Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1057
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van der Bilt Andries - - 2007
The production of a sufficient amount of saliva is indispensable for good chewing. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that adding fluid to a food will facilitate the chewing process, especially for dry foods. The effect might be larger for subjects with relatively low salivary flow rates. Furthermore, ...
Björnstad Lillemor - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare food habits and stimulated salivary flow rate and buffer effect between schoolchildren from Greenland and Sweden and to evaluate whether the change in lifestyle concerning eating habits in Sweden during recent decades has resulted in any obvious alteration in these salivary properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty healthy ...
Inagaki D - - 2007
The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether body posture altered the duration of oral swallowing. To answer this question, we recorded electromyograms (EMGs) from the anterior tongue and suprahyoid (SH) muscles as well as laryngeal movement associated with swallowing in nine normal young subjects. The subjects swallowed ...
Shahdad Shakeel A - - 2007
The effect of various food-simulating solvents on the hardness of denture teeth after varying storage times, using a Martens hardness test was determined. Martens hardness (HM) was assessed at baseline and during storage up to 1 month in distilled water (DW), peppermint oil (PO), heptane (HT) and 75% ethanol (ET) ...
Robinson W Brad - - 2007
The cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus forms hormogonia, which glide slowly away from the parent colony by extruding slime out of nozzles. Using video microscopy, we observed hormogonia embedded in and moving through 1-4% agar solutions with an average velocity of 0.5 microm/s. Agar is non-Newtonian and is subject to shear-thinning so ...
Papadopoulou Alexandra K - - 2007
Experimental and clinical observations have proven the modulatory effects of mechanical loading on the development and maintenance of cartilage architecture. Here we examined the involvement of Sox-9, FGFR-3 and VEGF (pivotal factors controlling cartilage development and growth) in the mechano-transduction pathway of mandibular condylar cartilage by changing the dynamics of ...
Mahoney Patrick - - 2007
Dietary hardness and abrasiveness are inferred from human dental microwear at Ohalo II, a late Upper Palaeolithic site (22,500-23,500 cal BP) in the southern Levant. Casts of molar grinding facets from two human skeletons were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The size and frequency of microwear was measured, counted, ...
Pizzo Giuseppe - - 2007
Sugar-free chewing gum has been claimed to be a useful means of reducing dental plaque accumulation. The incorporation of additives, such as enzymes, abrasives and divalent metal ions, into gum formulations might improve their antiplaque activity, particularly at the buccal and lingual surfaces of the teeth. OBJECTIVES: The aim of ...
Ikebe Kazunori - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-assessed satisfaction with mastication and food acceptability and masticatory performance in a large sample of older adults with various occlusal statuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were 708 community-dwelling, independently living elderly persons (351 men and 357 women) ...
Salleh N M - - 2007
The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice ...
Shibamoto Isamu - - 2007
Specific areas of cortical activity during solid bolus swallowing in humans are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that cortical representations of swallowing in humans may vary by bolus type. Twenty-one normal subjects swallowed three kinds of food: agar (solid), a capsule and water. We followed the same countdown method for ...
Ishikawa Yasutaka - - 2007
We have been investigating and developing a color-changeable chewing gum, that tends not to adhere to dentures. The aim of this study was to investigate the color change of the chewing gum comparing to other methods while evaluating post-insertion changes of masticatory performance of complete denture wearers. Color-changeable chewing gum, ...
Ansai T - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Poor oral health has been reported to be a risk indicator of mortality, however, few data are available regarding the relationship between chewing ability and mortality. We examined the relationship between self-assessed chewing ability and mortality in elderly subjects. DESIGN: Prospective study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Participating in the study ...
Genovese D B - - 2007
Rheological data on a food together with data on its composition and structure or microstructure should lead to understanding the interrelationships between them. A number of foods are dispersions of solids in liquids, liquids in liquids, or gas in liquids. The dispersed particles may be colloidal in nature with dimensions ...
Mazari A - - 2007
The role of the teeth in chewing has been studied extensively; however, less attention has been paid to soft tissue function. In this study the process of mixing within the bolus and the contribution of the cheeks to this process were investigated using a test food constructed from two differently ...
Saitoh Eiichi - - 2007
Preswallow bolus formation usually occurs in the mouth for liquids and in the oropharynx for solid foods. We examined the effect of chewing on the relationship between bolus transport and swallow initiation. Fifteen healthy subjects were imaged with lateral projection videofluorography while eating liquids, solid foods, and a mixture of ...
Palmer Jeffrey B - - 2007
When healthy individuals eat solid food, chewed food is usually transported to the oropharynx where it accumulates before swallowing (stage II transport). We tested the hypothesis that this transport process can be altered by volition. Eight healthy young subjects ate 8 g pieces of cookie with barium while movements were ...
Pereira Luciano José - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence chewing physiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty subjects chewed ...
Ngom Papa Ibrahima - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Normal mastication requires the coordinated action of many elements, including teeth, salivary glands, tongue, and masticatory muscles. Dysfunction in any of these areas can result in impaired masticatory function. Few studies dealt with the influence of occlusal conditions on the masticatory function. Our aim in this study was to ...
Ali Aiman A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Because the clinicopathologic effects of takhzeen al-qat are similar to those induced by smoking, the aim of this paper was to study the oral effect of 3 bad oral habits: takhzeen al-qat and cigarette and water-pipe smoking. STUDY DESIGN: This study was done on 33 Yemeni chronic qat users ...
Jekl V - - 2007
The oral cavities of 65 rabbits, 35 chinchillas, 38 guinea pigs, 19 degus and 13 prairie dogs suffering from a lack of appetite, hypersalivation, moist dermatitis, swelling of the lower jaw or mild exophthalmos were examined with a paediatric laryngoscope and rigid endoscope. The laryngoscope was safe and satisfactory for ...
Salles, C.
Flavor release during eating is highly dependent upon mouth parameters. Major limitations have been reported during in vivo flavor release studies, such as marked intra- and inter-individual variability. To overcome these limitations, a chewing simulator has been developed to mimic the human mastication of food samples. Several devices had already ...
Rothenberg, E
Background : Reduced taste and smell, chewing problems and swallowing dysfunction are common among elderly people and affect perception, food choice and the ability to eat. Objective : To study the preference for texture-modified carrot and meat products in elderly people aiming to meet the needs of people with impaired ...
Waiblinger Eva - - 2007
An artificial burrow was developed which fits into standard laboratory cages and significantly reduces stereotypic digging in gerbils. Also, the causes of bar-chewing were assessed experimentally. Neither the lack of gnawing material, nor the spatial proximity of cage-lid bars and food in the hopper nor the routine husbandry procedure of ...
Tyler D J - - 2007
Swallowing is a complicated process that involves intricate timing between many different muscles in the mouth and neck. The primary purpose of swallowing is to move food through the mouth and pharynx and into the esophagus for transport to the stomach for digestion. Dysphagia is a general term that refers ...
Naemura K K School of Bionics, Tokyo University of Technology, Tokyo, - - 2007
The purpose of the research is to create a safer needle used for epidural anesthesia. Medical doctors identify the location of the epidural space by feeling the drop of force in advancing the needle tip. A greater drop of force makes for a safer needle. The force pattern can be ...
Hosseini Neda Haj NH Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Microsystems Materials Laboratory (MML), University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, D-79110 Freiburg, - - 2007
A series of experiments has been conducted with probes made from silicon, glass, tungsten and polyimide within a developed brain phantom, and the insertion behavior, forces and dimpling are compared to in vitro and in vivo models. This allows the choice of proper insertion parameters and probe structure to reach ...
Neustadter David M DM Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, - - 2007
What are the mechanisms of multifunctionality, i.e. the use of the same peripheral structures for multiple behaviors? We studied this question using the multifunctional feeding apparatus of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, in which the same muscles mediate biting (an attempt to grasp food) and swallowing (ingestion of food). Biting ...
Dan Haruka - - 2007
Biting is an action that results from interplay between food properties and the masticatory system. The mechanical factors of food that cause biting adaptation and the recursive effects of modified biting on the mechanical phenomena of food are largely unknown. We examined the complex interaction between the bite system and ...
Engelen Lina - - 2007
Saliva is expected to be of significance for the perception of food stimuli in the mouth. Mixing the food with saliva, including breakdown and dilution, is considered to be of large importance for semi-solids as these products are masticated without chewing. It is known that there are large variations in ...
Ono Kentaro - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We have recently reported that unstimulated whole saliva flow rates (UWSFR) correlate positively with salivary gland sizes and body profiles of weight and body mass indices. In the present study, the correlations of chewing-stimulated whole saliva flow rates (CWSFR) with salivary gland sizes and the body profiles were investigated, ...
Bult Johannes H F - - 2007
Perceptual interactions between odour and oral texture were explored in a study in which a cream odour was presented ortho- or retronasally at well-defined moments whilst milk-like foods with different viscosities, produced by adding a thickener, were present in the mouth. Gaseous (odour) and liquid (texture) pulses were presented using ...
Woda A - - 2006
This review emphasizes the following points: 1. The values of the physiological parameters of mastication (number of cycles and total electromyographic activity in the sequence, sequence duration, cycle frequency in the sequence, kinetic characteristics of the cycles) are characteristic of each individual and vary widely from one individual to another. ...
van Roon Dominique - - 2006
The effects of adapted spoons on food spilling and movement kinematics (movement duration, dysfluency) were examined in people with tetraparetic cerebral palsy (CP). We varied the thickness of the spoon's handle (diameters of 1, 3, and 5cm), the substance with which the spoon was filled (sugar or water), and the ...
Okada A - - 2007
We analyzed oral behavior from food intake until terminal swallow for mastication and swallowing under a freely eating condition with a natural food. Measurements, including movement of the mandible and tongue, the size of the gape, different sequences involved in the oral aspect of the swallowing action, and bolus size ...
Julis Rebecca Ann - - 2007
The concurrent increases of snacking and obesity suggest the possibility for some form of inter-meal oral stimulation with high satiety value to moderate rising obesity rates. This study explored the influence of sweetened chewing gum on appetitive ratings, meal patterning and food intake. Three test conditions were imposed after a ...
Prinz J F - - 2006
After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, some food material is always retained in the mouth. With semi-solid foods this is in the form of a coating that adheres to the oral mucosa. The amount and location of this material may play an important role in food sensations. In ...
Greffeuille V - - 2006
Wheat grain hardness is a major factor affecting the milling behaviour and end-product quality although its exact structural and biochemical basis is still not understood. This study describes the development of new near-isogenic lines selected on hardness. Hard and soft sister lines were characterised by near infrared reflectance (NIR) and ...
Chattah N Lev-Tov - - 2006
Occlusal wear rate and wear plane in two Chalcolithic ( approximately 6500-5500 BP) samples from the southern Levant were compared, using paired first and second mandibular molars. Though food staples in both societies were derived from agro-pastoralism, they were located in distinct environmental regions: Wadi (W.) Makkukh in the Judean ...
Pereira Luciano Jose - - 2006
Mastication is a complex process that involves activities of the facial muscles, the elevator and suprahyoidal muscles, and the tongue. These activities result in patterns of rhythmic mandibular movements, food manipulation, and the crushing of food between the teeth. Saliva facilitates mastication by moistening food particles, making a bolus, and ...
Visschers Ronald W - - 2006
To assess the influence of orthonasal and retronasal stimulation on cross-modal interactions between texture and flavor perception of food, a series of experiments have been conducted. Healthy human subjects were exposed to strawberry aroma pulses delivered by a computer-controlled stimulator based on air dilution olfactometry. Just prior to exposure to ...
Cuozzo Frank P - - 2006
The ring-tailed lemurs at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, exhibit a high frequency of severe wear and antemortem tooth loss. As part of a long-term study, we collected dental data on 83 living adult ring-tailed lemurs during 2003 and 2004. Among these individuals, 192 teeth were scored as absent. The ...
Tolstoguzov Vladimir - - 2006
The most common food processing operations, thermal and mechanical treatments, both affect phase state and texture of foods. The phase separation threshold for food biopolymer mixtures is usually below their concentrations characteristically found in food. Phase-separation underpins texturisation processes during food processing and digestion. The distribution of water between the ...
de Wijk René A - - 2006
Ultrasonic imaging was used to quantify oral movements made during the oral processing of foods while subjects assessed the intensity of the sensory attributes, thick, creamy, sweet and bitter. A series of four stimuli were prepared with high and low viscosities and high and low sweetness. Over five sessions, subjects ...
Mahoney Patrick - - 2006
Microwear patterns from Natufian hunter-gatherers (12,500-10,250 bp) and early Neolithic (10,250-7,500 bp) farmers from northern Israel are correlated with location on facet nine and related to an archaeologically suggested change in food preparation. Casts of permanent second mandibular molars are examined with a scanning electron microscope at a magnification of ...
Langenbach G E J - - 2006
During mastication, various biomechanical events occur at the mammalian jaw symphysis. Previously, these events have been studied in the static environment, or by direct recording of surface bone strains. Thus far, however, it has not been possible to demonstrate directly the forces and torques passing through the symphysis in association ...
Meullenet J-F - - 2006
Instrumental methods to assess food texture are often used without considering parameters relevant to the sensory perception of food texture and without considering conditions occurring in the mouth during chewing. The objective of this research was to develop a sensory robot capable of closely mimicking the human bite and to ...
Pereira Luciano Jose - - 2006
The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. We examined the hypothesis that adding fluid to a food will influence the chewing process. Twenty healthy subjects chewed on melba toast, breakfast cake, carrot, ...
Foster K D - - 2006
Mastication is continually modified throughout the chewing sequence in response to the texture of the food. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of an increase in hardness of two model food types, presenting either elastic or plastic rheological properties, on mastication. Each model food type consisted ...
Yven Claude - - 2006
Mastication is a complex sensory-motor activity whereby a food product is transformed into a bolus. Consumers mainly perceive the sensory properties of the food during the intra-oral manipulation of the product. Consequently, the quality of the chewing process could have consequences on the perception of sensory properties and food choice. ...
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