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Results 301 - 350 of 1057
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Fortuna Jeffrey L - - 2012
As of 2010 nearly 70% of adult Americans were overweight or obese. Specifically, 35.7% of adult Americans are obese, and this is the highest level of obesity in the recorded history of the United States. A number of environmental factors, most notably the number of fast food outlets, have contributed ...
Osés S M - - 2012
The actual microbial status of the lamb production chain at three slaughterhouses, one processing plant, and five butcher shops selling whole or cut lamb carcasses to consumers was assessed with a previously developed microbial assessment scheme. All studied establishments had a food safety management system (FSMS) that was implemented according ...
Benítez-Arciniega Alejandra D - - 2012
Background: Olive oil is an energy-dense food frequently consumed in south European countries with increasingly high obesity prevalence. Evidence of the impact of olive oil consumption on BMI and the risk of obesity is limited. We analyzed this association taking into consideration the problem of energy underreporting. Methods: Cross-sectional data ...
Lands Bill - - 2012
The vitamin-like omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids are converted in the body to a large family of hormones which act at selective receptors that occur on nearly every cell and tissue. A relative omega-3 deficit allows overabundant actions of omega-6 hormones to develop into health disorders. People need ...
Verkaik-Kloosterman Janneke - - 2012
There is an ongoing increase in the availability of foods fortified with micronutrients and dietary supplements. This may result in differing intakes of micronutrients within the population and perhaps larger differences in intakes. Insight into population micronutrient intakes and evaluation of too low or too high intakes is required to ...
Rothausen Berit W - - 2012
The objective of the present study was to evaluate energy intake (EI) estimated from two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls (24-HDRs) and a pre-coded seven-day food record (7-dFR) against objective measurements of energy expenditure (EE) in children. A total of 67 7-8 year-olds and 64 12-13 year-olds completed the 2×24-HDRs, the 7-dFR, ...
Verkaik-Kloosterman Janneke - - 2012
Fortification with folic acid was prohibited in the Netherlands. Since 2007, a general exemption is given to fortify with folic acid up until a maximum level of 100 µg/100 kcal. This maximum level was based on a calculation model and data of adults only. The model requires parameters on intake ...
Pfeiffer Christine M - - 2012
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time.The main purpose of dietary ...
Adamsson Viola - - 2012
A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a ...
Bae Sang Geun - - 2012
This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea. We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we ...
Waterlander Wilma E - - 2012
Lowering the price of fruit and vegetables is a promising strategy in stimulating the purchase of those foods. However, the true effects of this strategy are not well studied and it is unclear how the money saved is spent. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of ...
Lin Hua V - - 2012
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are metabolites formed by gut microbiota from complex dietary carbohydrates. Butyrate and acetate were reported to protect against diet-induced obesity without causing hypophagia, while propionate was shown to reduce food intake. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are unclear. It ...
Sharkey Joseph R - - 2012
Food insecurity among Mexican-origin and Hispanic households is a critical nutritional health issue of national importance. At the same time, nutrition-related health conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are increasing in Mexican-origin youth. Risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes are more common in Mexican-origin children and ...
Eysteinsdottir Tinna - - 2012
Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is ...
Hermans Roel C J - - 2012
Numerous studies have shown that people adjust their intake directly to that of their eating companions; they eat more when others eat more, and less when others inhibit intake. A potential explanation for this modeling effect is that both eating companions' food intake becomes synchronized through processes of behavioral mimicry. ...
Chen Xiaoning - - 2012
Serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of serotonin neurotransmission and a major target of antidepressants. Antidepressants, such as selectively serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), that block SERT function are known to affect food intake and body weight. Here, we provide genetic evidence that food intake and metabolism are regulated ...
Zandian Modjtaba - - 2012
Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the ...
Root Martin M - - 2012
Previous studies have examined the relationship between specific nutrient and food intakes with limited markers of either inflammation or oxidant status. The objective of this study was to determine if an increase in combined self-reported fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in a community setting was associated with improved multiple markers ...
Cohen Deborah - - 2012
Many policy measures to control the obesity epidemic assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods. In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to ...
Davison Karen M - - 2012
A growing body of literature links nutrition to mood, especially in epidemiological surveys, but there is little information characterizing food intake in people with diagnosed mood disorders. Food intake obtained from 3-day food records was evaluated in 97 adults with mood disorders, whose diagnoses were confirmed in structured interviews. Information ...
Hlimi Tina - - 2012
To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Schoolchildren in grades 6-12 (n = 262) responded ...
Gwynn Josephine D - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. In this descriptive cross-sectional ...
Pedersen Trine Pagh - - 2012
Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect ...
Marqués Ma - - 2012
Dietary treatment for obese adolescents should aim to ensure adequate growth and development, by reducing excessive fat mass accumulation, avoiding loss of lean body mass, improving well-being and self-esteem and preventing cyclical weight regain. The aim of this article is to describe the dietary intervention design and the methods used ...
Gifkins Dina - - 2012
Limiting oxidative stress to the ovarian epithelium has been proposed as a first-line defense against ovarian cancer. Although evidence for an association between individual dietary antioxidant intake and ovarian cancer risk is conflicting, the combined evidence suggests a modest inverse association. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between total ...
Hong Seung-Hyun - - 2012
Feeding behavior is one of the most essential activities in animals, which is tightly regulated by neuroendocrine factors. Drosophila melanogaster short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and the mammalian functional homolog neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulate food intake. Understanding the molecular mechanism of sNPF and NPY signaling is critical to elucidate feeding regulation. ...
Naish Katherine R - - 2012
Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory ...
Suzuki Keisuke - - 2012
Obesity is one of the major challenges to human health worldwide; however, there are currently no effective pharmacological interventions for obesity. Recent studies have improved our understanding of energy homeostasis by identifying sophisticated neurohumoral networks which convey signals between the brain and gut in order to control food intake. The ...
Wang Rui - - 2012
In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those "wet markets" of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children's nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study ...
Hayek Jessy El - - 2012
Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32'-72° 40'N). Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire ...
Jeppesen Charlotte - - 2012
We studied the association and agreement between questionnaire data and biomarkers of marine food among Greenland Inuit. Cross sectional study. The study population comprised 2,224 Inuit, age 18+ (43% men); data collected 2005-2008 in Greenland. Using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), we calculated consumption of seal, whale, and fish (g/day) ...
Nguyen Amy D - - 2012
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) acting in the hypothalamus is one of the most powerful orexigenic agents known. Of the five known Y receptors, hypothalamic Y1 and Y5 have been most strongly implicated in mediating hyperphagic effects. However, knockout of individual Y1 or Y5 receptors induces late-onset obesity--and Y5 receptor knockout also ...
Nock Nora L - - 2012
Obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer (EC) and obese EC patients have the highest risk of death among all obesity-associated cancers. However, only two lifestyle interventions targeting this high-risk population have been conducted. In one trial, food disinhibition, as determined by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, decreased post-intervention compared to ...
Ligaarden Solveig C - - 2012
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS. The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and ...
Steyn Nelia P - - 2012
To review studies undertaken in South Africa (SA) which included sugar intake associated with dental caries, non-communicable diseases, diabetes, obesity and/or micronutrient dilution, since the food-based dietary guideline: "Use foods and drinks that contain sugar sparingly and not between meals" was promulgated by the Department of Health (DOH) in 2002. ...
Valery Patricia C PC Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, P.O. Box 10639 Brisbane Adelaide Street, QLD 4000, - - 2012
Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake ("short nutrition questionnaire") were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using ...
De Silva Akila A Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College London, London, - - 2012
The global obesity epidemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. However, the medical treatment of obesity is limited. Gastric bypass is an effective surgical treatment but carries significant perioperative risks. The gut hormones, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), are elevated following gastric bypass and have ...
Zgaga Lina L Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for gout. The incidence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased recently, which is thought to be, in part, due to changes in diet and lifestyle. Objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma urate concentration and: a) food items: dairy, sugar-sweetened ...
Nummenmaa Lauri L Brain Research Unit, Olli Viktor Lounasmaa Laboratory, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland. - - 2012
Obesity is characterized by an imbalance in the brain circuits promoting reward seeking and those governing cognitive control. Here we show that the dorsal caudate nucleus and its connections with amygdala, insula and prefrontal cortex contribute to abnormal reward processing in obesity. We measured regional brain glucose uptake in morbidly ...
Nurul-Fadhilah Abdullah A School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, - - 2012
Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) must be tailored to the target populations because dietary habits vary within the populations due to differences in cultural and lifestyles practices. Limited information is available to assess the validity of FFQ used among Malaysian adolescents. To construct the validity and reproducibility of a newly developed ...
He Jianying J Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America. - - 2012
Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order ...
Rittmueller Stacey E SE Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, - - 2012
The present study aimed to assess dietary adequacy and quality among Inuvialuit alcohol consumers and non-consumers in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Cross-sectional study. A validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered to individuals (n = 216) of randomly selected households in 3 NWT communities to capture dietary intake and alcohol ...
Kiely Mairead M Vitamin D Research Group, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland. - - 2012
The importance of vitamin D intake to nutritional status is a corollary of sunshine deficit. There is a dose-response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations to total vitamin D intake in persons who do not receive UVB exposure. This updated summary of vitamin D intakes and sources in adults and ...
Satija A A South Asia Network for Chronic Disease, C 1/52, First Floor, Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi 110016, India. - - 2012
There is a rising prevalence of obesity in India, and diet may be a major determinant of this. We aimed to assess differences in types and quantities of food items consumed by obese and normal-weight people in India. Cross-sectional data of 7067 factory workers and their families were used from ...
Bowen Liza L Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK. - - 2012
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for use in urban and rural India. A single FFQ was developed for use in cities and rural areas of four regions of India. To assess validity, the FFQ was administered to 530 factory ...
Karlsson-Lindahl Linda L Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Endocrinology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. - - 2012
Mutation of the melanocortin-receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most frequent cause of severe obesity in humans. Binding of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) to MC4R involves the co-receptor syndecan-3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The proteoglycan can be structurally modified by the enzyme heparanase. Here we tested the hypothesis that heparanase plays a ...
Hennessy Erin - - 2012
Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was ...
Temme Elisabeth H M - - 2011
The Dutch'Task Force for the Improvement of the Fatty Acid Composition' initiated fatty acid reformulations in branches using vegetable oils and fats to reduce the trans (TFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of foods. This study estimates the impact of recent reformulations in the task force food groups by ...
Davison Karen M - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrient intakes of people with mood disorders. Method: A cross-sectional survey using 3-day food records was carried out in 97 adults with bipolar or major depressive disorder to compare nutrient intakes with Dietary Reference Intakes and British Columbia Nutrition Survey ...
Lazarević Konstansa - - 2011
The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean ...
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