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Results 501 - 550 of 1050
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Sheen S - - 2008
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used in the reflection mode to characterize the surface texture (roughness) of sliced food surfaces. Sandpapers with grit size between 150 and 600 were used as height references to standardize the CLSM hardware settings. Sandpaper particle sizes were verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ...
Yamanaka Katsumi - - 2008
AIM: To review of the difference in the health condition between 8020 achievers and 8020 non-achievers covering 25 papers which were published mainly in Japan. BACKGROUND: A campaign targeting the elderly to retain at least 20 teeth by the time they reach the age of 80 years (8020) has been ...
Inagaki D - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine (i) whether or not textural properties of foods and body positions affect the durations of anterior tongue and suprahyoid muscle activities during swallowing, and (ii) if such changes occur, is the 'pre-peak' or the 'post-peak' duration of integrated muscle activity responsible. We ...
Dawes Colin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This nonsystematic review summarizes the effects of saliva on some of the diseases affecting the hard and soft oral tissues. RESULTS: Saliva enters the mouth at several locations, and the different secretions are not well-mixed. Saliva in the mouth forms a thin film, the velocity of which varies greatly ...
Alaverdashvili Mariam - - 2008
The forelimb movements (skilled reaching) used by rats to reach for a single food pellet to place into the mouth have been used to model many neurological conditions. They have been described as a sequence of oppositions of head-pellet, paw-pellet and pellet-mouth that can be described as movements of the ...
Sazonov Edward - - 2008
A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting ...
Tsai C-C - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Volatile sulfur compounds may be the main source of oral malodor. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between periodontal parameters and volatile sulfur compounds and to evaluate the improvement of several halitosis-related outcomes by tongue scraping, nonsurgical periodontal treatment (including oral hygiene instruction) ...
Cuozzo Frank P - - 2008
Chemical deterioration of teeth is common among modern humans, and has been suggested for some extinct primates. Dental erosion caused by acidic foods may also obscure microwear signals of mechanical food properties. Ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar, display frequent severe tooth wear and subsequent tooth ...
Lucas Peter - - 2008
The considerable variation in shape, size, structure and properties of the enamel cap covering mammalian teeth is a topic of great evolutionary interest. No existing theories explain how such variations might be fit for the purpose of breaking food particles down. Borrowing from engineering materials science, we use principles of ...
Lucas Peter W - - 2008
This contribution investigates the evolution of diet in the Pan-Homo and hominin clades. It does this by focusing on 12 variables (nine dental and three mandibular) for which data are available about extant chimpanzees, modern humans and most extinct hominins. Previous analyses of this type have approached the interpretation of ...
Veyrune J-L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This study compared the chewing parameters in a group of obese adult patients scheduled for gastric bypass surgery with those of a control group. METHODS: Chewing parameters were measured in two groups of subjects, one of 44 obese patients scheduled for gastric bypass surgery (body mass index [BMI] = ...
Strowd Lindsay - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia can lead to aspiration of oral feeds, thus causing pneumonia. Dysphagia is diagnosed by assessing the ability to swallow barium test feeds (BTF) of different viscosities. Dysphagia diet foods (DDF) are thickened as recommended by the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) guidelines. To our knowledge, there are no published ...
Norimah A K AK - - 2008
This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of ...
Mirnalini K K - - 2008
Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, ...
Bortoly Thaís Gelatti - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: This study was developed to evaluate in vitro the properties related to sliding resistance of esthetic ligatures. METHODS: Frictional force of 6 ligatures--2 conventional, 2 specially coated elastomeric, Teflon-coated (Dupont, Wilmington, Del) stainless steel, and stainless steel (control) ligatures--were studied by sliding 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel wire through ...
Vogel Erin R - - 2008
The divergent molar characteristics of Pan troglodytes and Pongo pygmaeus provide an instructive paradigm for examining the adaptive form-function relationship between molar enamel thickness and food hardness. Although both species exhibit a categorical preference for ripe fruit over other food objects, the thick enamel and crenulated occlusal surface of Pongo ...
Ellis J S - - 2008
AIM: The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized-controlled trial to compare food choices of edentulous adults provided with implant-supported mandibular overdentures and conventional dentures. METHODS: Edentulous patients were randomly allocated to an implant group (IG) or a denture group (DG). IG subjects (n=49) were provided with conventional ...
Ansai Toshihiro - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Few have studied the association between chewing ability and longevity. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we analyzed 697 80-year-old participants residing in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Chewing ability was assessed on the basis of the types of food that each participant reported being able to chew. RESULTS: During ...
Jackowiak Hanna - - 2008
The ostrich's tongue is situated in the posterior part of the oropharyngeal cavity and its length is only about a quarter of the beak cavity. The triangular shortened tongue has retained the usual division into the apex, the body and the root. There are no conical papillae between the body ...
Takata Yutaka - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between high-level functional capacity and chewing in a middle-old community-based population. BACKGROUND: Although basic and instrumental activities of daily living are known to be associated with chewing ability in the elderly, an association between higher levels of competence and chewing ability has not been evaluated ...
Pivk Urska - - 2008
Lipids between the tongue and palate strongly contribute to the sensory impact of a product. Mouthfeel is a sensory attribute responsible for distinguishing reduced fat from full fat food products. The aim of this work was to quantify the distribution, deposition, and retention of lipids on the tongue and palate ...
Hall Gunnar - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Elderly persons with dysphagia need food that requires little or no chewing, that is easy to swallow and has attractive sensory characteristics. The aim was to investigate how ingredients varied according to experimental designs influence the perceived sensory, chewing and swallowing characteristics of two types of texture-modified model foods. ...
Cortelli José Roberto - - 2008
Halitosis or bad breath is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating consistently from the oral cavity. The origin of halitosis may be related both to systemic and oral conditions, but a large percentage of cases, about 85%, are generally related to an oral cause. Causes include certain ...
Dziewas Rainer - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysphagia is an important complication of acute stroke with a reported incidence of up to 76%. The purpose of this investigation was to develop and to evaluate an endoscopic scoring system which has the potential to guide dysphagia management in acute stroke patients. METHODS: A fiberoptic endoscopic ...
Herrel Anthony - - 2008
Anolis lizards have become a model system for the study of adaptive radiations as species with similar morphologies occupying similar habitats have arisen independently on all the larger islands in the Caribbean. However, on both, Cuba and Hispaniola unique forms have evolved that seemingly have no counterparts on any of ...
Sierpinska T - - 2008
PURPOSE: To assess possible associations between occlusal parameters and comminution of solid food during chewing in a group of completely dentate subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five completely dentate volunteers (28 teeth, 14 functional dental units) aged 24-50 yrs, without any complaints of the stomatognathic system participated in this study. An ...
Smith Hammond Carol - - 2008
Oral pharyngeal dysphagia should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with cough. Aspiration of food and liquid below the level of the true vocal folds observed on dynamic imaging studies i.e., videofluoroscopic (VSE) and endoscopic (FEES) evaluations of swallow, has been associated with pneumonia. Coughing while eating and ...
Decker Eva-Maria - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Oral bacteria implying a natural resistance may deteriorate the antibacterial efficacy of chlorhexidine on cariogenic microorganisms. Xylitol, mostly applied via chewing gum, is known to possess favorable plaque-reducing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a xylitol rinse formulated as pure solution or combined ...
Al-Ansari Asim - - 2008
DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial (RCT) was carried out involving dental hospital patients. INTERVENTION: The implant group (IG) were provided with conventional maxillary dentures and implant-retained mandibular overdentures and the denture group (DG) were provided with conventional dentures. Patients consumed seven test foods. OUTCOME MEASURE: Pre- and post-treatment questionnaires were ...
Watson James T - - 2008
Crown dimensions and occlusal surface wear rate and wear plane were evaluated using paired first and second mandibular molars from a sample of 84 Early Agricultural period (1600 B.C.-A.D. 200) skeletons from northwest Mexico. Although this period represents a major shift in subsistence strategies in the Sonoran Desert, from food-foraging ...
Ungar Peter S - - 2008
The Plio-Pleistocene hominin Paranthropus boisei had enormous, flat, thickly enameled cheek teeth, a robust cranium and mandible, and inferred massive, powerful chewing muscles. This specialized morphology, which earned P. boisei the nickname "Nutcracker Man", suggests that this hominin could have consumed very mechanically challenging foods. It has been recently argued, ...
Matsuo Koichiro - - 2008
During feeding, solid food is chewed and propelled to the oropharynx, where the bolus gradually aggregates while the larynx remains open and breathing continues. The aggregated bolus in the valleculae is exposed to respiratory airflow, yet aspiration is rare in healthy individuals. The mechanism for preventing aspiration during bolus aggregation ...
Shimada A - - 2008
It is considered that the information of chewed food, such as size and texture, is important for smooth mastication. In this study, we analysed aspects of the control of occlusal force, by experimentally reproducing situations in which the hardness of food changed unpredictably during mastication, using a device that utilized ...
Seo H-S - - 2007
In spite of its importance, there have been few attempts to evaluate the sensory attributes of the food bolus during swallowing. In the current study, the slipperiness, the degree of slide for the food bolus through the mucosal surface of the oro-pharynx, and the compliance, how easily the shape of ...
Fahrenbach W H - - 2007
The digestive system of several species of sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) was studied by electron microscopy. It is composed of the foregut inside a long proboscis, a midgut and a hindgut. Lips near the three jaws at the tip of the proboscis receive several hundred ductules originating from salivary glands. ...
Daegling David J - - 2007
Recent molecular and morphological surveys suggest that mangabeys do not represent a monophyletic group. Specifically, Cercocebus is the sister taxon of Mandrillus, whereas Lophocebus forms an unresolved trichotomy with Papio and Theropithecus. The Cercocebus-Mandrillus clade is characterized by skeletal and dental adaptations related to acquisition and processing of hard-object foods ...
Buckley Carolyn A - - 2007
Prodigious food hoarding in Syrian hamsters Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse is strongly linked to appetite and is made possible by large internal cheek pouches. We provide a functional analysis of the cheek pouch and its associated retractor muscle. Frame-by-frame analysis of videotaped pouch-filling behavior revealed multiple jaw cycles for each food ...
Nicolas E - - 2007
Chewing efficiency may affect nutritional status in the elderly. Many elderly patients are complete denture wearers, and often present cognitive problems. Those two factors make evaluation of mastication difficult with experimental methods. Analysis of video recording may be a simple way to routinely assess chewing parameters. This study aimed at ...
Frecka J M - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of appetitive sensations, body mass index (BMI) and physical/sensory properties of food (almonds) on masticatory indices and resultant pre-swallowing particle sizes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twelve lean (BMI=22.2+/-0.3) and 12 obese (BMI=34.3+/-0.6) adults. After collecting appetitive ratings, electromyographic recordings were used to assess participants' microstructure of eating for ...
Vieytes Emma C - - 2007
The aim of this study was to analyse the morphofunctional and adaptive significance of variation in the upper incisor enamel microstructure of South American burrowing ctenomyids and other octodontoid taxa. We studied the specialized subterranean tooth-digger daggerEucelophorus chapalmalensis (Pliocene - Middle Pleistocene), and compared it with other fossil and living ...
Veyrune J L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of muscular activity in complete denture wearers and in dentate subjects during mastication of model foods differing in hardness but similar in terms of rheologically properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The foodstuffs used in this study were laboratory-developed gumdrops demonstrating ...
Caglar E - - 2007
The aim was to evaluate the effect of xylitol and probiotic chewing gums on salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB). The material consisted of 80 healthy young adults (21-24 years) who volunteered after informed consent. They were assigned by random into one of four parallel study groups: A, probiotic ...
Heydecke Guido - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Complex procedures involving a facebow transfer and the use of lingualised teeth are deemed to have a positive influence on the chewing ability with complete dentures. OBJECTIVES: To determine if patients' ratings of their ability to chew depend on the method of complete denture fabrication. METHODS: Edentulous patients (n ...
van der Bilt Andries - - 2007
The production of a sufficient amount of saliva is indispensable for good chewing. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that adding fluid to a food will facilitate the chewing process, especially for dry foods. The effect might be larger for subjects with relatively low salivary flow rates. Furthermore, ...
Björnstad Lillemor - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare food habits and stimulated salivary flow rate and buffer effect between schoolchildren from Greenland and Sweden and to evaluate whether the change in lifestyle concerning eating habits in Sweden during recent decades has resulted in any obvious alteration in these salivary properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty healthy ...
Inagaki D - - 2007
The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether body posture altered the duration of oral swallowing. To answer this question, we recorded electromyograms (EMGs) from the anterior tongue and suprahyoid (SH) muscles as well as laryngeal movement associated with swallowing in nine normal young subjects. The subjects swallowed ...
Shahdad Shakeel A - - 2007
The effect of various food-simulating solvents on the hardness of denture teeth after varying storage times, using a Martens hardness test was determined. Martens hardness (HM) was assessed at baseline and during storage up to 1 month in distilled water (DW), peppermint oil (PO), heptane (HT) and 75% ethanol (ET) ...
Robinson W Brad - - 2007
The cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus forms hormogonia, which glide slowly away from the parent colony by extruding slime out of nozzles. Using video microscopy, we observed hormogonia embedded in and moving through 1-4% agar solutions with an average velocity of 0.5 microm/s. Agar is non-Newtonian and is subject to shear-thinning so ...
Papadopoulou Alexandra K - - 2007
Experimental and clinical observations have proven the modulatory effects of mechanical loading on the development and maintenance of cartilage architecture. Here we examined the involvement of Sox-9, FGFR-3 and VEGF (pivotal factors controlling cartilage development and growth) in the mechano-transduction pathway of mandibular condylar cartilage by changing the dynamics of ...
Mahoney Patrick - - 2007
Dietary hardness and abrasiveness are inferred from human dental microwear at Ohalo II, a late Upper Palaeolithic site (22,500-23,500 cal BP) in the southern Levant. Casts of molar grinding facets from two human skeletons were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The size and frequency of microwear was measured, counted, ...
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