago, New Orleans, and Bayamon were interviewed to determine gaps in food safety knowledge and prevalence of ...
Dalton Michelle M Human Appetite Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds Leeds, - - 2013
Trait binge eating has been proposed as a "hedonic subtype" of obesity characterized by enhanced food liking and wanting, and a preference for high-fat sweet foods in the laboratory. The current study examined the influence of trait binge eating in overweight or obese women on eating behavior under laboratory and ...
Fontana Juan M - - 2013
Selection of the most representative features is important for any pattern recognition system. This paper investigates the importance of time domain (TD) and frequency domain (FD) features used for automatic food intake detection in a wearable sensor system by using Random Forests classification. Features were extracted from signals collected using ...
Kimura Yumi - - 2012
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess chewing ability using color-changeable chewing gum and to show the association between chewing ability and geriatric functions, as well as dietary status in the community-dwelling elderly. METHODS: The study population consisted of 269 community-dwelling elderly aged ≥75 living in Tosa, Japan. ...
Yang Yongbin Y Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham UAB, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294-2041, - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed ...
King Bruce M - - 2012
Obesity has become a true pandemic. In the United States, over two thirds of adults are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. The increase in the prevalence of obese and overweight individuals has happened too rapidly for it to be due to an alteration in ...
Khan Ashraful Islam - - 2012
Growth patterns in early life are associated with later health. The effect of nutrition during in utero development on later body composition is unclear. We evaluated whether prenatal early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has an effect on offspring body composition at 54 months of ...
Levy Flavia Mauad - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Estimating fluoride intake (FI) using the 'duplicate plate' method is difficult and can raise ethical dilemmas. AIM: To apply a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to 2- to 6-year-old Brazilian children in a non-fluoridated area (i) to estimate their FI and (ii) to provide additional validity to the questionnaire ...
Fiechtner Lauren L Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, - - 2013
The objective of this study is to examine associations of proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI) among preschool-age children. We used baseline data from 438 children ages 2-6.9 years with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile participating in a RCT in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2009. We used ...
Plow Matthew - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Few studies have explored how people living with multiple sclerosis (MS) cope with impairments and disability to participate in nutritional behaviors, such as meal preparation and grocery shopping. Thus, we conducted a qualitative study among eight individuals with MS who experienced mobility impairments. The eight individuals participated in semistructured, ...
Moneret-Vautrin D A - - 2012
Oilseed rape and maize crops represent a large part of agriculture fields in European countries. To establish the actual prevalence of sensitization to oilseed rape and maize pollen, and to determine if this is correlated to the amount of exposure as well as to the patient's history of atopy or ...
Thornton Lukar E - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors (ability, motivation and the environment) that act as barriers to limiting fast-food consumption in women who live in an environment that is supportive of poor eating habits. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using self-reports of individual-level data and objectively measured environmental data. Multilevel logistic regression was used to ...
Auersperg Alice M I - - 2012
Accounts of complex tool innovations in animals, particularly in species not adaptively specialized for doing so, are exceedingly rare and often linked to advanced cognitive abilities in the physical domain [1], even though the relation between such capabilities and intelligence is poorly understood [2]. For this reason, discoveries of such ...
Le Thuy-My - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Kiwifruit is a common cause of food allergy. Symptoms range from mild to anaphylactic reactions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate geographic differences across Europe regarding clinical patterns and sensitization to kiwifruit allergens. Factors associated with the severity of kiwifruit allergy were identified, and the diagnostic performance of specific kiwifruit ...
Henley Shauna C - - 2012
Foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter is a concern for consumers, and there is evidence that minority racial-ethnic populations experience greater rates of illness because of these pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety ...
Makeyev Oleksandr - - 2012
This paper presents a novel fully automatic food intake detection methodology, an important step toward objective monitoring of ingestive behavior. The aim of such monitoring is to improve our understanding of eating behaviors associated with obesity and eating disorders. The proposed methodology consists of two stages. First, acoustic detection of ...
Schrama Maarten - - 2012
Current theories about vegetation succession and food web assembly are poorly compatible, as food webs are generally viewed to be static, and succession is usually analyzed without the inclusion of higher trophic levels. In this study we present results from a detailed analysis of ecosystem assembly rules over a chronosequence ...
Gould Adrian C - - 2012
Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV ...
Brownie Sonya - - 2013
Aim:  To explore older people's views about how getting older has influenced their dietary practices. Methods:  Focus groups with independently living residents aged 60 years and older in northern NSW, Australia. An inductive approach to thematic analysis was used. Results:  Five focus groups (n= 29) were conducted. The majority of ...
Lafferty Kevin D - - 2012
Past models have suggested host-parasite coextinction could lead to linear, or concave down relationships between free-living species richness and parasite richness. I explored several models for the relationship between parasite richness and biodiversity loss. Life cycle complexity, low generality of parasites and sensitivity of hosts reduced the robustness of parasite ...
Dharod Jigna M - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between food insecurity, dietary intake, and body mass index among Somali refugee women living in the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional study utilizing the snowball sampling method. RESULTS: Most (67%) participants experienced some level of food insecurity, which was common among recent arrivals and those who ...
Gerber Lukas C - - 2012
Living materials: Artificial biological niches are loaded with the penicillin-producing mold Penicillium chrysogenum. This living material consumes food through a nanoporous top layer and releases the antibiotic on-site. No reloading of the active compound is needed. Gram-positive bacteria were efficiently killed if nearby, whereas Gram-negative bacteria (control experiment, not sensitive ...
Ledoux Timothy F - - 2012
This research employs household survey data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to explore the core assumption underlying much of the food desert discourse that socially and economically disadvantaged residents shop in their immediate neighborhood food environment. Findings indicate that disadvantaged consumers living on the lower eastside of Detroit, Michigan bypass ...
Burd Carlye - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Eating behaviors and obesity are complex phenotypes influenced by genes and the environment, but few studies have investigated the interaction of these two variables. The purpose of this study was to use a gene-environment interaction model to test for differences in children's food acceptance and body weights. DESIGN AND ...
Levings Jessica - - 2012
The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of < 2 300 mg/day. A further reduction to 1 500 mg/day is advised ...
Gugołek A - - 2012
The aim of this study was to determine whether farming leads to changes in gastrointestinal function and nitrogen metabolism in farmed mink (FA), as compared with their wild-living counterparts. Three digestibility and balance trials were carried out. Experiment I was performed in May, and experiments II and III were conducted ...
Higginson Andrew D - - 2012
Abstract Animals live in complex environments in which predation risk and food availability change over time. To deal with this variability and maximize their survival, animals should take into account how long current conditions may persist and the possible future conditions they may encounter. This should affect their foraging activity, ...
Hadley Craig - - 2012
The rise in food prices since 2007 is widely recognized as signaling a crisis of food insecurity among the world's poor. Scholars sought to chart the impacts of the crisis on food insecurity by conducting simulation studies, assessing anthropometric outcomes, and evaluating shifts in experience-based measures of food security. Few ...
Forsyth Ann - - 2012
This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents' eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast ...
Bengmark Stig - - 2012
The microbiota of Westerners is significantly reduced in comparison to rural individuals living a similar lifestyle to our Paleolithic forefathers but also to that of other free-living primates such as the chimpanzee. The great majority of ingredients in the industrially produced foods consumed in the West are absorbed in the ...
Talmi Deborah - - 2012
Because emotional and neutral stimuli typically differ on non-emotional dimensions, it has been difficult to determine conclusively which factors underlie the ability of emotional stimuli to enhance immediate long-term memory. Here we induced arousal by varying participants' goals, a method that removes many potential confounds between emotional and non-emotional items. ...
Chaves Oscar M - - 2012
Habitat loss and fragmentation constrain the survival of most forest-living mammals, particularly strictly arboreal primates. Because fragment size directly affects food availability, primate survival in small fragments may depend on dietary flexibility. Here, we review the literature on the diet of 29 wild groups of Alouatta guariba clamitans inhabiting forest ...
Du Miaomiao - - 2012
In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to two dietary concentrations of individual HBCD diastereoisomers (-, - and -HBCD) for 42 days, followed by clean food for 21 days, to examine bioaccumulation, depuration and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of HBCD diastereoisomers, and to test the bioisomerization of HBCDs in fish. ...
Flower Tom P - - 2012
Animals commonly steal food from other species, termed interspecific kleptoparasitism, but why animals engage in kleptoparasitism compared with alternate foraging tactics, and under what circumstances they do so, is not fully understood. Determining what specific benefits animals gain from kleptoparasitism could provide valuable insight into its evolution. Here, we investigate ...
Grosso Giuseppe - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to test the reliability of a nutrition questionnaire and to assess potential associations between nutrition knowledge, food consumption and lifestyle behaviours, controlling for sociodemographic factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Comprehensive school in the municipality of Butera, a rural area of Sicily, South Italy. SUBJECTS: The survey ...
Riedl Katrin - - 2012
Punishment can help maintain cooperation by deterring free-riding and cheating. Of particular importance in large-scale human societies is third-party punishment in which individuals punish a transgressor or norm violator even when they themselves are not affected. Nonhuman primates and other animals aggress against conspecifics with some regularity, but it is ...
de Assis Costa J - - 2012
Objective: To evaluate the effect of the glycemic index (GI) on food intake, anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with excess body weight. Methods: Crossover study, in which 17 subjects participated in two study sessions (high GI or low GI). Two daily meals were consumed in laboratory for 30 ...
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