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Results 451 - 500 of 1044
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Okayasu Haruo - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between upper and lower molars in the early stage of mastication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured the occlusal contact areas during chewing test foods using the three-dimensional shape measurement system and the six-degree-of-freedom mandibular tracking device. The reference points corresponding to "A" and "B" ...
Curtis Neil - - 2010
The relationship between skull shape and the forces generated during feeding is currently under widespread scrutiny and increasingly involves the use of computer simulations such as finite element analysis. The computer models used to represent skulls are often based on computed tomography data and thus are structurally accurate; however, correctly ...
Rilo B - - 2009
This study was designed to characterize the distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke in healthy adult subjects, during chewing of three types of food (crustless bread, chewing gum and peanuts). Mandibular movements (masticatory movements and laterality movements with dental contact) were registered using a gnathograph (MK-6I ...
Ross Callum F - - 2009
Feeding systems and behaviors must evolve to satisfy the metabolic needs of organisms. This includes modifications to feeding systems as body size and metabolic needs change. Using our own data and data from the literature, we examine how size-related changes in metabolic needs are met by size-related changes in daily ...
Sazonov Edward S - - 2009
Understanding of eating behaviors associated with obesity requires objective and accurate monitoring of food intake patterns. Accurate methods are available for measuring total energy expenditure and its components in free-living populations, but methods for measuring food intake in free-living people are far less accurate and involve self-reporting or subjective monitoring. ...
Welge-Lüssen Antje - - 2009
Identical stimuli are processed differently when presented ortho- or retronasally. In contrast to orthonasal olfaction, retronasal odorant perception is strongly associated with flavor and food intake, which is usually followed by swallowing. Along with other stimuli, gustatory stimuli are known to influence the swallowing reflex. It was therefore the aim ...
Takemura Akimichi - - 2009
We used four ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and observed these animals dorsal tongue surface morphology via scanning electron microscope and light microscope. In this investigation, we focused on the food habits and discussed the morphology of the lingual papillae from the viewpoint of comparative anatomy. The ferret has conically-shaped filiform ...
Matsuo Koichiro - - 2009
The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower ...
Amft Oliver - - 2009
The paper of Sazonov et al (2008 Physiol. Meas. 29 525-41) addresses the topic of on-body sensor-based measurement and analysis of food intake and eating behaviour. The authors rightly pinpoint a lack of solutions to estimate eating behaviour and energy intake in contrast to the active development of energy expenditure ...
Otomaru Takafumi - - 2009
Several previous reports have described factors that affect masticatory function. However, there are no known predictors that affect the food mixing ability of the masticatory function, and it has been impossible to predict masticatory function in mandibulectomy and/or glossectomy patients. The purpose of the present study was to develop a ...
Cates Sheryl C - - 2009
Adults aged 60 years and older are more likely than younger adults to experience complications, hospitalization, and death because of food-borne infections. Recognizing this risk, we conducted a nationally representative survey (n = 1,140) to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as the demographic characteristics of older ...
Hsiao Hung-Tao - - 2009
Sixteen patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma who underwent laryngopharyngectomy had immediate reconstruction with a free ileocolic flap to restore voice and swallowing. All patients had satisfactory voice production and swallowing in the early postoperative stage. Maintaining adequate tension and decreasing redundancy of the transferred colon prevented food pooling and provided smooth, ...
Tsukada Tetsu - - 2009
This study aimed to describe the electromyographic (EMG) activity patterns of the genioglossus (GG) and suprahyoid (SHy) muscles during swallowing. The effects of changes in food texture/consistency and head posture on transport of the swallowed bolus were also investigated. Participants were 10 normal adults. Test foods consisted of a liquid, ...
Lenfant Francine - - 2009
Texture perceived in mouth largely depends on the behaviour of the food when it is broken down and transformed by the mouth elements. Texture results from a dynamic process in which texture attributes are continuously analysed by the oral sensory systems during mastication. However, the particular sequence of perceptual events ...
Scott J R - - 2009
This study employs dental microwear texture analysis to reconstruct the diets of two families of subfossil lemurs from Madagascar, the archaeolemurids and megaladapids. This technique is based on three-dimensional surface measurements utilizing a white-light confocal profiler and scale-sensitive fractal analysis. Data were recorded for six texture variables previously used successfully ...
Schneider Yvonne - - 2009
In the food industry, ultrasonic cutting is used to improve separation by a reduction of the cutting force. This reduction can be attributed to the modification of tool-workpiece interactions at the cutting edge and along the tool flanks because of the superposition of the cutting movement with ultrasonic vibration of ...
Amft Oliver - - 2009
Automatic dietary monitoring (ADM) offers new perspectives to reduce the self-reporting burden for participants in diet coaching programs. This paper presents an approach to predict weight of individual bites taken. We utilize a pattern recognition procedure to spot chewing cycles and food type in continuous data from an ear-pad chewing ...
Kumari U - - 2009
The surface ultrastructure of the gill arches and the gill rakers of an herbivorous fish, Cirrhinus mrigala was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. These structures show significant adaptive modifications associated with the food and feeding ecology of the fish. Closely lying short gill rakers and narrow inter-raker channels on the ...
Inagaki D - - 2009
This study was designed to examine the effect of different food properties and body positions on electromyographic amplitudes of the anterior tongue (AT) and suprahyoid (SH) muscles during swallowing in normal subjects (six men and three women; 21-30 years old). Each subject was asked to swallow three foods (consisting of ...
Sanmiguel Claudia P - - 2009
Electrical activity of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) has been recorded mainly in vitro and in anesthetized animals. Swallowing produces relaxation of the LES, followed by its contraction. These changes should be associated with changes in LES electrical activity. To determine whether changes in LES electrical activity can be used ...
Leadbeater Barry S C - - 2009
Choanoflagellates are unicellular filter-feeding protozoa distributed universally in aquatic habitats. Cells are ovoid in shape with a single anterior flagellum encircled by a funnel-shaped collar of microvilli. Movement of the flagellum creates water currents from which food particles are entrapped on the outer surface of the collar and ingested by ...
Du Toit N - - 2009
Equine cheek teeth (CT) diastemata often cause deep periodontal food pocketing and are therefore regarded as a painful dental disorder of equidae. However there appears to be no information available on the size or shape of these diastemata. This post mortem study examined 16 donkey skulls (mean age = 32-years) ...
Alt Kurt W - - 2009
Dentition, as a mechanically stressed part of the orofacial system, is subject to physiological wear processes that affect the occlusal surface, the cutting-edge and the approximate contact points of teeth. The reasons are abrasive food particles, tooth contacts during chewing as well as erosion. Up until the Middle ages and ...
Rhine Denise - - 2009
Rumination involves regurgitation of previously ingested food, rechewing the food, and reswallowing it. In the current study, a child with autism displayed chronic rumination, resulting in the decay and subsequent removal of several teeth. After several treatments failed, including thickened liquids and starch satiation, the participant was taught to chew ...
Kim B I - - 2009
This study examined the relationship between the subjective food intake of 30 food types and their objective bite force to identify the key food items within the 30 food types to achieve a greater depth of masticatory function in Korean adults. A sample of 308 (112 males and 196 females) ...
Matsuo Koichiro - - 2008
Eating and swallowing are complex behaviors involving volitional and reflexive activities of more than 30 nerves and muscles. They have two crucial biologic features: food passage from the oral cavity to stomach and airway protection. The swallowing process is commonly divided into oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages, according to the ...
Someya Nami - - 2008
To investigate the role of chewing and taste in the meal-induced rapid increase in splanchnic blood flow, we compared the blood flow responses in the celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) to chewing solid food with a chocolate taste (FOOD) and paraffin wax without taste (WAX). After 5 ...
Edouard N - - 2008
Food intake is a key biological process in animals, as it determines the energy and nutrients available for the physiological and behavioural processes. In herbivores, the abundance, structure and quality of plant resources are known to influence intake strongly. In ruminants, as the forage quality declines, digestibility and total intake ...
Sangiovanni John Paul - - 2008
OBJECTIVE To examine the association of dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and fish intake with incident neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and central geographic atrophy (CGA). METHODS Multicenter clinic-based prospective cohort study from a clinical trial including Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) participants with bilateral drusen at enrollment. Main ...
Yoshimine Masaya - - 2008
Masticatory performance of denture wearers was compared with that of the normal subjects by analyzing the behavior of the mechanical properties of the bolus. The index of the ability to comminute bolus was described as the total number of masticatory strokes until swallowing and therefore this was chosen as the ...
Eckman Nicholas - - 2008
A structured intervention was used to teach chewing to two children with special needs. Neither child had a history of chewing or eating high-textured food. The intervention combined oral-motor and behavior components to teach chewing. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate treatment effectiveness. Both children improved their chewing ...
Fauzza Ahmad Siti - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of irreversible hydrocolloid impression material (alginate) as a test food to measure the chewing performance of complete denture wearers. Twenty edentulous subjects participated, 11 of whom were re-tested after new dentures were provided. A gravimetric sieving method was used. Theparticle ...
de Wijk René A - - 2008
Vibromyography was used to quantify oral activity during the processing of well-characterized semi-solid model foods whilst subjects assessed the intensity of the sensory attributes to thick, creamy, melting, fatty, rough and liking. A series of eleven starch-based vanilla custard desserts was prepared with five different viscosities, three different fat levels, ...
de Wijk R A - - 2008
Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy ...
Bradbury J - - 2008
Edentulous individuals have reduced chewing ability and lower fruit and vegetable consumption compared with dentate individuals. It has been suggested that the two are causally related. However, psychosocial factors such as attitude, self-identity, and knowledge of recommendations are predictive of intake in non-edentulous persons. The aims of this study were ...
Taylor Andrea B - - 2008
Numerous comparative studies have sought to demonstrate a functional link between feeding behavior, diet, and mandibular form in primates. In lieu of data on the material properties of foods ingested and masticated, many investigators have relied on qualitative dietary classifications such as "folivore" or "frugivore." Here we provide the first ...
Schaerlaeken Vicky - - 2008
Most organisms feed on a variety of food items that may differ dramatically in their physical and behavioural characteristics (e.g. mobility, mass, texture, etc.). Thus the ability to modulate prey transport behaviour in accordance with the characteristics of the food appears crucial. Consequently, prey reduction and transport movements must be ...
Hoozemans Marco J M - - 2008
The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of lifting height and mass lifted on the peak low back load in terms of net moments, compression forces and anterior-posterior shear forces. Ten participants had to lift a box using four handle heights. Low back loading was quantified using ...
Garrett Brett J - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to use cone-beam computed tomography to quantitatively evaluate skeletal expansion and alveolar tipping of the maxilla at the maxillary canine (C1), first premolar (P1), second premolar (P2), and first molar (M1) after rapid maxillary expansion (RME). The transverse effects to the maxillary suture, ...
de Bruin Natalie - - 2008
Many animal species use reaching for food to place in the mouth (reach-to-eat) with a hand, and it may be a primitive movement. Although researchers (I. Q. Whishaw, 2005; A. N. Iwaniuk & I. Q. Whishaw, 2000; M. Gentiluci, I. Toni, S. Chieffi, & G. Pavesi, 1994) have described visual ...
Kohyama Kaoru - - 2008
The relationship between the physical properties of solid food and the masticatory parameters is clarified. Eight solid foods of varying physical properties were chosen. Electromyography of the jaw-closing muscles and mandibular kinematics in eleven young subjects were recorded. The masticatory parameters were derived from the recorded data for the entire ...
Jermann D - - 2008
This study focused on the mechanistic effects of molecular interactions between inorganic particles (kaolinite) and the two main NOM fouling fractions of polysaccharides (alginate) and humics (humic acids) in ultrafiltration. Fouling effects were studied during the dead-end filtration of individual and mixed compounds as well as during the subsequent filtration ...
Taniguchi Hiroshige - - 2008
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of food texture and viscosity on the swallowing function by measuring tongue pressure and performing a videofluorographic (VF) examination. Eleven normal adults were recruited for this study. Test foods with different consistencies and liquid contents, i.e., a half-solid nutrient made of 0.8 and ...
Nagatomi Hiroki - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate changing mechanical properties of the bolus during mastication and to quantify mechanical properties of the final bolus at swallowing. Changing mechanical properties of the bolus of three different types of foods (rice cracker, cheese and peanuts) by twelve normal dentitions were investigated ...
Sheen S - - 2008
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used in the reflection mode to characterize the surface texture (roughness) of sliced food surfaces. Sandpapers with grit size between 150 and 600 were used as height references to standardize the CLSM hardware settings. Sandpaper particle sizes were verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ...
Yamanaka Katsumi - - 2008
AIM: To review of the difference in the health condition between 8020 achievers and 8020 non-achievers covering 25 papers which were published mainly in Japan. BACKGROUND: A campaign targeting the elderly to retain at least 20 teeth by the time they reach the age of 80 years (8020) has been ...
Inagaki D - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine (i) whether or not textural properties of foods and body positions affect the durations of anterior tongue and suprahyoid muscle activities during swallowing, and (ii) if such changes occur, is the 'pre-peak' or the 'post-peak' duration of integrated muscle activity responsible. We ...
Dawes Colin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This nonsystematic review summarizes the effects of saliva on some of the diseases affecting the hard and soft oral tissues. RESULTS: Saliva enters the mouth at several locations, and the different secretions are not well-mixed. Saliva in the mouth forms a thin film, the velocity of which varies greatly ...
Alaverdashvili Mariam - - 2008
The forelimb movements (skilled reaching) used by rats to reach for a single food pellet to place into the mouth have been used to model many neurological conditions. They have been described as a sequence of oppositions of head-pellet, paw-pellet and pellet-mouth that can be described as movements of the ...
Sazonov Edward - - 2008
A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting ...
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