Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 694
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King Bruce M - - 2012
Obesity has become a true pandemic. In the United States, over two thirds of adults are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. The increase in the prevalence of obese and overweight individuals has happened too rapidly for it to be due to an alteration in ...
Khan Ashraful Islam - - 2012
Growth patterns in early life are associated with later health. The effect of nutrition during in utero development on later body composition is unclear. We evaluated whether prenatal early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has an effect on offspring body composition at 54 months of ...
Levy Flavia Mauad - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Estimating fluoride intake (FI) using the 'duplicate plate' method is difficult and can raise ethical dilemmas. AIM: To apply a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to 2- to 6-year-old Brazilian children in a non-fluoridated area (i) to estimate their FI and (ii) to provide additional validity to the questionnaire ...
Fiechtner Lauren L Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, - - 2013
The objective of this study is to examine associations of proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI) among preschool-age children. We used baseline data from 438 children ages 2-6.9 years with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile participating in a RCT in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2009. We used ...
Plow Matthew - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Few studies have explored how people living with multiple sclerosis (MS) cope with impairments and disability to participate in nutritional behaviors, such as meal preparation and grocery shopping. Thus, we conducted a qualitative study among eight individuals with MS who experienced mobility impairments. The eight individuals participated in semistructured, ...
Moneret-Vautrin D A - - 2012
Oilseed rape and maize crops represent a large part of agriculture fields in European countries. To establish the actual prevalence of sensitization to oilseed rape and maize pollen, and to determine if this is correlated to the amount of exposure as well as to the patient's history of atopy or ...
Thornton Lukar E - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors (ability, motivation and the environment) that act as barriers to limiting fast-food consumption in women who live in an environment that is supportive of poor eating habits. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using self-reports of individual-level data and objectively measured environmental data. Multilevel logistic regression was used to ...
Auersperg Alice M I - - 2012
Accounts of complex tool innovations in animals, particularly in species not adaptively specialized for doing so, are exceedingly rare and often linked to advanced cognitive abilities in the physical domain [1], even though the relation between such capabilities and intelligence is poorly understood [2]. For this reason, discoveries of such ...
Le Thuy-My - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Kiwifruit is a common cause of food allergy. Symptoms range from mild to anaphylactic reactions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate geographic differences across Europe regarding clinical patterns and sensitization to kiwifruit allergens. Factors associated with the severity of kiwifruit allergy were identified, and the diagnostic performance of specific kiwifruit ...
Henley Shauna C - - 2012
Foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter is a concern for consumers, and there is evidence that minority racial-ethnic populations experience greater rates of illness because of these pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety ...
Makeyev Oleksandr - - 2012
This paper presents a novel fully automatic food intake detection methodology, an important step toward objective monitoring of ingestive behavior. The aim of such monitoring is to improve our understanding of eating behaviors associated with obesity and eating disorders. The proposed methodology consists of two stages. First, acoustic detection of ...
Schrama Maarten - - 2012
Current theories about vegetation succession and food web assembly are poorly compatible, as food webs are generally viewed to be static, and succession is usually analyzed without the inclusion of higher trophic levels. In this study we present results from a detailed analysis of ecosystem assembly rules over a chronosequence ...
Gould Adrian C - - 2012
Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV ...
Brownie Sonya - - 2013
Aim:  To explore older people's views about how getting older has influenced their dietary practices. Methods:  Focus groups with independently living residents aged 60 years and older in northern NSW, Australia. An inductive approach to thematic analysis was used. Results:  Five focus groups (n= 29) were conducted. The majority of ...
Lafferty Kevin D - - 2012
Past models have suggested host-parasite coextinction could lead to linear, or concave down relationships between free-living species richness and parasite richness. I explored several models for the relationship between parasite richness and biodiversity loss. Life cycle complexity, low generality of parasites and sensitivity of hosts reduced the robustness of parasite ...
Dharod Jigna M - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between food insecurity, dietary intake, and body mass index among Somali refugee women living in the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional study utilizing the snowball sampling method. RESULTS: Most (67%) participants experienced some level of food insecurity, which was common among recent arrivals and those who ...
Gerber Lukas C - - 2012
Living materials: Artificial biological niches are loaded with the penicillin-producing mold Penicillium chrysogenum. This living material consumes food through a nanoporous top layer and releases the antibiotic on-site. No reloading of the active compound is needed. Gram-positive bacteria were efficiently killed if nearby, whereas Gram-negative bacteria (control experiment, not sensitive ...
Ledoux Timothy F - - 2012
This research employs household survey data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to explore the core assumption underlying much of the food desert discourse that socially and economically disadvantaged residents shop in their immediate neighborhood food environment. Findings indicate that disadvantaged consumers living on the lower eastside of Detroit, Michigan bypass ...
Burd Carlye - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Eating behaviors and obesity are complex phenotypes influenced by genes and the environment, but few studies have investigated the interaction of these two variables. The purpose of this study was to use a gene-environment interaction model to test for differences in children's food acceptance and body weights. DESIGN AND ...
Levings Jessica - - 2012
The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of < 2 300 mg/day. A further reduction to 1 500 mg/day is advised ...
Gugołek A - - 2012
The aim of this study was to determine whether farming leads to changes in gastrointestinal function and nitrogen metabolism in farmed mink (FA), as compared with their wild-living counterparts. Three digestibility and balance trials were carried out. Experiment I was performed in May, and experiments II and III were conducted ...
Higginson Andrew D - - 2012
Abstract Animals live in complex environments in which predation risk and food availability change over time. To deal with this variability and maximize their survival, animals should take into account how long current conditions may persist and the possible future conditions they may encounter. This should affect their foraging activity, ...
Hadley Craig - - 2012
The rise in food prices since 2007 is widely recognized as signaling a crisis of food insecurity among the world's poor. Scholars sought to chart the impacts of the crisis on food insecurity by conducting simulation studies, assessing anthropometric outcomes, and evaluating shifts in experience-based measures of food security. Few ...
Forsyth Ann - - 2012
This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents' eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast ...
Bengmark Stig - - 2012
The microbiota of Westerners is significantly reduced in comparison to rural individuals living a similar lifestyle to our Paleolithic forefathers but also to that of other free-living primates such as the chimpanzee. The great majority of ingredients in the industrially produced foods consumed in the West are absorbed in the ...
Talmi Deborah - - 2012
Because emotional and neutral stimuli typically differ on non-emotional dimensions, it has been difficult to determine conclusively which factors underlie the ability of emotional stimuli to enhance immediate long-term memory. Here we induced arousal by varying participants' goals, a method that removes many potential confounds between emotional and non-emotional items. ...
Chaves Oscar M - - 2012
Habitat loss and fragmentation constrain the survival of most forest-living mammals, particularly strictly arboreal primates. Because fragment size directly affects food availability, primate survival in small fragments may depend on dietary flexibility. Here, we review the literature on the diet of 29 wild groups of Alouatta guariba clamitans inhabiting forest ...
Du Miaomiao - - 2012
In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to two dietary concentrations of individual HBCD diastereoisomers (-, - and -HBCD) for 42 days, followed by clean food for 21 days, to examine bioaccumulation, depuration and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of HBCD diastereoisomers, and to test the bioisomerization of HBCDs in fish. ...
Flower Tom P - - 2012
Animals commonly steal food from other species, termed interspecific kleptoparasitism, but why animals engage in kleptoparasitism compared with alternate foraging tactics, and under what circumstances they do so, is not fully understood. Determining what specific benefits animals gain from kleptoparasitism could provide valuable insight into its evolution. Here, we investigate ...
Grosso Giuseppe - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to test the reliability of a nutrition questionnaire and to assess potential associations between nutrition knowledge, food consumption and lifestyle behaviours, controlling for sociodemographic factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Comprehensive school in the municipality of Butera, a rural area of Sicily, South Italy. SUBJECTS: The survey ...
Riedl Katrin - - 2012
Punishment can help maintain cooperation by deterring free-riding and cheating. Of particular importance in large-scale human societies is third-party punishment in which individuals punish a transgressor or norm violator even when they themselves are not affected. Nonhuman primates and other animals aggress against conspecifics with some regularity, but it is ...
Fontana Juan M - - 2012
Automatic methods for food intake detection are needed to objectively monitor ingestive behavior of individuals in a free living environment. In this study, a pattern recognition system was developed for detection of food intake through the classification of jaw motion. A total of 7 subjects participated in laboratory experiments that ...
de Assis Costa J - - 2012
Objective: To evaluate the effect of the glycemic index (GI) on food intake, anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with excess body weight. Methods: Crossover study, in which 17 subjects participated in two study sessions (high GI or low GI). Two daily meals were consumed in laboratory for 30 ...
Colucci Ana Carolina A - - 2012
To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates ...
Sharifah Zahhura S A SA School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian Kelantan, Malaysia. - - 2012
A qualitative comparative case study was conducted to compare and contrast food taboos and avoidance practices during pregnancy among Orang Asli or indigenous Temiar women in four distinct locations that represent different lifestyle experiences and cultural practices. Through snowballing sampling, a total of 38 participants took part in five focus ...
Tesoriere L - - 2012
PURPOSE: This study investigated the absorption mechanism of the phytochemicals indicaxanthin and betanin and the influence of their food matrix (cactus pear and red beet) on the intestinal transport. METHODS: Trans-epithelial transport of dietary-consistent amounts of indicaxanthin and betanin in Caco-2 cell monolayers seeded on Transwell(R) inserts was measured in ...
Voorend Carlijn G N CG Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The - - 2013
To explore if and how female adolescents engage in shared eating and joint food choices with best friends within the context of living in urban Soweto, South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, multiple case study was conducted using semi-structured duo interviews of best friend pairs to ascertain their eating patterns, friendship ...
Chopra Harsha - - 2012
RESEARCH QUESTION: Intakes of micronutrient-rich foods are low among women of child-bearing age living in slums. We investigated relationships between consumption of these foods and socio-demographic variables. METHODOLOGY: A 91-item Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to women (n=1651) aged 16-40 yrs living in a Mumbai slum. We identified associations between ...
Schlotz Nina - - 2012
Nutritional ecology of the aquatic model genus Daphnia has received much attention in past years in particular with regard to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which are crucial for growth and reproduction. Besides their significant role as membrane components, C20 PUFAs serve as precursors for eicosanoids, hormone-like mediators of reproduction, ...
Nielsen Marianne J - - 2012
Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead, a sophisticated pathway for specific uptake and transport ...
Bargiota Alexandra - - 2012
To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the ...
Jiang Mengxi - - 2012
Food turns out to be not only the nutrient supplier for our body but also a carrier of regulatory information. Interestingly, a recent study made the discovery that some plant/food-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) accumulate in the serum of humans or plant-feeding animals, and regulate mammalian gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. ...
Argudín M A - - 2012
Staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases, results from ingestion of one or more staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus in foods. In the present study, 64 S. aureus isolates recovered from foods and food handlers, associated or not associated with food-poisoning outbreaks in Spain, were ...
Fisher Mw - - 2012
Abstract AIM: To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter. METHODS: A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were ...
Thornton Lukar E - - 2012
Objective:In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption.Design and subjects:In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy ...
Abou El Hassan Dahlia - - 2012
Purpose: We explored the eating habits of Arab immigrants to determine whether they have maintained their traditional diet or have consumed a more Westernized diet since immigrating to Canada. Methods: Arab immigrants who had been in Canada for at least eight years and were currently living in the Greater Toronto ...
Edfors Ellinor - - 2012
Background. The aim of the study was to describe home-living elderly people's views on the importance of food and meals. Methods. Semistructured interviews with twelve elderly people. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results. Respondents described how their past influenced their present experiences and views on food and ...
Green-Lapierre Rebecca J - - 2012
Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an ...
Nam Hae-Seon - - 2012
House dust mites produce potent allergens that exacerbate asthma in sensitized patients, whom are recommended to practice allergen avoidance within their home environment. We tested the effect of activated charcoal impregnated fibers on house dust mite survival. One hundred live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were added to eight ...
Mannino Marcello A - - 2012
Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue ...
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