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Iozzo Patricia - - 2012
The ongoing epidemics of obesity is one main health concern of the present time. Overeating in some obese individuals shares similarities with the loss of control and compulsive behavior observed in drug-addicted subjects, suggesting that obesity may involve food addiction. Here, we review the contributions provided by the use of ...
Nogueiras Ruben - - 2012
Opioids are important in reward processes leading to addictive behavior such as self-administration of opioids and other drugs of abuse including nicotine and alcohol. Opioids are also involved in a broadly distributed neural network that regulates eating behavior, affecting both homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. In this sense, opioids are particularly ...
Menzies John R W - - 2012
Neurobiological mechanisms that normally control food intake and energy expenditure can be overcome by environmental cues and by stress. Of particular importance is the influence of the mesolimbic reward pathway. In genetically susceptible individuals, problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by homeostatic versus reward circuits ...
Gifkins Dina - - 2012
We evaluated the role of total dietary antioxidant capacity and of individual antioxidants on endometrial cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New Jersey, including 417 cases and 395 controls. Dietary intake was ascertained using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) intake was estimated using the ...
Zamora-Ros R - - 2012
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Phytoestrogens are estradiol-like natural compounds found in plants that have been associated with protective effects against chronic diseases, including some cancers, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dietary intake of phytoestrogens, identify their food sources and their association with lifestyle factors in the ...
Goeminne Pieter C - - 2012
AIM: A new system of meal distribution called Meals on Wheels, allowing food ordering at mealtime and providing guidance by trained nutritional assistants, might show benefit in offering nutritional support. This study investigates whether Meals on Wheels improves total food intake per day and yielded improved appreciation of food quality ...
McCaffery Jeanne M - - 2012
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified consistent associations with obesity. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. The objective was to determine the association between obesity susceptibility loci and dietary intake. The association of GWAS-identified obesity risk alleles (FTO, MC4R, SH2B1, BDNF, INSIG2, TNNI3K, NISCH-STAB1, MTIF3, MAP2K5, QPCTL/GIPR, and PPARG) with dietary ...
Vikström Anna C - - 2012
Measurement of haemoglobin (Hb) adducts from acrylamide (AA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GA) is a possibility to improve the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies of AA intake from food. This study aims to clarify the reliability of Hb-adduct measurement from individual single samples for exposure assessment of dietary AA intake. ...
Mulasi-Pokhriyal Urvashi - - 2012
Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study ...
Mekhmoukh Amira - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of environmental conditions on energy intake at lunch time in normal-weight versus overweight male adolescents. DESIGN: Healthy 15-17 year-old adolescents (19 normal-weight, 19 overweight) participated in lunch tests under laboratory settings. Four conditions were compared: eating in groups, eating alone, eating alone while viewing television, ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf HR Neurobiology of Nutrition Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. - - 2012
Palatable foods lead to overeating, and it is almost a forgone conclusion that it is also an important contributor to the current obesity epidemic - there is even talk about food addiction. However, the cause-effect relationship between taste and obesity is far from clear. As discussed here, there is substantial ...
Snel Marieke - - 2012
Introduction: Dietary restriction benefits health and increases lifespan in several species. Food odorants restrain the beneficial effects of dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesized that the presence of visual and odorous food stimuli during a prolonged fast modifies the neuroendocrine and metabolic response to fasting in humans. Subjects and ...
Vickers Steven P - - 2012
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally with an increasing incidence not just in Western cultures but also Mexico, Brazil, China and parts of Africa. In terms of pharmacological intervention, the track record of drug treatments for obesity is poor, especially in the case of centrally acting medicines, and there remains ...
Rao Raghavendra S - - 2012
Bariatric procedures are now known to have an effect on hunger as well as on metabolism. The role of central nervous pathways in causing these effects after bariatric surgery is now being elucidated. A brief overview of these pathways has been presented for the sake of bariatric surgeons. A PubMed ...
Dong Yujie - - 2012
Measuring the energy intake (kcal) of a person in day-to-day life is difficult. The best laboratory tool achieves 95 % accuracy on average, while tools used in daily living typically achieve 60-80 % accuracy. This paper describes a new method for measuring intake via automated tracking of wrist motion. Our method uses ...
Gao X - - 2012
To prospectively examine whether higher intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) were associated with a lower risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). In the current analysis, we included 49,281 men in the Health Professional Follow-up Study and 80,336 women from the Nurses' ...
Stephen A A Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, - - 2012
Digestible carbohydrates are one of the main sources of dietary energy in infancy and childhood and are essential for growth and development. The aim of this narrative review is to outline the intakes of digestible carbohydrates and their role in health and disease, including the development of food preferences, as ...
Verty A N A - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:Current anti-obesity monotherapies have proven only marginally effective and are often accompanied by adverse side effects. The cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant, while effective at producing weight loss, has been discontinued from clinical use owing to increased incidence of depression. This study investigates the interaction between the cannabinoid and ...
Cooper Andrew J AJ MRCEpidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, - - 2012
The association between quantity of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not clear, and the relationship with variety of intake is unknown. The current study examined the association of both quantity and variety of F&V intake and risk of T2D. We examined the ...
Dagher Alain - - 2012
Obesity is a neurobehavioral disorder that results from a combination of overeating and insufficient physical activity. Finely tuned mechanisms exist to match food intake to caloric expenditure. However, faced with abundant inexpensive and calorie-dense foods, many humans (and perhaps most) have a tendency to consume beyond their caloric needs. The ...
Brinkmann Lea - - 2012
Recent results suggest that the wild ancestor of the horse, the Przewalski horse, exhibits signs of a hypometabolism. However, there are speculations that domestic animals lost the ability to reduce energy expenditure during food shortage and adverse environmental conditions. Therefore, we investigated physiological and behavioural strategies employed by a robust ...
Zask Avigdor - - 2012
Issues addressed: This paper presents the findings from a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of a preschool-based intervention (children aged 3-6 years), on the North Coast of NSW, which aimed to decrease overweight and obesity prevalence among children by improving fundamental movement skills (FMS), increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing ...
Verheijden Marieke W - - 2012
Prevention of (serious) overweight can be achieved by means of small behaviour changes in physical activity and/or diet. To evaluate a mass media campaign promoting energy balance behaviours in a Dutch population. Effects were examined for body mass index (BMI) and five energy balance behaviours. A representative cohort study of ...
Bescós Raúl - - 2012
This case study examined the nutritional behavior and energy balance in an official finisher of a 24-hour ultracycling race. The food and beverages consumed by the cyclist were continuously weighed and recorded to estimate intake of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and caffeine. In addition, during the race, heart rate was continuously ...
Luzardo O P - - 2012
The population of the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands has been studied in depth regarding its levels of contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Foodstuffs of animal origin, such as milk, are prominent contributors to the body burden of these contaminants. As this population presents one ...
Azadbakht L - - 2012
Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly ...
Looney Shannon M - - 2012
Increasing fruits and vegetables (FVs), a dietary recommendation for pediatric weight management, is theorized to reduce energy intake by reducing intake of more energy-dense foods, such as snack foods (SFs). This study examined the relationship between changes in FV, SF, and energy intake in children enrolled in a 6-month, family-based ...
Gates Allison - - 2012
This study investigated, in on-reserve First Nations (FN) youth in Ontario, Canada, the following: (a) the intakes of vegetable and fruit, "other" foods and relevant nutrients as compared to current recommendations and national averages, (b) current prevalence rates of overweight and obesity and (c) the relationship between latitude and dietary ...
Knott Katrina K - - 2012
We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood ...
McNeil Jessica J Behavioral and Metabolic Research Unit, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1N - - 2012
This paper reviews the literature on the variations in energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE) and the factors which may affect the fluctuations in EI across the menstrual cycle. While no significant changes in body weight and body fat percentage have been noted across the cycle, increases in EI and ...
Yoshimichi Go - - 2012
Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 ...
Murashima Megumi - - 2012
BACKGROUND: A topic of interest in the etiology of child obesity is whether and how parental feeding behaviors are associated with the food intake and weight status of children. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore whether and how directive (overt) and nondirective (covert and food environmental structure) types of parental ...
Carson Valerie - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence to suggest that excessive television viewing is an independent determinant of obesity in young people. However, the pathways between television viewing and obesity are not fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationship between television and body mass index (BMI) ...
Golley Rebecca K RK Public Health, School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. - - 2012
The complementary feeding period is an important stage of child development. The study aim was to develop an index reflecting the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines, evaluate its convergent validity, and explore associations with socio-demographic factors and dietary pattern scores in childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon ...
Middaugh Amanda L - - 2012
To examine the association between income and the consumption of fruits and vegetables using the poverty income ratio (PIR). Association between PIR and intake of fruits and vegetables combined. The PIR was divided into 5 groups ranging from < poverty threshold (PT) to ≥ 400% PT. Adults aged 18 years ...
Ogawa Nobuya - - 2012
The intestine plays important roles in the regulation of feeding behavior by sensing macronutrients. Intestinal fatty acids strongly suppress food intake, but little is known about whether intestinal fatty acids affect food preference. We investigated the effects of jejunal fatty acids infusion on food preference by conducting two-diet choice experiments ...
Abreu S - - 2012
BACKGROUND:Some studies have reported an inverse association between dairy product (DP) consumption and weight or fat mass loss.OBJECTIVES:The objective of our study was to assess the association between DP intake and abdominal obesity (AO) among Azorean adolescents.SUBJECTS/METHODS:This study was a cross-sectional analysis. A total of 903 adolescents (370 boys) aged ...
Landberg Rikard - - 2012
Two alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites, 3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), in urine have been suggested as biomarkers of whole grain (WG) and cereal fiber intake but the long-term reproducibility and correlation with habitual intake has not been determined. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of AR metabolites in ...
Griffioen-Roose Sanne - - 2012
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of taste of a 24-h diet on subsequent food preferences (food choice and intake of specific food categories) and satiety. We used a crossover design, consisting of a 24-h fully controlled dietary intervention, during which 39 healthy subjects consumed diets ...
Keller Kathleen L - - 2012
Branding is a technique used by the food industry to create a recognizable image to attract consumers and hopefully boost sales of the product. Children recognize food brands from a young age, but their impact on the development of eating behaviors and obesity is unclear. In addition, the notion that ...
van den Berg Linda - - 2012
The quality and quantity of food intake affect body weight, but little is known about the genetics of such human dietary intake patterns in relation to the genetics of BMI. We aimed to estimate the heritability of dietary intake patterns and genetic correlation with BMI in participants of the Erasmus ...
Brunner Thomas A - - 2012
This research investigated the influence of weight-related cues on food intake. The first study used a screensaver showing three of the famous skinny human-like sculptures by Alberto Giacometti and found that participants in this condition consumed less chocolate than when they were exposed to a more neutral work of art. ...
Heikkilä H M - - 2012
Background/objectives:Impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) predict development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but display different pathophysiology for T2D. We studied the association of selected food items and nutrients with IFG, IGT and combined IFG and IGT (IFG+IGT), independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2max)).Subjects/methods:In a population-based sample ...
Bradlee M L ML Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA. - - 2013
Few studies have evaluated the effects of food-based eating patterns on adolescent lipid levels. This study examines whether usual adolescent eating patterns (ages 9-17 years) predict lipid levels at 18-20 years of age. This study uses previously collected data from the longitudinal NHLBI Growth and Health Study in which 2379 ...
Boyland Emma J - - 2012
Television provides one of the first, and most intimate, experiences of commercial food promotion. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the effects of television advertising on children's brand preferences are well established. However, its effect on actual food intake and the food choices in children of various weight statuses has only recently been characterised. ...
Varraso Raphaëlle - - 2012
Over the past four decades, the prevalence of asthma has markedly increased in Westernized countries and countries transitioning to this lifestyle. It has been hypothesized that these increases are a consequence of changing environmental and/or behavioral factors. The modification of dietary habits (ie, decreased intake of fruits/vegetables and increased intake ...
Pezdirc Kristine B - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of adherence to public health recommendations on Listeria monocytogenes food safety to limit exposure to potential food sources on micronutrient intakes of pregnant women and whether more frequent consumption of 'high-risk' foods increases risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. DESIGN: A cohort study in women assessing ...
St-Pierre Julie - - 2012
Leptin plays a central role in weight control by suppressing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. The concept of leptin resistance emerged to explain the seemingly paradoxical elevated leptin levels in obesity. Recent discoveries reveal that protein tyrosine phosphatases are key players in leptin resistance by globally suppressing leptin signaling.
Rowan Hannah - - 2012
Baby-led weaning (BLW) is a style of solid food introduction that emphasizes self-feeding rather than spoon-feeding. Thepurpose of this cross-sectional study was to determinewhether parents using BLW change their dietary intake during weaning, and if their babies are offered family foods. Participants kept diet diaries at baseline and three months ...
Pérez Adriana - - 2012
We consider a Bayesian analysis using WinBUGS to estimate the distribution of usual intake for episodically consumed foods and energy (calories). The model uses measures of nutrition and energy intakes via a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) along with repeated 24 hour recalls and adjusting covariates. In order to estimate the ...
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