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Results 301 - 350 of 1043
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Waterlander Wilma E - - 2012
Lowering the price of fruit and vegetables is a promising strategy in stimulating the purchase of those foods. However, the true effects of this strategy are not well studied and it is unclear how the money saved is spent. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of ...
Lin Hua V - - 2012
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are metabolites formed by gut microbiota from complex dietary carbohydrates. Butyrate and acetate were reported to protect against diet-induced obesity without causing hypophagia, while propionate was shown to reduce food intake. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are unclear. It ...
Sharkey Joseph R - - 2012
Food insecurity among Mexican-origin and Hispanic households is a critical nutritional health issue of national importance. At the same time, nutrition-related health conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are increasing in Mexican-origin youth. Risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes are more common in Mexican-origin children and ...
Eysteinsdottir Tinna - - 2012
Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is ...
Hermans Roel C J - - 2012
Numerous studies have shown that people adjust their intake directly to that of their eating companions; they eat more when others eat more, and less when others inhibit intake. A potential explanation for this modeling effect is that both eating companions' food intake becomes synchronized through processes of behavioral mimicry. ...
Chen Xiaoning - - 2012
Serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of serotonin neurotransmission and a major target of antidepressants. Antidepressants, such as selectively serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), that block SERT function are known to affect food intake and body weight. Here, we provide genetic evidence that food intake and metabolism are regulated ...
Zandian Modjtaba - - 2012
Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the ...
Root Martin M - - 2012
Previous studies have examined the relationship between specific nutrient and food intakes with limited markers of either inflammation or oxidant status. The objective of this study was to determine if an increase in combined self-reported fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in a community setting was associated with improved multiple markers ...
Cohen Deborah - - 2012
Many policy measures to control the obesity epidemic assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods. In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to ...
Davison Karen M - - 2012
A growing body of literature links nutrition to mood, especially in epidemiological surveys, but there is little information characterizing food intake in people with diagnosed mood disorders. Food intake obtained from 3-day food records was evaluated in 97 adults with mood disorders, whose diagnoses were confirmed in structured interviews. Information ...
Karlsson-Lindahl Linda - - 2012
Mutation of the melanocortin-receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most frequent cause of severe obesity in humans. Binding of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) to MC4R involves the co-receptor syndecan-3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The proteoglycan can be structurally modified by the enzyme heparanase. Here we tested the hypothesis that heparanase plays a ...
Hlimi Tina - - 2012
To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Schoolchildren in grades 6-12 (n = 262) responded ...
Rittmueller Stacey E - - 2012
The present study aimed to assess dietary adequacy and quality among Inuvialuit alcohol consumers and non-consumers in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Study design: Cross-sectional study. A validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered to individuals (n = 216) of randomly selected households in 3 NWT communities to capture dietary intake ...
Gwynn Josephine D - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. In this descriptive cross-sectional ...
Pedersen Trine Pagh - - 2012
Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect ...
Marqués Ma - - 2012
Dietary treatment for obese adolescents should aim to ensure adequate growth and development, by reducing excessive fat mass accumulation, avoiding loss of lean body mass, improving well-being and self-esteem and preventing cyclical weight regain. The aim of this article is to describe the dietary intervention design and the methods used ...
Gifkins Dina - - 2012
Limiting oxidative stress to the ovarian epithelium has been proposed as a first-line defense against ovarian cancer. Although evidence for an association between individual dietary antioxidant intake and ovarian cancer risk is conflicting, the combined evidence suggests a modest inverse association. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between total ...
Hong Seung-Hyun - - 2012
Feeding behavior is one of the most essential activities in animals, which is tightly regulated by neuroendocrine factors. Drosophila melanogaster short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and the mammalian functional homolog neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulate food intake. Understanding the molecular mechanism of sNPF and NPY signaling is critical to elucidate feeding regulation. ...
Naish Katherine R - - 2012
Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory ...
Suzuki Keisuke - - 2012
Obesity is one of the major challenges to human health worldwide; however, there are currently no effective pharmacological interventions for obesity. Recent studies have improved our understanding of energy homeostasis by identifying sophisticated neurohumoral networks which convey signals between the brain and gut in order to control food intake. The ...
Wang Rui - - 2012
In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those "wet markets" of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children's nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study ...
Hayek Jessy El - - 2012
Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32'-72° 40'N). Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire ...
Jeppesen Charlotte - - 2012
We studied the association and agreement between questionnaire data and biomarkers of marine food among Greenland Inuit. Cross sectional study. The study population comprised 2,224 Inuit, age 18+ (43% men); data collected 2005-2008 in Greenland. Using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), we calculated consumption of seal, whale, and fish (g/day) ...
Nguyen Amy D - - 2012
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) acting in the hypothalamus is one of the most powerful orexigenic agents known. Of the five known Y receptors, hypothalamic Y1 and Y5 have been most strongly implicated in mediating hyperphagic effects. However, knockout of individual Y1 or Y5 receptors induces late-onset obesity--and Y5 receptor knockout also ...
Nock Nora L - - 2012
Obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer (EC) and obese EC patients have the highest risk of death among all obesity-associated cancers. However, only two lifestyle interventions targeting this high-risk population have been conducted. In one trial, food disinhibition, as determined by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, decreased post-intervention compared to ...
Ligaarden Solveig C - - 2012
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS. The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and ...
Steyn Nelia P - - 2012
To review studies undertaken in South Africa (SA) which included sugar intake associated with dental caries, non-communicable diseases, diabetes, obesity and/or micronutrient dilution, since the food-based dietary guideline: "Use foods and drinks that contain sugar sparingly and not between meals" was promulgated by the Department of Health (DOH) in 2002. ...
Valery Patricia C PC Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, P.O. Box 10639 Brisbane Adelaide Street, QLD 4000, - - 2012
Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake ("short nutrition questionnaire") were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using ...
De Silva Akila A Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College London, London, - - 2012
The global obesity epidemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. However, the medical treatment of obesity is limited. Gastric bypass is an effective surgical treatment but carries significant perioperative risks. The gut hormones, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), are elevated following gastric bypass and have ...
Bowen Liza L Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK. - - 2012
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for use in urban and rural India. A single FFQ was developed for use in cities and rural areas of four regions of India. To assess validity, the FFQ was administered to 530 factory ...
Zgaga Lina L Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for gout. The incidence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased recently, which is thought to be, in part, due to changes in diet and lifestyle. Objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma urate concentration and: a) food items: dairy, sugar-sweetened ...
Nummenmaa Lauri L Brain Research Unit, Olli Viktor Lounasmaa Laboratory, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland. - - 2012
Obesity is characterized by an imbalance in the brain circuits promoting reward seeking and those governing cognitive control. Here we show that the dorsal caudate nucleus and its connections with amygdala, insula and prefrontal cortex contribute to abnormal reward processing in obesity. We measured regional brain glucose uptake in morbidly ...
Hennessy Erin - - 2012
Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was ...
Temme Elisabeth H M - - 2011
The Dutch'Task Force for the Improvement of the Fatty Acid Composition' initiated fatty acid reformulations in branches using vegetable oils and fats to reduce the trans (TFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of foods. This study estimates the impact of recent reformulations in the task force food groups by ...
Davison Karen M - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrient intakes of people with mood disorders. Method: A cross-sectional survey using 3-day food records was carried out in 97 adults with bipolar or major depressive disorder to compare nutrient intakes with Dietary Reference Intakes and British Columbia Nutrition Survey ...
Lazarević Konstansa - - 2011
The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean ...
Sui Hai Xia - - 2011
To evaluate dietary iodine intake and its potential risks among the Chinese population. Individual dietary iodine intake was calculated using food consumption data multiplying by iodine concentration in foods, table salt and drinking water, followed by summing, and then compared with the corresponding age-specific reference values, including Upper Intake Level ...
Canfi Ayala - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Distinct weight loss dietary strategies are associated with changes in specific food groups. Objective: To address the effect of changes in specific weight of food groups on weight loss in a 2-year low-fat, Mediterranean, low-carbohydrate intervention trial (DIRECT). Methods: We assessed changes in the intake of 12 food groups ...
Allegri C - - 2011
This article reviews Western dietary attitudes and lifestyle choices by identifying the environmental, social and personal factors that determine said attitudes and choices. Environmental factors exert a major influence on, and complicate, dietary behavior, primarily by facilitating the consumption of meals away from home and by minimizing time dedicated to ...
Cuomo R - - 2011
The gastrointestinal system can be considered the gateway for food entry in our body. Rather than being a passive player, it is now clear that gut strongly influence the feeding behavior and contribute to maintain energy balance with different signals. The aim of this review is to summarize the current ...
Pentz Mary Ann - - 2011
Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety ...
Sasaki Takashi - - 2012
Aim:  As for self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), some predictive factors of stent patency have been reported, although re-canalization of GOO by SEMS does not necessarily lead to favorable food intake. Therefore, we analyzed the predictive factors of oral food intake following SEMS placement. Methods:  ...
Shahriari Haleh - - 2011
The effects of using untreated leachate for supplemental water addition and liquid recirculation on anaerobic digestion of food waste was evaluated by combining cyclic water recycle operations with batch mesophilic biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. Cyclic BMP assays indicated that using an appropriate fraction of recycled leachate and fresh make ...
Rankin Scott J - - 2011
Objective: To determine the amount of fluoride received from solid foods for a cohort of children. Methods: Parents were asked to complete questionnaires for the preceding week and dietary diaries for 3 days for their children. Data collected at 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months ...
Hur In Young - - 2012
Although whole-grain intake has been associated with improved chronic disease risk factors and weight status in adults, similar studies are limited among adolescents. To determine the relationship among chronic disease risk factors, weight status, and whole-grain intake among adolescents (aged 12 to 19 years) by sex. Analysis of the relationship ...
Medina-Ruiz Arturo - - 2011
The atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and advances rapidly triggered by multiple genetic and environmental factors, including obesity. Obesity has reach epidemic proportions mainly by the consumption of junk food and a sedentary lifestyle. Our children spend long time inactive in front of the television and video games, further aggravated ...
Boonstra Rudy - - 2011
We review the population dynamics of red-backed voles (Myodes species) in North America, the main deciduous and coniferous forest-dwelling microtines on this continent, and compare and contrast their pattern with that of the same or similar species in Eurasia. We identify 7 long-term studies of population changes in Myodes in ...
Dailey Megan J - - 2011
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery results in sustained decreases in food intake and weight loss. A key component is likely the direct delivery of nutrients to the jejunum and resulting changes in levels of gut peptide secretion. Prior work modeling this aspect of the surgery has shown that small-volume, prolonged jejunal ...
Carmem-Costa-do-Nascimento Christiane - - 2011
The aging population is one of the main results of population demographic trends during the twentieth century and will be the hallmark of populations during this century. To assess the habitual dietary vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentration in the elderly. This is a population-based epidemiological study conducted in ...
Rodríguez-Ramírez Sonia - - 2011
In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 ...
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