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Results 401 - 450 of 1057
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Piyaphanee Watcharapong - - 2011
Background. Travelers' diarrhea is the most common disease reported among travelers visiting developing countries, including Southeast Asia, a region visited by large numbers of backpackers each year. Currently, the knowledge of travelers' diarrhea among this group is limited. This study aimed to determine the incidence and impact of travelers' diarrhea ...
Janis C M - - 2010
It is often assumed that horses chew food more intensively during ingestion than cattle, which - as ruminants - complete part of the mastication during rumination. This has been proposed as a reason for more robust mandibles, larger masseter insertion areas and larger masseter muscles in horses as compared to ...
Ogden Jane - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinic for patients who believe they have a food intolerance that could be administered by practice nurses with minimal experience of dietary change or food intolerance. METHODS: The clinic consisted of 1 week baseline, 2 weeks healthy eating plan (HE), 2 weeks wheat and dairy free ...
Espié Emmanuelle - - 2011
We assessed the prevalence of childhood acute malnutrition and under-five mortality rate (U5MR) in Darbhanga district, India, using a two-stage 49-cluster household survey. A total of 1379 households comprising 8473 people were interviewed. During a 90-day recall period, U5MR was 0.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2-1.4] per 10 000 per day. ...
Fritz Julia - - 2010
A major difference between reptile and mammalian herbivores is that the former do not masticate their food. Actually, food particle size reduction by chewing is usually considered one of the adaptations facilitating the higher metabolic rates of mammals. However, quantitative comparisons of ingesta particle size between the clades have, to ...
Zakir Hossain Md - - 2010
The relationships between jaw-closing muscle spindle unit discharge and the hardness of foods were evaluated during chewing in awake rabbits. Spindle unit discharges recorded from the left mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were correlated with the simultaneous recording of jaw movements and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the left masseter (jaw-closing) muscle during ...
Ramzan P H L - - 2011
Although considered relatively common in horses, there is little information on the prevalence, distribution and aetiology of peripheral caries of the equine cheek teeth (CT). The objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between this lesion and diastemata or 'gaps' between the CT which facilitate the entrapment ...
Moriya S - - 2011
Summary  The escalating medical costs are a social problem in many countries. Masticatory ability is thought to be related to the general health conditions. The purpose of this study was to show relationships between self-assessed masticatory ability and medical costs among the elderly living independently in community. Data on background ...
McGraw W Scott - - 2011
Members of the Cercocebus-Mandrillus clade are united by several morphological features, including expanded premolars which are argued to be associated with a preponderance of hard objects in the diet. We test the association between premolar expansion and hard object feeding by examining how different dental regions are used during food ...
Reed David A - - 2010
To quantify the impact of food material properties on temporal and spatial variables of chewing kinematics at the level of the feeding sequence, gape cycle, and gape cycle phases. Three-dimensional kinematics were quantified from two adult, male capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) while chewing on foods grouped by material properties into ...
de Loubens Clément - - 2010
After eating a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The aim of this article was to analyse the fluid mechanics of pharyngeal peristalsis and to develop a simple biomechanical model in order to understand the ...
Ruijschop Rianne M A J - - 2011
The brain response to a retro-nasally sensed food odour signals the perception of food and it is suggested to be related to satiation. It is hypothesised that consuming food either in multiple small bite sizes or with a longer durations of oral processing may evoke substantial oral processing per gram ...
Civille Gail Vance - - 2011
Food texture provides sensory signals to consumers. Most of these signals stimulate responses from consumers, both good and bad, because of the expected pleasure - from creamy puddings and ice cream to crispy crackers and snacks. One critical role that texture plays in the success of products is its indication ...
Iida Yukihiro - - 2011
A videofluorographic (VF) swallowing study was performed on 22 healthy volunteers to observe the complete mastication and swallowing phases for Japanese udon noodles and white rice. The hardness, stickiness, and cohesiveness of food samples were measured using a food texture analyzing system. VF images were acquired using a versatile fluoroscopic ...
Pérez Leandro M - - 2010
The analysis of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans provides insight on the form of the tongue and its function in food intake and intraoral processing. The hyoid apparatus of xenarthrans is notable for fusion among its elements. The presence of a V-bone, a complex consisting of fused basihyal and ...
Matsuo K - - 2010
Cyclic soft palate elevation is temporally associated with masticatory jaw movement. However, the soft palate is normally lowered during nasal breathing to maintain retropalatal airway patency. We tested the hypothesis that the frequency and amplitude of soft palate elevation associated with mastication would be reduced during inspiration. Movements of radiopaque ...
Umemoto George - - 2011
This study aimed to analyze quantitatively videofluoroscopic (VF) images of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), to evaluate if the predicted factors of the oral phase of swallowing deteriorated with PD progression, and to demonstrate a relationship between the abnormal movements of the tongue and food transportation. Thirty PD patients were ...
Favreau A - - 2010
Understanding what determines feeding behaviour in herbivores is essential to optimise the use of forages in breeding systems. Herbivores can evaluate foods by associative learning of their pre-ingestive characteristics (taste, odour, etc.) and their post-ingestive consequences. Post-ingestive consequences are acknowledged as influencing intake and food choices, but the role of ...
Ng T Kw TK - - 2010
This article presents findings from three separate data sets on food consumption in apparently healthy Malaysian adult males and females aged 22-60 years, and secondary data extracted from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2003. Assessment of food intake by 24-hour recall or the food diary method and use of ...
Tunick Michael H - - 2011
Food texture encompasses physical characteristics perceived by the senses. Research in this area must be multidisciplinary in nature, accounting for fracture of food, sounds it makes during biting and chewing, its microstructure, muscle movements during mastication, swallowing, and acceptability. Food texture thus encompasses chemistry, physics, physiology, and psychology. This brief ...
Schulz Ellen - - 2010
Mammals inhabit all types of environments and have evolved chewing systems capable of processing a huge variety of structurally diverse food components. Surface textures of cheek teeth should thus reflect the mechanisms of wear as well as the functional traits involved. We employed surface textures parameters from ISO/DIS 25178 and ...
Jackowiak Hanna - - 2010
The nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes belongs to a group of bird species that use their beak and tongue as tools for obtaining food, such as seeds from hard-to-reach cones or nuts from shells. The aim of the present study, carried out with a scanning electron microscope, was to define the morphological ...
Constantino Paul J - - 2010
Mammalian tooth enamel is often chipped, providing clear evidence for localized contacts with large hard food objects. Here, we apply a simple fracture equation to estimate peak bite forces directly from chip size. Many fossil hominins exhibit antemortem chips on their posterior teeth, indicating their use of high bite forces. ...
Ranawana Viren - - 2010
Previous work by our group showed that the degree of particle breakdown of rice during mastication affects in vitro glycemic potency. The objective of this study was to confirm these in vitro findings in an in vivo model. We hypothesized that the degree of habitual mastication will influence individuals' in ...
Nazni Peerkhan - - 2010
Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program. The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Athletes from five ...
Eagderi Soheil - - 2010
Hoplunnis punctata, a member of the Anguilliformes, is a long-snouted eel that lives in benthic habitats of the continental shelf of tropical waters. The purpose of this study was to examine the skull morphology of this little known nettastomatid and to understand the changes associated with jaw elongation as well ...
Ashida I - - 2010
We previously developed the T(P) technique to discriminate between the activity patterns of skeletal muscles. In this study we aim to identify the T(P) value(s) that can be used to sensitively evaluate the activity patterns of the suprahyoid (SH) muscles during swallowing. We also analyse the effect of food textural ...
Woda A - - 2010
More and more research are being done on food bolus formation during mastication. However, the process of bolus formation in the mouth is difficult to observe. A mastication simulator, the Artificial Masticatory Advanced Machine (AM2) was developed to overcome this difficulty and is described here. Different variables can be set ...
Ranawana Viren - - 2010
The degree of mastication varies significantly between individuals and may be a cause for the considerable interindividual variation observed in the glycemic response (GR) to a single food. Using rice as the model, the aim of this study was to determine if interindividual differences in mastication and resulting degree of ...
Aung Phyu Phyu PP - - 2010
A cross-sectional survey combined with 24-hour dietary recall and food diary was undertaken to assess the calcium intake of the Myanmar population. The study was conducted from November 2003 to October 2005. A total of 886 subjects of both sexes aged above 2 years from three States and Divisions (Bago, ...
Romero Melissa R - - 2010
Ciliary feeders vary in the arrangement of ciliary bands and mechanisms of capture of food. Some larvae use opposed parallel bands of preoral (prototroch) and postoral (metatroch) cilia. Hypotheses for the mechanism of particle capture include filtration by adhesion to a cilium that overtakes a particle (direct interception), but until ...
Lopez-Meyer Paulo - - 2010
Studies of food intake and ingestive behavior in free-living conditions most often rely on self-reporting-based methods that can be highly inaccurate. Methods of Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior (MIB) rely on objective measures derived from chewing and swallowing sequences and thus can be used for unbiased study of food intake with ...
Lin Ying-Chun - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between chewing ability and diet among elderly edentulous patients whose dentures were funded by the Department of Health in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A cluster sample of 103 elderly edentulous subjects 65 years and older (68 men, 35 women) was gathered ...
Fleurance G - - 2010
The spatial heterogeneity of grasslands determines the abundance and quality of food resources for grazing animals. As plants mature, they increase in mass, which allows greater instantaneous intake rates, but the cell wall concentrations increase too, reducing diet quality. In ruminants, daily intake rates are often constrained by the time ...
Ferry-Graham Lara A - - 2010
Intramandibular joints (IMJ) are novel articulations between bony elements of the lower jaw that have evolved independently in multiple fish lineages and are typically associated with biting herbivory. This novel joint is hypothesized to function by augmenting oral jaw expansion during mouth opening, which would increase contact between the tooth-bearing ...
Emura Shoichi - - 2010
The dorsal lingual surfaces of adult Blue-and-White Flycatcher, Hawfinch, and Japanese White-eye were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the Blue-and-White Flycatcher shows a conical shape and a median groove is observed on the anterior lingual apex. The tongue of the Hawfinch shows a cuspid-like shape and a ...
Cha Tae-Hyun - - 2010
A 25-year-old patient with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type II was referred due to swallowing problems related to prolonged nonoral feeding. Restriction of jaw movement, neck stiffness, absence of oral food intake, and weakness of the oropharyngeal and laryngeal muscles were considered to be the main factors contributing to the ...
Jeong S H - - 2010
This study examined the association between the subjective food intake ability (FIA) using a questionnaire with 30 types of foods and the objective Mixing Ability Index (MAI) using a two-coloured wax cube. A total of 147 subjects (32 males, 115 females, mean age: 54.9 +/- 20.7) were enrolled in this ...
Xu Ya S - - 2010
Research has shown that the long term management of food allergy is suboptimal. Our study aims to provide direction for improvement, by evaluating food allergy management from the perspective of, food allergic patients or their caregivers, and allergists in selected outpatient settings in Ontario. This two-part study included an anonymous ...
Yamamura Kensuke - - 2010
Swallowing involves several motor processes such as bolus formation and intraoral transport of a food bolus (oral stage) and a series of visceral events that occur in a relatively fixed timed sequence but are to some degree modifiable (pharyngeal stage or swallow reflex). Reflecting the progressive aging of society, patients ...
Ozaki Kenichiro - - 2010
Videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing (VF) is the gold standard in diagnosis and management of dysphagia. During VF, the patient ingests radiopaque foods and liquids, and oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages of swallowing physiology are observed and evaluated. Aspiration is defined as passage of materials through the vocal folds, and laryngeal ...
Hwang Kun - - 2010
I report a patient with perforation in the submucous cleft palate (SMCP) due to hot food burn. A 27-year-old woman developed a hole in her velum after a burn due to ingestion of hot food. On examination, the velum showed an SMCP with a perforation on the midline notching at ...
Wendin Karin - - 2010
Patients who suffer from chewing and swallowing disorders, i.e. dysphagia, may have difficulties ingesting normal food and liquids. In these patients a texture modified diet may enable that the patient maintain adequate nutrition. However, there is no generally accepted definition of 'texture' that includes measurements describing different food textures. Objectively ...
Renaud Sabrina - - 2010
In wild populations phenotypic differentiation of skeletal structures is influenced by many factors including epigenetic interactions and plastic response to environmental influences, possibly blurring the expression of genetic differences. In contrast, laboratory animals provide the opportunity to separate environmental from genetic effects. The mouse mandible is particularly prone to such ...
Lopez-Meyer Paulo P Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA. - - 2010
Studies of obesity and eating disorders need objective tools of Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior (MIB) that can detect and characterize food intake. In this paper we describe detection of food intake by a Support Vector Machine classifier trained on time history of chews and swallows. The training was performed on ...
Katzoff Ayelet - - 2010
Memory that food is inedible in Aplysia arises from training requiring three contingent events. Nitric oxide (NO) and histamine are released by a neuron responding to one of these events, attempts to swallow food. Since NO release during training is necessary for subsequent memory and NO substitutes for attempts to ...
van der Bilt A - - 2010
Masticatory performance has often been measured by determining an individual's capacity to comminute a test food. Another method to determine masticatory performance, which is now widely used, evaluates the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. Two-coloured chewing gum and paraffin wax have been used as test foods for ...
Shinkawa Tetsuko - - 2009
Oral dryness is common among aging individuals and its objective evaluation is an important issue for improving their oral health. In the present study, we measured the objective mucosal moisture in elderly individuals with a moisture checker and evaluated its relation with laboratory findings and subjective oral status. The subjects ...
Svensson Krister G - - 2009
The purpose of the study was to analyze how increases in the bite force, during the splitting of food morsels of different hardness, are modulated, and to evaluate the role of periodontal mechanoreceptors in this control. Fifteen subjects were instructed to hold and split food morsels of different hardness (peanuts ...
Kawashima Kumiko - - 2009
In this study, we observed comminution behavior of food on buccal and lingual side by sieve method. Six dentate subjects participated in this study. Peanuts were used as the test food and chewed for 1-8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 strokes on their preferred chewing side. ...
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