Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 672
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Rose M D - - 1999
Most food containing drug residues is consumed after cooking or processing, yet surveillance for these residues is almost always conducted on raw tissue. This investigation was to establish the effect of cooking on residues of the nitroimidazole drugs dimetridazole and ronidazole in chicken muscle and egg, to enable dietary intake ...
Alavanja M C - - 1999
Characteristics of persons who report high pesticide exposure events (HPEE) were studied in a large cohort of licensed pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina who enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between December 1993 and December 1995. Fourteen percent reported having "an incident or experience while using any pesticide ...
Turnipseed S B - - 1999
A multi-residue LC/MS method has been developed to confirm avermectin drug residues in several food matrices. Ivermectin (IVR), doramectin (DOR), eprinomectin (EPR) and moxidectin (MOX) are confirmed using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with negative ion detection and selected ion monitoring of three to four ions for each compound. The ...
Túri M S - - 1999
The Asian bee mite (Varroa jacobsoni Oud.) causes variable damage in Hungarian apiaries due to the different and changing conditions. Plastic and wooden strips impregnated with synthetic pyrethroid-type active ingredients show a high efficacy against the mites. These treatments, however, may leave residues in bee products (honey, propolis, wax). After ...
Olea N - - 1999
This article reviews previous studies and presents new data on pesticide exposure in order to provide some indications of the extent and significance of childhood exposure to xenoestrogens, including pesticides, epoxy resins, and polycarbonates. After more than four decades of pesticide use, little is known about their adverse effects on ...
Byard J L - - 1999
Since the early 1980s, when molinate was demonstrated to have killed carp in agricultural drains, an intensive research effort has been undertaken to assess the impact of rice pesticides on aquatic ecosystems in the Sacramento River and Delta. No impact has been found that can be clearly attributed to rice ...
Tuomisto J - - 1999
Exposure to, and the potential effects of, pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the East Baltic region are reviewed. Exposure of the average population to chlorinated compounds seems lower than in most of western Europe, and current pesticide use is very low. However, due to infrastructure failures and poor management ...
Safe S - - 1998
Research in our laboratories has focused on development of a battery of in vivo and in vitro bioassays for determining estrogenic activity and potency of different classes of natural and synthetic industrial-derived estrogenic compounds (xenoestrogens) including food/beverage extracts, phytoestrogens, phenolic compounds, organochlorine pesticides and pollutants. For many of the weak ...
Sung H W - - 1998
Bioprostheses derived from biological tissues must be chemically modified and subsequently sterilized before they can be implanted in humans. Various crosslinking reagents, including formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, dialdehyde starch, and epoxy compound, have been used to chemically modify biological tissues. However, these synthetic crosslinking reagents are all highly (or relatively highly) cytotoxic. ...
Rose M D - - 1998
The multi-residue procedure for basic drugs described elsewhere by this laboratory has been evaluated for quinolone and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new class of drug and an increasing number of licensed products containing these compounds are becoming available for use in animal husbandry. This, along with the ...
Spiric A - - 1998
According to the established monitoring program in Yugoslavia, 941 swine, 561 cattle, and 358 lamb samples collected during a 5-year period were analyzed for chlorinated pesticide residues. Less than 10% of the examined samples contained residues of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), and total DDT (p,p'-DDT and metabolites) at ...
Li Y F - - 1998
Trends in production of technical HCH (BHC: 1,2,3,4,5, 6-hexachlorocyclohexane) in China have been surveyed from 1952 to 1983, when the Chinese government banned the use of this pesticide. While the total 4.46 million metric tons produced during this period make China by far the biggest producer and user of technical ...
Jantunen L M - - 1998
In the summers of 1993 and 1994, seawater samples from the surface layer (40-60 m) were collected to determine the spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides on expeditions that crossed the Arctic Ocean from the Bering and Chukchi seas to the North Pole, to a station north of Spitsbergen, and then ...
Lewis D J - - 1998
Potatoes, which had been treated 'in the field' with a commercial formulation of maleic hydrazide, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps on a factory production line using standard manufacturing conditions. Samples were taken at strategic points throughout the process and analysed to determine the degree of carry-through ...
Rusibamayila C S - - 1998
The residue levels of DDE, DDT, Dieldrin, Endosulfan and Lindane were determined in beans, maize and wheat samples collected from local markets in northern Tanzania. All residue levels were far below the FAO/WHO standards. No significant correlations were detected among the pesticides studied or between pesticides and the fat content ...
Luttik R - - 1998
The purposes of this article are to present a method that takes into account avoidance behavior in the evaluation of LC50 studies with birds and to provide a concept for the use of food avoidance behavior in the environmental hazard/risk assessment of pesticides used in agriculture for birds. An analysis ...
Mitchell J M - - 1998
This paper presents a historical review of antimicrobial use in food animals, the causes of residues in meat and milk, the types of residues found, their regulation in Canada, tests used for their detection, and test performance parameters, with an emphasis on immunoassay techniques. The development of residue detection methods ...
Harvey P W - - 1998
The purpose of this work was to integrate existing chemical residue and food consumption data for individuals to improve estimates of the dietary intake of chemical residues in the population of Brisbane. Previous estimates of intakes from the Australian Market Basket Survey (AMBS) have been based on energy-adjusted 'hypothetical national ...
Okihashi M - - 1998
Residual N-methylcarbamate pesticides in food were determined by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and HPLC with post-column fluorescence. Pesticides were extracted with acetonitrile at 100 degrees C under 2000 psi pressure in less than 20 min. Extracts were cleaned-up with a carboxylic acid mini-column eluted with 10% or 30% acetone in ...
Doxey D L - - 1998
Responses to questionnaires were received from 31 owners of horses or ponies treated for chronic grass sickness (dysautonomia). Contrary to previous opinions the respondents indicated that the majority of the animals were capable of strenuous work, had regained the weight they had lost and, apart from a few residual problems ...
Solé M - - 1998
A survey of the degree of imposex in populations of the commercial muricid Bolinus brandaris (L.) was carried out at six locations along the Catalan Coast (NW Mediterranean). Imposex was found to be a widespread phenomenon; the occurrence of a penis was observed in all females studied with the exception ...
- - 1998
This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluated the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers the assessment of the effects of antimicrobial drug residues ...
Schilter B - - 1998
Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to control a variety of detrimental organisms. As a consequence, low but measurable amounts of residues may be found in the food supply including food intended for infants and young children. This has been the cause of some alarm since it is difficult for ...
Waliszewski S M - - 1997
This monitoring study of 355 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state and 448 samples of national butter brands was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean HCH levels were 0.094 and 0.093 mg/kg on fat basis in ...
Wong S K - - 1997
A survey was conducted from 1993 through 1995 to monitor organochlorine pesticides and their metabolite residues in milk available in local Hong Kong markets. Of 252 samples analyzed, including pasteurized milk, fresh milk, and raw milk, 42 contained organochloride pesticide residues at levels exceeding the Extraneous Maximum Residue Limits of ...
Rippeth J J - - 1997
The construction of a wall-jet flow cell, which houses a screen-printed amperometric pesticide biosensor, together with a complete flow-injection system, is described. This system was initially employed in studies to stabilise the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which was immobilised on a cobalt phthalocyanine screen-printed carbon electrode to form a biosensor. A ...
Lehotay S J - - 1997
This article summarizes research findings involving the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of pesticides in food and other tissue matrices. Emphasis is placed on multiresidue analysis of pesticides in nonfatty foods, including some previously unpublished aspects of SFE in this application. Brief overviews of pesticides and traditional multiresidue methods are given, ...
Wagner J M - - 1997
Enacted into law by Congress in August 1996, the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) is the most significant piece of federal pesticide legislation since the 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. FQPA was hastily drafted and approved towards the end of the 1996 Congressional session. The ...
Torres C M - - 1997
Approximately 200 citrus samples from markets of the Valencian Community (Spain) were analyzed to establish their residue levels in 12 organophosphorus pesticide residues during the 1994-1995 campaign. The organophosphorus pesticides carbophenothion, chlorpyriphos, chlorfenvinphos, diazinon, ethion, fenitrothion, malathion, methidation, methylparathion, phosmet, quinalphos, and tetradifon were simultaneously extracted by matrix solid-phase dispersion ...
Swirsky Gold L - - 1997
Much of the public perceives that exposure to synthetic pesticide residues in the diet is a major cause of cancer. The National Research Council (NRC), in a 1987 report, Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox, evaluated cancer risks for 29 pesticides that are rodent carcinogens and estimated that the ...
McEwen S A - - 1997
The authors provide an overview of non-biological contaminants in foods from animals. These contaminants comprise chemical and physical hazards which may be introduced during animal production, slaughter and processing or packaging. Emphasis in this paper is placed on those residues which are of most interest to Veterinary Services and for ...
Roy R R - - 1997
In 1993-94, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a statistically based study of pesticide residues in domestic and imported fresh apples and processed rice. For apples, 769 domestic and 1062 imported samples were collected and analyzed; 85% of the domestic and 86% of the imported samples had detectable ...
Key P E - - 1997
The Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) organized by a Secretariat of the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food has checked the proficiency of analytical laboratories for foods and feeds from 1990 to 1996. FAPAS was started for UK laboratories but was expanded worldwide at the request of analysts ...
Paige J C - - 1997
Consumers have expressed concern regarding the health impact of drug residues in their food. Animal residues in animal tissues above the legal tolerance clearly have an impact on human health. Tolerances represent the maximal level or concentration of antimicrobial residues permitted in animal tissues at the time of slaughter. The ...
Weigert P - - 1997
As a means of assessing the performance of European laboratories who contribute analytical data on food contamination to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Environmental Monitoring Scheme (GEMS), a series of five proficiency testing exercises were carried out during 1993 and 1994. In total 136 laboratories from 21 different countries ...
McPartland J M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Those immunocompromised by AIDS or cancer chemotherapy use marijuana to allay symptoms of their disease or treatment. Some researchers believe that marijuana may further suppress the immune system. A list of immunological hazards that may be present in marijuana was collated and assessed, and clinical recommendations regarding the use ...
Lukwa N - - 1997
The biological activity of permethrin, phenothrin/allethrin and d-phenothrin was evaluated against Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica cockroaches. A decrease in the number of cockroaches caught after spraying the trial huts was observed. The decrease may be attributed to either the presence of trap-weary specimens or because P. americana is not ...
Zhang Y - - 1997
This paper covers the monitoring activities of organochlorine (OCS) pesticide residues in the GEMS/Food program, which China took part in for the first time in 1992. The levels of HCH and DDT were determined in 355 samples of eight main varieties of food, taken from five provinces and cities. The ...
Sherry J - - 1997
Immunoassays and bioanalytical techniques can aid the cost effective detection and quantification of trace contaminants in the environment, food, and human and animal populations. This overview of recent progress shows that rapid advances have occurred in the development and validation, of assays for many contaminants of both industrial and agricultural ...
Obana H - - 1997
Residual organophosphorus pesticides in foods were determined by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), gel permeation chromatography and GC-FPD. Pesticides were extracted at 100 degrees C under 1500 psi pressure in less than 20 min. Wet samples were extracted after mixing with Extrelut drying agent. Four foods were spiked with 19 pesticides ...
Kannan K - - 1997
Public concern about the adverse environmental and human health impacts of organochlorine contaminants led to strict regulations on their use in developed nations two decades ago. Nevertheless, DDT and several other organochlorine insecticides are still being used for agriculture and public health programs in developing countries in Asia and the ...
Melnyk L J - - 1997
As part of total human exposure measurements performed on six farms in Iowa and North Carolina during the Agricultural Health Pilot Study, a household duplicate diet, several locally grown foods, an applicator meal, a child duplicate diet, and drinking water samples were collected. The pilot study was designed to test ...
Wiktelius S - - 1997
Organochlorine insecticides (OCLs), which were introduced in the decade following World War II, were used extensively in Europe, the U.S., and other developed countries into the 1970s. However, data began to accumulate on their persistence in soils and aquatic sediments, their potential to be taken up into animal tissues and ...
Kennish M J - - 1996
Analysis of DDT contamination in selected finfish and shellfish species from estuarine and coastal marine waters of New Jersey (USA) reveals consistently highest organochlorine pesticide levels in samples from the north and northeast regions of the state. The mean concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, DDE and DDD, in bluefish, ...
Penttilä P L - - 1996
The use of pesticides has been monitored on the basis of sales statistics since 1953 in Finland and the information has been used for targeting the official food control to products where pesticides are mostly used. Food consumption and the earlier control results were also taken into account. The intake ...
Gibbons S N - - 1996
A study of data from 12 states in the Food Safety Inspection Service's Residue Violation Information System was conducted to describe patterns of violative chemical residues in US beef during 1991, 1992, and 1993. In 1991, 3,249 violative residues were found in 2,734 carcasses in the 12 states included in ...
Casanova J A - - 1996
This study investigated the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) disks in analysis of high-moisture (< 2% fat) foods for organophosphorus and organochlorinated pesticides with low (< 25 mg/mL) water solubilities. Five representative foods were each spiked with one of 18 pesticides at 2 levels. Gas chromatography with flame photometric and ...
Thorpe S A - - 1996
A brief background is provided of the European national bodies which accredit laboratories to the EN 45001 standard and their mutual recognition through the European Cooperation for Accreditation of Laboratories. Some of the requirements for accreditation of a laboratory, for example, the need to demonstrate traceability of measurements, are selectively ...
Wittmann C - - 1996
On the basis of a semi-quantitative dipstick immunoassay (IA) for atrazine with visual detection (Giersch, T., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1993, 41, 1006), a quantitative format suitable as a field assay for the analysis of pesticide residues in water and liquid food samples on-site is described. For antibody immobilization, different ...
Zhang L - - 1996
Clonal deletion via activation-induced apoptosis (AIA) of antigen-specific T cells (ASTC) plays a very important role in the induction of peripheral tolerance. However, none of the studies performed so far has shown a complete deletion of ASTC, a small population always persisting in the periphery. The mechanism by which this ...
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