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Results 351 - 400 of 674
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MacIntosh D L - - 2001
Between September 1995 and September 1996, 4-day composite duplicate plate samples (379 solid food samples and 303 beverage samples) were obtained from a stratified random sample of 75 individuals in Maryland and analyzed for the presence of 10 pesticides. Samples were collected in each of six approximately equally spaced cycles ...
Nielsen J B - - 2001
Dermal exposure has become the major route of human occupational exposure to pesticides. Detergents are used as part of formulated pesticide products and are known to change the barrier properties of human skin in vitro. However, studies on the influence of detergents as well as protective glove materials on dermal ...
Kunkel B A - - 2001
Routes by which nontarget predatory insects can be exposed to turfgrass pesticides include topical, residual, and dietary exposure. We used each of these routes to evaluate potential lethal or sublethal effects of two novel turfgrass insecticides, imidacloprid and halofenozide, and a carbamate, bendiocarb, on survival, behavior, and fecundity of the ...
Schizas N V - - 2001
In South Carolina estuaries, the harpacticoid copepod Microarthridion littorale (Poppe 1881) consists of three distinct mitochondrial lineages (liI, liII, and liIII), whose distributions may be partially explained by the presence of toxic contaminants in the sampled habitats. The frequencies of liII and liIII are greatly diminished and sometimes absent in ...
Holden A J - - 2001
The degradation of triazophos in aqueous solutions was monitored at 205 and 254 nm after separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. An ODS column was used with a mobile phase of 60% acetonitrile and 0.04% phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.4 cm(3) min(-)(1). When dissolved in distilled water, approximately ...
De Jong F M - - 2001
Several monitoring programmes for pesticide residues in food are currently operative in the Netherlands, some of which are related to EU directives. These programmes cover a range of products. This paper reviews the 1997 and 1998 data for fruit and vegetables, meat, milk, livestock and fish, as well as presenting ...
Papastergiou A - - 2001
During 1996-1997, residues of selected pesticides were monitored, at 3-month intervals, in 80 wells, including both irrigation and drinking water wells, distributed among the main corn-growing areas (Pieria, Thessaloniki, Serres, Kavala, and Evros) of Greece. Pesticide residues were found in 48% of the wells; however, in most cases residues were ...
Sanusi A - - 2000
We present the comparison of atmospheric concentrations of eleven currently used pesticides (HCB, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, trifluraline, mecoprop, phosalone, atrazine, carbofuran, carbaryl, diuron and isoproturon) measured in remote (Aubure), rural (Colmar) and urban (Strasbourg) areas of Alsace and Vosges regions (cast France). Pesticides samples were collected simultaneously on two of the ...
Leclercq C - - 2000
The theoretical risk of exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for sulphites has mostly been examined on the basis of a worst-case scenario. In order to examine the real situation the determination of residue sulphite levels in ready-to-consume foods is required. The aim of this paper is to assess the ...
Quon D J - - 2000
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) routinely monitors the Canadian food supply to ensure that the levels of antibiotic residues are below the stated regulatory guidelines. Over a two-year period, both domestic and imported eggs in Canada were analyzed for a number of veterinary drugs. These included chloramphenicol, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, ...
Mann R M - - 2000
Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APE) are routinely used as additives in pesticide formulations. Biodegradation of APEs results in the accumulation of persistent short chain mono-, di- and tri-ethoxylates (AP1EO, AP2EO AP3EO) that are more toxic than the parent compounds and potentially oestrogenic. Accumulation of persistent APE metabolites in shallow or ephemeral waters ...
Okihashi M - - 2000
Eight residual triazine herbicides and three metribuzin metabolites in foods were determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface, under both positive and negative ion modes. Herbicides were extracted with acetonitrile, and no cleanup procedure was adopted in this method. Four foods were ...
Johnsen L - - 2000
Pediocin PA-1 is a food grade antimicrobial peptide that has been used as a food preservative. Upon storage at 4 degrees C or room temperature, pediocin PA-1 looses activity, and there is a concomitant 16-Da increase in the molecular mass. It is shown that the loss of activity follows first-order ...
Akland G G - - 2000
A deterministic model was developed to identify the critical input parameters needed to assess dietary intakes of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding the important factors in data collection and data analysis. Factors incorporated into the model included transfer efficiencies of pesticide from surfaces to ...
Cabras P - - 2000
Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo ...
Newsome W H - - 2000
Market basket food samples from six Canadian cities collected from 1992 to 1996 were analysed for pesticide residues. One hundred and thirty-six composites were prepared for each city, representing 99% of the Canadian diet. Residues were found most frequently in peanut butter and butter. DDE, malathion and captan occurred most ...
Scott I M - - 2000
Microcosm trials were conducted with the botanical insecticide Margosan-O(R) to assess the potential hazards of the product to aquatic organisms. Laboratory chronic bioassays with water from the treated microcosms were conducted to provide an estimate of the residual effect of Margosan-O. Results from chronic tests showed Margosan-O toxicity to be ...
Navarro S - - 2000
The influence of the different steps involved in the wine-making process on the disappearance of chlorpyrifos, fenarimol, metalaxyl, penconazole, and vinclozolin in red wines elaborated by carbonic maceration of Monastrell grapes was studied. The initial levels of the residues in grapes ranged from 0.28 mg/kg (penconazole) to 1 mg/kg (chlorpyrifos). ...
Barker S A - - 2000
Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a patented process, first reported in 1989, for conducting simultaneous disruption and extraction of solid and semi-solid samples. MSPD permits complete fractionation of the sample matrix components as well as the ability to selectively elute a single compound or several classes of compounds from the ...
Hamilton D - - 2000
Risk assessment for pesticide residues in food has previously concentrated on chronic intake, probably with the assumption that if the chronic intake is acceptable, acute intake will also be acceptable. Data generation is expensive so we should extract, where possible, information useful for acute intake estimation from supervised residue trials. ...
Billington R - - 2000
Reference doses (RfD) for the definition of tolerable food residues have traditionally been based on the lowest no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), which usually comes from chronic toxicity studies. While this is generally agreed to be a safe approach to evaluate the overall significance of expected consumption it is ...
Herrman J L - - 2000
The Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR), in its development of international standards, has been considering during the last few years the implications of residues of acutely toxic pesticides in food commodities. CCPR has asked its scientific advisory body, the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), for advice on ...
Marrs T C - - 2000
The observed phenomenon of variability of residues in individual fruit and vegetables has a number of implications for risk assessment. The main implication is that the possibility of acute toxic effects in humans has to be considered, where items are commonly consumed unprocessed, are commonly consumed at a single sitting ...
Tomerlin J R - - 2000
The passage of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) in August of 1996 increased the role of risk assessment in the decision-making process of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although the law and guidance issued by the EPA provide for more sophisticated risk assessments, the databases for many chemicals ...
Lefferts L Y - - 2000
In relation to residue variability and acute dietary intake, this paper considers whether or not consumers are adequately protected, and makes recommendations for governments and international bodies. Existing risk assessment science is inadequate to lay to rest some concerns raised by the scientific community, and it is plausible that acute ...
Suhre F B - - 2000
The evolution of US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) process for estimating potential health risks from pesticide residues in or on food is examined in light of changes in US Legislation and the variability of residue data and assumptions used to estimate dietary exposure. In the 86 years since enactment of ...
Suhre F B - - 2000
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assesses acute dietary exposure to pesticide residues using a tiered approach, proceeding from conservative to more refined assumptions as the risk management situation requires. Toxicity and food residue data used by EPA in assessing acute dietary risk are obtained from studies submitted by chemical ...
Tadeo J L - - 2000
The determination of herbicide residues in cereals, fruits and vegetables by chromatographic methods is reviewed. The principal chemical groups of herbicides, like phenoxyacids, benzonitriles, ureas, triazines, dinitroanilines, chloroacetamides, carbamates, uracils, glyphosate and bipyridylium compounds, are considered. This review briefly provides some basic information on food sample extraction, clean-up, derivatization and ...
Barker S A - - 2000
Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), a patented process for the simultaneous disruption and extraction of solid and semi-solid samples, was first reported in 1989. Since that time, MSPD has found application in numerous fields, but has proven to be particularly applicable for the analysis of drugs, pollutants, pesticides and other components ...
Ragsdale Nancy N. - - 2000
The Food Quality Protection Act mandates new considerations in pesticide regulatory decisions. Endocrine disruption, determination of the need for an additional safety factor for infants and children, aggregate exposure to each pesticide, and cumulative exposure to pesticides with a common mechanism of toxicity will all become part of the risk ...
Gabaldón J A - - 1999
Detection of pesticides and their metabolites in food and environmental samples in real time is the goal of many industries. Immunoassay technology has several attributes that make it a useful tool for screening purposes (e.g., selectivity, sensitivity, portability, and rapid turnaround time). Approximately 90% of the developed immunoassays for the ...
Sawaya W N - - 1999
The State of Kuwait conducted a total diet study (TDS) to determine the dietary intakes of selected pesticides. This paper reports the results of this study. A national food consumption survey was performed and core food lists for different population groups were established representing the total diet of the Kuwaiti ...
Podwall D - - 1999
The differences in xenobiotic chemical content between organic and nonorganic products can be chemically measured. In this study, the deoxynucleotide composition of strawberry samples is used to demonstrate chromatographic methods of quantifying the differences between pesticide- and toxic-exposed strawberries. The samples were analyzed by (32)P labeling and two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. ...
Ribeiro S - - 1999
This study developed a bioassay with the isopod Porcellio dilatatus based on the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The in vivo effects of the insecticides parathion-ethyl and endosulfan-sulfate on AChE and LDH activities of P. dilatatus under laboratory conditions were investigated. The route of uptake ...
Sawaya W N - - 1999
The State of Kuwait in cooperation with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a Total Diet Study (TDS) to estimate intakes of pesticide residues by the population. The levels of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, carbamates, benzimidazoles, and phenylureas in the TDS core list are reported here. The TDS core ...
Kalra R L - - 1999
Under a multicentre study conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research, 2205 samples of dairy milk were collected from rural and urban areas of 12 states representing different geographical regions of India. These samples were analysed for residues of DDT and different isomers of HCH by gas-liquid chromatography. Analytical ...
Juhler R K - - 1999
The objective of the study was to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities have a high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake. Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers (171 traditional farmers ...
Doong R A - - 1999
Fourteen organochlorine pesticide residues in fatty foods were determined using a simple and rapid procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up cartridges with octadecyl (C18)-bonded porous silica, a tandem C18 and Florisil column, Alumina-N and Florisil. A Florisil cartridge eluted with 12 ml petroleum ether-ethyl ether (95 + 5) was ...
Coffman C W - - 1999
Deposition of pesticide on the clothing of the applicator was studied in a commercial vineyard using two different application technologies. A typical air-assisted sprayer with centrifugal fans delivered a concentrated spray. A tunnel or hooded sprayer was used at two carrier rates-high volume, low concentration versus low volume, high concentration-to ...
Adeyeye A - - 1999
Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides have been determined in raw fruits, vegetables and tubers from markets in Nigeria. In the fruits, total HCH, aldrin and total DDT were detected in 77, 38 and 30% of all samples, respectively. In the vegetables, total HCH, HCB, total DDT and aldrin were detected ...
Neuber K - - 1999
The use of the pesticides DDT and lindane as wood preservatives causes indoor air contamination and subsequently exposure of the occupants of these rooms. As hair acts as a passive sampler for air contaminants, we tested pesticide concentrations in hair measured by the GC/MS technique. A comparison of the DDT ...
Hura C - - 1999
The extensive use of pesticides in agriculture can entail risks for environment and non-target organisms. Hence the need to assess the nature and degree of the risk and at the same time to take preventive measures aimed at minimizing possible damages. The aim of the present study was to investigate ...
Sherwood N - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To quantify stripping in traditional dipping operations and to revise dipping methods, based on prediction of stripping so that a more stable concentration of pesticide in the dipwash is achieved. DESIGN AND METHODS: Plunge and shower dips were operated sequentially according to traditional and revised dipping instructions. Dips were ...
Lu C - - 1999
Indoor residential pesticide applications present the potential for human exposures, particularly for small children. Personal contact with target and nontarget surfaces can result in transfer of pesticides to the skin, but the magnitude of such transfer is uncertain. This research compared surface sampling techniques [wipe and polyurethane foam (PUF) roller] ...
Trevino R J - - 1999
Food can influence the human body in many ways, both positively and negatively. Several key elements of contemporary food cultivation and production are presented, along with their potential consequences to our health. The history of food cultivation and consumption is contrasted between early hunter-gatherer societies and modern day societies. Natural ...
van der Hoff G R - - 1999
The analysis of pesticides is relevant to both food quality and the environment. Many laboratories are occupied with the analysis of pesticides in food, water or soil. Capillary gas chromatography is the technique most widely used in pesticide analysis. In present laboratory practice it serves as a screening method for ...
Doong R A - - 1999
The levels of contamination with various organochlorine pesticides (such as total HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, and total DDT) of different foods from 3 traditional markets were determined to estimate Taiwanese daily intake of organochlorine pesticides. Of the 18 organochlorine pesticides investigated, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, lindane, delta-HCH, heptachlor, ...
- - 1999
Cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides (i.e., organic phosphates and carbamates), widely used in agriculture, can cause illness if they contaminate food or drinking water. Aldicarb, a regulated carbamate pesticide, is highly toxic, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires applicators to be trained and certified. This report describes a foodborne outbreak of ...
Blais B W - - 1999
An enzyme immunoassay system based on the use of a macroporous swab as a solid phase for the capture and subsequent immunoenzymatic detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from meat residues on food contact surfaces was developed as a hygiene-monitoring tool. Moistened polyester swabs coated with anti-bovine or anti-chicken IgG were ...
Vongbuddhapitak A - - 1999
Thailand, the economic growth of which largely depends on agriculture-based industry, recognizes the importance of international standards for harmonization of international food trade and for protection of human health from chemicals used as food additives or those present as contaminants. Pesticides which are widely used in Thailand are the anticholinesterase ...
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