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Ford John R - - 2013
Identifying how density and number-dependent processes regulate populations is important for predicting population response to environmental change. Species that live in groups, such as shoaling fish, can experience both direct density-dependent mortality through resource limitation and inverse number-dependent mortality via increased feeding rates and predator evasion in larger groups. To ...
Hoffmann Juliana Feliciati JF Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil. - - 2013
The assessment of the relationship between food intake and sociodemographic factors is crucial for developing effective public health policies. The present study aimed to examine dietary patterns in pregnant women and the association between these patterns and sociodemographic characteristics. Pregnant women attending general practices in southern Brazil (n = 712) ...
Pelletier Jennifer E - - 2013
Abstract Purpose . To examine the association between college students' dietary patterns and frequency of purchasing food/beverages from campus area venues, purchasing fast food, and bringing food from home. Design . Cross-sectional Student Health and Wellness Study. Setting . One community college and one public university in the Twin Cities, ...
Okada Yumiko - - 2013
The ability of L. monocytogenes to grow in a series of Japanese ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, including boiled baby sardine and Japanese pickle, was tested at two different refrigeration temperatures. In RTE foods in which L. monocytogenes can grow, growth was significantly higher at 10°C than that at 4°C during their ...
Jeffery Robert W - - 2013
BACKGROUND: With increasing obesity rates worldwide, more and more people are actively attempting to lose weight or avoid weight gain, but relatively little is known about what specific behaviors comprise these efforts and which, if any, are associated with better weight control over time. METHODS: This paper reports relationships between ...
Masip Gemma G Department of Plant Production and Forestry Science, ETSEA, University of Lleida-Agrotecnio Center, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, - - 2013
European Union (EU) agricultural policy has been developed in the pursuit of laudable goals such as a competitive economy and regulatory harmony across the union. However, what has emerged is a fragmented, contradictory, and unworkable legislative framework that threatens economic disaster. In this review, we present case studies highlighting differences ...
Meneton Pierre - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate habitual dietary intakes in patients with established hypertension, dyslipidemia and/or overweight. METHODS:: A national sample of 6167 French free-living patients, aged 45-65 years, in whom daily food and nutrient intakes (24-h records) and clinical status were regularly monitored between 1994 and 2002. RESULTS:: For each disorder, affected ...
Akers Alice A - - 2013
Conserving a species depends on an understanding of its habitat requirements. Primatologists often characterize the habitat requirements of primates using macroscale population-based approaches relying on correlations between habitat attributes and population abundances between sites with varying levels of disturbance. This approach only works for species spread between several populations. The ...
Spiegelaar Nicole F - - 2013
In Canada, food insecurity exists among Aboriginal (Inuit, Metis and First Nations) people living in remote northern communities, in part, because of their reliance on the industrialized, import-based food system. Local food production as a substitute to imports would be an adaptive response, but enhancement of food security via food ...
Zenk Shannon N - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined food shopping behaviours, particularly distance to grocery shop, and exposure to discrimination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study utilizing data from a community survey, neighbourhood food environment observations and the decennial census. SETTING: Three communities in Detroit, Michigan, USA. SUBJECTS: Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino and ...
Weisse Thomas T University of Innsbruck, Research Institute for Limnology, Mondsee, Austria. - - 2013
We investigated the recently described colpodid ciliate Bromeliothrix metopoides in a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the environmental factors that constrain this species to its peculiar habitat, i.e. the tanks of bromeliads. Our results demonstrated that the various life stages of this ciliate (bacterivorous theronts and microstome trophonts, flagellate-feeding ...
Chiu Huang-Sheng - - 2013
The 3-11 Earthquake occurred in Japan last year had greatly damaged the lives and properties and also caused the core meltdown accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by the leakage of radioactive materials into biosphere. In order to protect against the detriment of radiation from foods which were ...
Mahadevan M - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Although there is increasing evidence of barriers to nutritional health among elderly assisted-living residents, there has not been the same emphasis when examining the ways in which these individuals experience their mealtimes, as well as the factors that they perceive as contributing to their overall sense of health and ...
Nalty Courtney C CC Program for Research in Nutrition and Health Disparities, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College Station, TX, - - 2013
In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers' and children's ...
Naff C S - - 2013
Numerous studies have shown that snow can contain a diverse array of algae known as 'snow algae'. Some reports also indicate that parasites of algae (e.g. chytrids) are also found in snow, but efforts to phylogenetically identify 'snow chytrids' have not been successful. We used culture-independent molecular approaches to phylogenetically ...
Franco Marcela - - 2013
Non-invasive methodological approaches are highly recommended and commonly used to study the feeding ecology of elusive and threatened mammals. In this study, we use multiple lines of evidence to assess the feeding strategies of the endangered Southern river otter, by determining seasonal prey availability (electrofishing), analysis of undigested prey remains ...
Gustafson Alison - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the association between dietary outcomes and the neighbourhood food environment (street network distance from home to stores) and consumer food environment (Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Stores (NEMS-S) audit). DESIGN: The neighbourhood food environment was captured by creating 0·5-mile and 1-mile network distance ...
Davis Nichola J NJ Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. - - 2013
An understanding of dietary patterns in diverse populations may guide the development of food-based, rather than nutrient-based, recommendations. We identified and determined predictors of dietary patterns in low-income black and Hispanic adults with diagnosed diabetes. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake in 235 adults living in the ...
Chilton Mariana M - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To investigate characteristics of exposure to violence in relation to food security status among female-headed households. DESIGN: Ongoing mixed-method participatory action study. Questions addressed food insecurity, public assistance, and maternal and child health. Grounded theory analysis of qualitative themes related to violence was performed. These themes were then categorized ...
Dressler Heidi - - 2013
The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living ...
Dressler Heidi - - 2013
Abstract Purpose. To explore differences and similarities in environmental, personal, and behavioral factors influencing eating behavior among low-income women of varying weight status. Design. Focus groups (n = 16) were used to collect qualitative data. Quantitative data collected included demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric (heights and weights). Setting. Community centers, libraries, ...
Meija Laila - - 2013
Higher intake of lignans, diphenolic plant compounds, may reduce the risk of certain types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. We assessed the dietary intake of four lignans: matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol and pinoresinol. Furthermore, for the breads we supplemented the data with two more lignans: syringaresinol and medioresinol. Study subjects were ...
Darwish Wageh Sobhy - - 2013
Antibiotics are substances either produced naturally by living organisms or synthetically in the laboratory, and they are able to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Antibiotics are also used as feed additives for the purpose of livestock health maintenance. Antibiotic residues in feedstuffs are currently a problem of some ...
Marriott Sarah - - 2013
Animals rely mainly on olfaction to locate and track food sources. However, mammals that have evolved to live partially or fully underwater are unable to use traditional olfaction in the foraging process. These animals have subsequently developed alternative underwater foraging techniques. Cetaceans (e.g. dolphins) live exclusively underwater, and most utilize ...
Ayala-Berdon Jorge - - 2013
Digestive capabilities of nectar-feeding vertebrates to assimilate sugars affect their ability to acquire and store energy and could determine the minimal temperatures at which these animals can survive. Here, we described the sugar digestive capability of Leptonycteris nivalis and related it with its capacity to live in cold environments. We ...
Smith Tanya M - - 2013
Understanding dental development in chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, is of fundamental importance for reconstructing the evolution of human development. Most early hominin species are believed to show rapid ape-like patterns of development, implying that a prolonged modern human childhood evolved quite recently. However, chimpanzee developmental standards are uncertain because ...
Pretorius Sandra - - 2013
In South Africa, rapid urbanisation and epidemiological transition have left the black urban population vulnerable to diseases of lifestyle such as diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity and heart disease, as well as chronic heart failure. This is in part due to the fact that changes in dietary patterns during urbanisation ...
Bellés Montserrat - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to determine the daily dietary intake of uranium (U) by the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Uranium concentrations were measured in foods widely consumed by the population living in that autonomous community. Food samples were randomly acquired in 12 representative cities of Catalonia. The ...
Laran Juliano - - 2013
Do people's perceptions that they live in a harsh environment influence their food choices? Drawing on life-history theory, we propose that cues indicating that the current environment is harsh (e.g., news about an economic crisis, the sight of people facing adversity in life) lead people to perceive that resources in ...
Pfrimer Karina - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To calibrate the food list and relative portion sizes of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for application to a free-living, healthy, elderly population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. One hundred free-living, healthy participants, aged from 60 to 75 y, randomly selected from among individuals in the area served by the Family ...
Palermo Tia - - 2013
Food insecurity is associated with poor nutritional and clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS. Few studies investigate the link between food insecurity, dietary diversity and health-related quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS. We investigated whether household food access and individual dietary diversity are associated with health-related quality ...
Kasamaki Junichi - - 2013
Objectives: This study was conducted to elucidate the correlation among dietary intake, dietary preferences, and social-psychological factors in the youth and to examine the factors that affect such dietary behaviors as snacking, skipping breakfast, and taking a biased nutrition. Methods: A survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed ...
Liu Xujia - - 2013
Eelgrass ecosystems have a wide variety of ecological functions in which living tissues and detritus may be a food source for many marine animals. In this study, we conducted a laboratory simulating experiment to understand the trophic relationship between the eelgrass Zostera marina L and the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. ...
Whitehair Kelly J - - 2013
Sustainability and going green have become popular trends among foodservice organizations. Despite this interest, foodservice operations still produce large amounts of edible food waste and contribute significantly to waste management problems. The purpose of this operational study was to determine how to introduce food waste behavior change into a dining ...
Sylvie Amanda K - - 2013
Many environmental settings and influences can affect food choices and eating behaviors in the growing population of community-dwelling older adults. Using the Social Ecological model, an expert panel participated in online discussions and an Analytic Hierarchy Process survey to identify the most important and changeable environmental settings and enabling factors ...
Anema Aranka - - 2013
Little is known about the potential impact of food insecurity on mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the potential relationship between food insecurity and all-cause mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) across British Columbia (BC). Cross-sectional measurement of food security status was taken ...
Von Essen Elisabeth - - 2013
This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of ...
Garcia Jonathan - - 2013
The mental health of caregivers has been shown to be important for improving HIV prevention and treatment. Household food insecurity affects hundreds of millions of individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region that experiences a disproportionate burden of the HIV pandemic. Both maternal HIV diagnosis and household food insecurity may be ...
Lesser Lenard I - - 2013
Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey ...
Pitts Stephanie B Jilcott - - 2013
Obesity prevalence in the rural United States is higher than in urban or suburban areas, perhaps as a result of the food environment. Because rural residents live farther from supermarkets than their urban- and suburban-dwelling counterparts, they may be more reliant on smaller corner stores that offer fewer healthful food ...
Despland Emma - - 2013
Collective behavior in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) meets the thermal constraints of being an early spring folivore, but introduces other constraints in food choice. These are minimized by state-dependent, inter-individual, and ontogenetic variations in responses to social cues. Forest tent caterpillars use pheromone trails and tactile communication among ...
Foroni Francesco - - 2013
In recent years we have witnessed an increasing interest in food processing and eating behaviors. This is probably due to several reasons. The biological relevance of food choices, the complexity of the food-rich environment in which we presently live (making food-intake regulation difficult), and the increasing health care cost due ...
Noh Geunwoong - - 2013
Anaphylaxis induced by exercise after the intake of certain foods is referred to as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA). Only the preventive medication such as oral sodium cromoglycate and oral combined cetirizine-montelukast was tried in FDEIA. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) using IFN-gamma was tried in 2 cases of FDEIA for ...
Varadharajan Kiruba S - - 2013
India is often thought of as a development paradox with relatively high economic growth rates in the past few years, but with lower progress in areas of life expectancy, education and standard of living. While serious inequalities in growth, development and opportunity explain the illusion of the paradox at the ...
Flanagan Tatiana P - - 2013
Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates ...
Denzinger Annette - - 2013
Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share ...
Dworkin Mark S - - 2013
Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities ...
Aloia Christopher Robert - - 2013
Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to ...
Wang Ruiping - - 2013
In April 2013, a hospital in Suzhou City notified authorities of a patient with nitrite poisoning with two other family members who had similar toxic symptoms five days prior. We investigated the event to identify the cause, source and possible route of contamination. A case was defined as any person ...
SzczepaƄska Elzbieta - - 2013
In childhood and adolescence, adequate nutrition is vital for ensuring correct physical, mental and emotional development as well as effective learning ability. Thus, the acquiring of such healthy lifestyle behaviour is also important later in adult health. To assess and compare the dietary habits of pupils attending middle school in ...
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