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Campos Carlos A CA Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 - - 2014
Injection of the melanocortin-3/4 receptor agonist melanotan-II (MTII) into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) produces rapid and sustained reduction of food intake. Melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) are expressed by vagal afferent endings in the NTS, but it is not known whether these endings participate in MTII-induced reduction of food ...
Wang Guoqing G Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, - - 2014
Adrenomedullin (AM), a 52 residue neuropeptide, is associated with anorexia in mammals and has a poorly understood central mechanism of action. Thus, this study focused on elucidating AM's central mechanism of action in an alternative vertebrate model, the chick (Gallus gallus). In Experiment 1, chicks centrally injected with AM dose-dependently ...
Will Alexis P AP University of Alaska Fairbanks, - - 2014
In nest-bound avian offspring food shortages typically trigger a release of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies indicate that CORT is passively deposited in the tissue of growing feathers and thus may provide an integrated measure of stress incurred during development in the nest. The current hypothesis predicts that, ...
Honda Kazuhisa K Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Central administration of proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and oxyntomodulin (OXM), suppresses food intake in both mammals and birds. Recent findings suggest that GLP-1 receptor is involved in the anorexigenic action of OXM in both species. However, mammalian (bovine) OXM was used in chicken studies, even though the amino ...
Fontanari Laura L Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Corso Bettini 31, 38064, Rovereto, Italy, - - 2013
In this paper, we studied the ability of newborn chicks to use kind information (sortal objects) provided by social and food attractors to determine the number of distinct objects present in an event (object individuation). Newly hatched chicks were reared with five imprinting objects and were fed mealworms. Chicks' spontaneous ...
Honda Kazuhisa K Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2013
Glucagon-related peptides such as glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin suppress food intake in mammals and birds. Recently, novel glucagon-like peptide (GCGL) was identified from chicken brain, and a comparatively high mRNA expression level of GCGL was detected in the hypothalamus. A number of studies suggest that the hypothalamus plays a ...
Ogino Madoka - - 2013
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays an important role in response to stress, and exerts a physiological effect via its receptor, CRH receptor type-1 (CRH-R1) and CRH receptor type-2 (CRH-R2) with high affinity to CRH-R1 in mammals. Urocortin-3 (UCN-3), a CRH family peptide, is an endogenous ligand for CRH-R2 in mammals. The ...
Erwan E - - 2013
We hypothesized that the effects of L- and D-amino acids might be influenced when conjugated with fatty acid. Thus, the effects of oral administration of lauroyl-L-aspartate (Lau-L-Asp) as well as lauroyl-D-aspartate (Lau-D-Asp) were examined. In Experiment 1, oral administration of both Lau-L-Asp and Lau-D-Asp decreased food intake while L- or ...
Smith Joanna M - - 2013
Studies of primate taxonomy and phylogeny often depend on comparisons of limb dimensions, yet there is little information on how morphology correlates and contributes to foraging strategies and ecology. Callitrichid primates are ideal for comparative studies as they exhibit a range of body size, limb proportions and diet. Many callitrichid ...
Lodenius Martin - - 2013
Published results concerning metal levels in feathers of birds of prey were listed and evaluated. Mercury concentrations have been studied most and the background values normally vary between 0.1 and 5 mg/kg dry weight the highest concentrations being in birds from aquatic food chains. Pollution causes elevated levels of mercury in ...
Bourgeon Sophie - - 2013
We examined the relative importance of dietary sources and maternal transfer on organochlorine concentrations (∑OCs) in Great skua chicks (Stercorarius skua) in Shetland by food supplementing parents with known wintering area. We predicted that experimental chicks (whose parents were supplemented) should have (i) higher growth rates and, (ii) lower ∑OCs ...
McKinnon Laura - - 2013
A climate-induced phenological mismatch between the timing of reproduction and the timing of food resource peaks is one of the key hypothesized effects of climate change on wildlife. Though supported as a mechanism of population decline in birds, few studies have investigated whether the same temperature increases that drive this ...
Vincenzi Simone S Center for Stock Assessment Research, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. - - 2013
Life-history theory predicts that suboptimal developmental conditions may lead to faster life histories (younger age at recruitment and higher reproductive investment), but experimental testing of this prediction is still scarce in long-lived species. We report the effects of an experimental manipulation of food availability during early development and at recruitment ...
Spaderna Heike - - 2013
Empirical evidence supporting the benefits of dietary recommendations for patients with advanced heart failure is scarce. We prospectively evaluated the relation of dietary habits to pre-transplant clinical outcomes in the multisite observational Waiting for a New Heart Study. A total of 318 heart transplant candidates (82% male, age 53 ± ...
Jerez Silvia - - 2013
The concentration of human activities in the near-shore ecosystems from the northern Antarctic Peninsula area can cause an increasing bioavailability of pollutants for the vulnerable Antarctic biota. Penguin chicks can reflect this potential impact in the rookeries during the breeding season. They also can reflect biomagnification phenomena since they are ...
da Luz Clarissa Medeiros - - 2013
The present study assesses some factors that may influence the development of lower limb venous disease in workers of a hospital food service unit. An Ergonomic analysis of work was carried out at a hospital located in the south of Brazil. As for data collection, the following were used: interviews ...
Sakirul Islam Khan Md - - 2013
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is expressed in central nervous systems and peripheral tissues across lower and higher vertebrates and is involved in many physiological functions. One of these functions is appetite regulation; however the mechanisms mediating this response are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate ...
Bertin Aline - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature-within the thermotolerance range- would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in ...
Benowitz-Fredericks Z M - - 2013
In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of ...
Defisher Luke E - - 2013
Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground ...
Rugani Rosa - - 2013
In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort ...
Aigueperse Nadège - - 2013
In chicken, oils in the maternal diet confer a specific scent to the yolk. Embryos are known to perceive and memorize chemosensory signals of the surrounding environment; however, the potential impact of the maternal diet has not previously been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that chicken embryos memorize ...
Dehnhard Nina - - 2013
Due to their restricted foraging range, flightless seabirds are ideal models to study the short-term variability in foraging success in response to environmentally driven food availability. Wind can be a driver of upwelling and food abundance in marine ecosystems such as the Southern Ocean, where wind regime changes due to ...
Bowser A Kirsten AK Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada ; Atlantic Laboratory for Avian Research, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, - - 2013
The predator-prey interactions within food chains are used to both characterize and understand ecosystems. Conventional methods of constructing food chains from visual identification of prey in predator diet can suffer from poor taxonomic resolution, misidentification, and bias against small or completely digestible prey. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has become a ...
Ismail Ahmad A Laboratoire Ecologie and Evolution UMR 7625, Université Pierre et Marie Curie CNRS ENS, Paris, - - 2013
The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs) to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal ...
Borke Jesse A - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for exacerbation of congestive heart failure have not been consistently validated. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the role of short-term dietary sodium intake in acute decompensated heart failure. METHODS: Patients with chronic congestive heart failure presenting to the Emergency Department for either acute decompensated heart failure ...
Szabó M P J - - 2012
Rhipicephalus sanguineus is believed to be the most widespread tick species of the world and its dissemination seems to rely on the diffusion of its main host, the dog. Empirical observations indicate that several bird species in urban areas regularly steal dog food. Such circumstances create a chance for R. ...
Jonaidi H - - 2012
In mammals and birds, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are found in brain areas known to be involved in the control of ingestive behavior and act to increase voluntary food intake. In rats, significant evidence suggest a functional and behavioral interaction between NPY and GABA mediated transmission in ...
Newmyer Brandon A - - 2012
While neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been studied extensively per its pronounced role in food intake stimulation as well as its role in central pathways governing eating disorders, it has to our knowledge not been studied in polygenic models of hypo- and hyperphagia. Thus, the present study was designed to measure ...
Din K Salahel - - 2011
The concentration of (210)Po was determined in different foodstuffs of plant origin purchased from markets in Qena City, Upper Egypt. Measurement of (210)Po has been carried out using alpha spectrometry technique in different food categories such as vegetables, fruits, cereals beverages and herbs. The general range of (210)Po activity levels ...
Farias Maria Magdalena - - 2011
Abstract Obesity is a consequence of the complex interplay between genetics and environment. Several studies have shown that body weight is maintained at a stable range, known as the "set-point," despite the variability in energy intake and expenditure. Additionally, it has been shown that the body is more efficient protecting ...
Chuang-Stein Christy - - 2010
The Food and Drug Administration of the United States issued a draft guidance on adaptive design clinical trials in February 2010. This draft guidance has attracted a lot of attention because of the increasing interest in adaptive trials by the pharmaceutical industry in recent years. In this paper, we report ...
Gallo Paul - - 2010
The US Food and Drug Administration has recently released a draft guidance document on adaptive clinical trials. We comment on the document from the particular perspective of the authors as members of a PhRMA working group on this topic, which has interacted with FDA personnel on adaptive trial issue during ...
Robinson Christie A - - 2010
The revised labeling for long-acting β(2) agonists (LABAs) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is controversial and in part is inconsistent with the 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program asthma guidelines. Two large randomized controlled studies, the Serevent Nationwide Surveillance (SNS) study and the Salmeterol Multicenter Asthma Research ...
- - 2010
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reclassifying the device type, standard percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) catheters, from class III (premarket approval) into class II (special controls). Cutting/scoring PTCA catheters remain in class III and continue to require premarket approval applications (PMAs). FDA is reclassifying these devices in accordance ...
Honig P K - - 2010
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are useful in integrating large amounts of data to inform medical practice, and it is likely that the already large number of published meta-analyses will increase further as the provisions in the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act and other forces result in dramatically increased transparency ...
- - 2010
The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used by performing a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. ...
Delmore R J - - 2010
Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is a beta-adrenergic agonist approved to be fed at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (100% DM basis) during the final 20 to 40 d of the finishing period in beef cattle followed by a minimum 3-d withdrawal period antemortem. The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved label claims ...
Mello Michelle M - - 2010
Growing awareness of the role that food and beverage advertising plays in the epidemic of childhood obesity has prompted calls for stricter oversight of advertising practices. The food and beverage industries have taken voluntary steps in this direction, but many commentators have called for increased government regulation. The mission of ...
- - 2010
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reissuing a final rule restricting the sale, distribution, and use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. As required by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act), FDA is issuing a final rule that is identical to the provisions of the ...
Kramer Daniel B - - 2010
The quality of clinical data submitted by manufacturers to support Food and Drug Administration cardiovascular device premarket approval (PMA) applications varies widely and formal quality assessment has not been previously performed. This study evaluated all original cardiovascular device PMAs with Food and Drug Administration decisions between January 1, 2000, and ...
Li Xu - - 2010
This paper describes a new and simple concept for fabricating low-cost, low-volume, easy-to-use microfluidic devices using threads. A thread can transport liquid via capillary wicking without the need of a barrier; as it is stainable, it is also a desirable material for displaying colorimetric results. When used in sewing, threads ...
Qureshi Athar M - - 2010
Transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) is now widely accepted as an alternative to surgical closure. With currently available devices and techniques, approximately 80-90% of secundum ASDs and all PFOs can be closed percutaneously. While many devices are available, the use of any ...
Stanyon Robert - - 2010
Some charitable organizations and physicians are willing to assist in the compassionate donation of explanted pacemakers for reuse in medically underserved nations. However, healthcare organizations must recognize that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), device manufacturers, professional societies and many physicians advocate return of explanted pacemakers to the manufacturer to ...
Paula Patricia M C PM Electrical Engineering Department, University of Brasilia, Brazil. - - 2010
This paper describes the basic guidelines for developing an innovative biomedical device. It covers the issues of researching about a suitable material, developing a new device, and testing its proprieties to check its effectiveness. The goal of the device is to control food flow into the esophagus, reducing its volume ...
Kanlayavattanakul M - - 2010
Lipopeptides are biosurfactants extensively used in cosmetics. The consumption of cosmetics containing lipopeptides is increasing as a result of the exceptional surface properties and diverse biological activities of lipopeptides which facilitate a vast number of applications not only in the pharmaceutics industry which includes cosmetics but also in the food ...
Pawlicka Agnieszka - - 2009
Electrochromic devices (ECD) are systems of considerable commercial interest due to their controllable transmission, absorption and/or reflectance. For instance, these devices are mainly applied to glare attenuation in automobile rearview mirrors and also in some smart windows that can regulate the solar gains of buildings. Other possible applications of ECDs ...
Rogalski Andrew L - - 2009
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) convened a joint meeting of 3 advisory committees in June 2009 to review and propose recommendations for reducing the incidence of acetaminophen-induced liver injury. The committee voted in favor of 7 of the 9 recommendations that will be taken to the FDA for executive ...
Solomon Louis M - - 2009
To meet its public mandate, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected studies on the potential health hazards of eating or drinking cloned food products. Based on an earlier National Academy of Sciences study that, on closer analysis, was not nearly as sanguine, the FDA's report found no evidence ...
Zigler S S - - 2009
Although the promise of new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents is great, the process of bringing these agents to commercialization remains in its infancy. There are no PET products today that have gone through the full clinical and chemistry development process required to gain marketing approval by the US ...
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