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Results 301 - 350 of 671
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Laabs Volker - - 2002
Within the last 25 years an intensive agriculture has developed in the highland regions of Mato Grosso state (Brazil), which involves frequent pesticide use in highly mechanized cash-crop cultures. To provide information on pesticide distribution and dynamics in the northeastern Pantanal basin (located in southern Mato Grosso), we monitored 29 ...
Hwang E - - 2002
Calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)(2)) and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), common disinfecting and bleaching chemicals used in the food industry, are potent oxidizing agents. In this paper, the degradation effects of chlorine dioxide on mancozeb and ethylenethiourea (ETU) residues were investigated in a model system and compared with those of liquid chlorine, under ...
Hurst W Jeffrey - - 2002
The Maya archaeological site at Colha in northern Belize, Central America, has yielded several spouted ceramic vessels that contain residues from the preparation of food and beverages. Here we analyse dry residue samples by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry, and show that chocolate (Theobroma cacao) ...
Murphy Helen H - - 2002
This pilot program was designed to: 1) determine whether farmers could use a simple self-reporting system to estimate the incidence of occupationally related, self-limited pesticide poisonings; 2) describe the frequencies and types of pesticide products used in spraying operations; and 3) assess whether self-reporting and feedback would influence spraying behaviors. ...
Baker B P - - 2002
An analysis of pesticide residue data was performed to describe and quantify differences between organically grown and non-organic fresh fruits and vegetables. Data on residues in foods from three different market categories (conventionally grown, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown/no detectable residues (NDR), and organically grown) were compared using data from three ...
Akiyama Yumi - - 2002
During a 5-year monitoring survey (April 1995-March 2000) of pesticide residues in agricultural products, 765 samples (478 domestic; 287 imported) collected in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, were analyzed. The number of pesticides tested increased from 107 in fiscal year (FY) 1995 to 204 in FY 1999. The purpose of the study ...
Winter Carl K - - 2002
This manuscript provides a brief overview of many useful Internet resources concerning food toxicology. Specific topic areas include pesticide residues, food additives, natural toxins, environmental contaminants, and food allergies; numerous links and evaluative information are provided within each topic area. Several helpful Internet resources have been identified and include government, ...
Banerjee G - - 2002
Pesticides are persistent pollutants which need utmost attention in agricultural pollution. They usually accumulate in the food chain, and hence are hazardous in nature. The present study reports the performance of granular activated carbon (GAC) in the removal of acephate contained in the effluent of a nearby pesticide manufacturing industry. ...
Morisawa Shinsuke - - 2002
The fugacity model for evaluating DDTs dynamic performances in the environment was combined with the dietary exposure evaluation model, including the contribution of imported food, to develop the macroscopic mathematical model relating DDTs in the environment with the health risks of the reference Japanese. The model validity was examined by ...
Charlier Corinne J - - 2002
Pesticide use is one of several factors that have permitted maintenance of our supply of food in spite of continuing increase of the population. However, the use of biologically active compounds poses potential problems of toxicity. If the compound is used at any stage of food production, residues or derivatives ...
Cerkvenik V - - 2002
To prevent the illegal use of chloramphenicol (CAP), regulatory control of its residues in food of animal origin is essential. In Slovenia, the monitoring of CAP residues for statutory purpose started in 1991. The results of a 10-year period are presented. CAP residues were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC) ...
Wittich K-P - - 2002
Owing to legal provisions, pesticides have to be applied in such a way that there is no unacceptable influence on human health and the environment at nearby non-target areas. In order to quantify their concentration over and downwind of agricultural target plots of 0.5-1 ha, covered by winter wheat and ...
Hanaoka T - - 2002
To estimate levels of organochlorine residuals in the Japanese population and the contribution of dietary factors to these levels, we determined serum levels of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) in 41 volunteers (14 men and 27 women) in a rural area of Northern ...
Galván-Portillo Marcia - - 2002
This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT) in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose ...
Nasreddine L - - 2002
The estimation of the risk associated with dietary intakes of heavy metals and pesticide residues by the consumer is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The exposure of the consumer is compared directly to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for pesticides and to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) ...
Strathmann Timothy J - - 2002
This work examines the effect that pH and selected inorganic ligands have on the kinetics of reactions between FeII and two structurally related oxime carbamate pesticides, oxamyl and methomyl. In anoxic solutions containing FeII, these compounds degrade by parallel elimination and reduction pathways. Rates of FeII-independent carbamate elimination (EIcb mechanism) ...
de Solla Shane R - - 2002
Organochlorine pesticides were widely used in the past in Sumas Prairie, British Columbia, Canada. In the 1990s, the hatching success of amphibians from agricultural sites was significantly depressed in the Sumas Prairie compared to reference sites. Therefore, in this study, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in eggs ...
Yu Jya-Jyun - - 2002
Organophosphate pesticides including fenitrothion chlorpyrifos, diazinon, methamidophos, edifenphos, mevinphos, fenthion, and acephate present in agro-wastewater can be effectively removed by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. Near quantitative removal of the pesticides from the aqueous solution can be achieved by SC-CO2 at 90 degrees C and 325 atm for 20 min ...
DeLorenzo M E - - 2002
Agricultural pesticide runoff in southeastern coastal regions of the United States is a critical issue. Bioconcentration of pesticides by phytoplankton and zooplankton at the base of the aquatic food web may increase the persistence of pesticides in aquatic ecosystems and cause effects at higher trophic levels. This study examined the ...
Fussell R J - - 2002
An assessment of the stability of a large number (106) of pesticides and related compounds during the cryogenic sample processing of apples has been undertaken. For the first time the procedure included an assessment of the losses during the freezing of the fruits, prior to processing. The stability of each ...
Connell D W - - 2002
The chlorohydrocarbon pesticides (CHPs) (principally DDT, dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) including lindane, chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlorepoxide, aldrin and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were used extensively in Australia during the 1960s and 1970s. These were progressively banned from the 1970s with DDT being totally banned in 1987. The levels in marine waters are believed ...
Fenske Richard A - - 2002
Twenty-four hour duplicate diet sampling was employed to investigate dietary pesticide exposures of children aged 2 to 5 years. Duplicate diets were collected from seven children living in the Seattle metropolitan area and six children living in Chelan and Douglas counties in Central Washington. Diet samples were collected from each ...
Das Biplob - - 2002
Organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, lindane, and heptachlor) were measured in muscle tissue of catfish (Tachysurus thalassinus) during the dry and wet season. Catfish were collected from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal during October-December 1997 and May-July 1998. Tissue residues were analyzed by using gas-chromatography (GC) ...
Evtiouguina M - - 2002
Cork particles, recovered as byproducts of the processing of this natural material, were oxypropylated under pressure and relatively high temperature in the presence of KOH as catalyst. Various parameters were explored in order to assess the most suitable conditions, which led to the almost complete conversion of the solid cork ...
Veloso D J - - 2002
The Philippine Council for Quality Assurance In Clinical Laboratories has conducted two National External Quality Assessment Schemes (NEQAS) in Hematology. The first survey was conducted in December 1999 and the second in August 2000, with 95 and 187 laboratories, using mostly automated analyzers, participating respectively. Control materials were distributed during ...
Vongbuddhapitak Amara - - 2002
To monitor the exposure of the Thai to pesticide residues in foods, the intake of pesticides based on the total diet approach has been studied in Thailand continually since 1989. Food items were chosen and their proportions of daily consumption were calculated from the national food consumption survey conducted by ...
Kuo Wen S - - 2002
Pesticide rinsate has been considered as one of the major threats for the environment. In this study, photocatalysts such as TiO2 and O3 were used to promote the efficiency of direct UV photolysis to prevent such wastewater pollution. Carbofuran (a carbamate pesticide) and mevinphos (an organophosphate pesticide) with a concentration ...
Hubbard, Deanna Leigh.
The majority of Americans not involved in manufacturing or applying pesticides are exposed to pesticides through dietary intake. Exposure to this portion of the population can be only estimated, using average food consumption profiles and food concentrations of pesticides. Long-term biomarkers of exposure do not currently exist. Hair is a ...
Trautman T D - - 2001
This paper defines risk communication and puts it into the perspective of risk analysis as a whole. Case studies originating for the food industry are described in the areas of food colours, pesticides and genetically, modified foods to exemplify both the difficulties of risk communication and the lessons that can ...
Barra R - - 2001
This paper presents a first report on chlorinated pesticide deposition analyzed through sedimentary records in a small mesotrophic lake (Chica de San Pedro) in central Chile. The sediment core was sliced and dated using 210Pb, 137Cs and pollen analyses. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection ...
Hamers T - - 2001
A newly developed method for measuring the integrated esterase inhibiting potency of rainwater samples was applied in practice, and the results are compared to the toxic potency calculated from concentrations of 31 organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides, out of a total of 66 chemically analyzed pesticides. In addition, the general ...
Schneider Mark - - 2002
Thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a carboxypeptidase B-like zymogen that is activated to TAFIa by plasmin, thrombin, or the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex. The enzyme TAFIa attenuates clot lysis by removing lysine residues from a fibrin clot. Screening of nine human cDNA libraries indicated a common variation in TAFI at position 325 ...
Andersen J H - - 2001
The objective of the Danish pesticide monitoring programme for fruit and vegetables was to check for compliance with the maximum residue levels in foods and to monitor the residue levels to assess the pesticide exposure of the Danish population. Sampling plans were designed based on previous findings and on food ...
Caldas E D - - 2001
Dithiocarbamates are a class of fungicides extensively used in many crops worldwide. The current residue definition of dithiocarbamates in food for compliance with maximum residue limits, at national and international levels, is total residues arising from the use of any or each dithiocarbamate fungicide, determined as CS(2). The analytical method ...
Ngowi A V - - 2001
The practices of pesticide handling in agriculture were surveyed in 1991-1993 in Tanzania, to identify hazardous practices and farms where they occurred. The study involved 23 coffee farms with 246 persons exposed to hazardous practices, and four cotton farms with 45 exposed. An observation form addressed locations of important places ...
Sasi K S - - 2001
Pesticide residues in food has become a consumer safety issue. The consumer has a right to know how much pesticide gets incorporated in the food he eats. In the first phase of our analysis on pesticides, we identified the problem of pesticide residues in fresh winter vegetables as offered to ...
Schenzler C - - 2001
The aim of this paper is to inform all scientists working in pesticide residue analysis on the contents, size and background of European standards (ENs) in this area. These ENs were established by a Technical Committee (TC 275, of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN, and each CEN member country ...
Camoni I - - 2001
In 1997 the Italian monitoring programme for pesticide residues in food comprised 7951 samples of 152 different foods for which a total of 275 pesticides were analysed. For 90 pesticides, the National Estimated Daily Intakes (NEDIs) were calculated by using the 90th percentile value and the food consumption data for ...
Coeurdassier M - - 2001
The garden snail (Helix aspersa) is currently used as bioindicator of metallic pollution. Our objective was to extend its use to organic chemicals by studying the effects and tissue concentrations of the organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate following dietary uptake. After exposure for four weeks to increasing doses of pesticide in the ...
MacIntosh D L - - 2001
Information on associations between chlorpyrifos residues in food and personal exposure to chlorpyrifos would be valuable for evaluating the relationship between personal exposure and possible health effects. We used food consumption records, chlorpyrifos levels in duplicate plates, and measures of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in urine obtained from human volunteers in the ...
Stuetz W - - 2001
In December 1998 whole breast milk samples from 25 Hmong mothers living in the village of Mae Sa Mai, 40 km north of Chiang Mai City, Northern Thailand, were collected and analysed for DDT, heptachlor, HCB and HCH residues (fat normalized data). Short questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used to ...
Ribeiro S - - 2001
The in vivo effects of parathion and endosulfan on the isopod Porcellio dilatatus were investigated. Feeding parameters (food consumption and assimilation rates), growth, and energy reserves (glycogen, lipid, and protein contents) of pesticide-exposed isopods were compared with those of control animals. Isopods were exposed to a wide range of concentrations ...
Clark D R DR - - 2001
DDT is believed to have caused the population of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) at Carlsbad Cavern to decline severely after 1936. Nevertheless, previous data supporting this hypothesis are limited to a single study from 1974, which indicated that 20% of young free-tails from the cavern may have died ...
Ntow W J - - 2001
A total of 208 samples of water, sediment, tomato crops, blood, and mothers' breast milk were collected from the environs of Akumadan, a prominent vegetable-farming community in Ghana. The samples were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. Lindane and endosulfan were found in water and sediment, while other OC pesticide ...
John P J - - 2001
The widespread application of pesticides in agriculture, public health, and industry and in and around the home can result in the accumulation of pesticides in the environment. Therefore, a survey has been conducted during 1993-1996 to investigate the magnitude of contamination of bovine milk with organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues from ...
Mascini M - - 2001
This paper describes the application of electrochemical disposable biosensors in food analysis, which have recently been developed in our laboratory. Disposable biosensors, based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity, were exploited for testing the presence of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in water, fruit, and vegetable samples. The paper further describes preliminary tests ...
Relyea R A - - 2001
Global declines in amphibians likely have multiple causes, including widespread pesticide use. Our knowledge of pesticide effects on amphibians is largely limited to short-term (4-d) toxicity tests conducted under highly artificial conditions to determine lethal concentrations (LC50). We found that if we used slightly longer exposure times (10-16 d), low ...
MacIntosh D L - - 2001
Between September 1995 and September 1996, 4-day composite duplicate plate samples (379 solid food samples and 303 beverage samples) were obtained from a stratified random sample of 75 individuals in Maryland and analyzed for the presence of 10 pesticides. Samples were collected in each of six approximately equally spaced cycles ...
Nielsen J B - - 2001
Dermal exposure has become the major route of human occupational exposure to pesticides. Detergents are used as part of formulated pesticide products and are known to change the barrier properties of human skin in vitro. However, studies on the influence of detergents as well as protective glove materials on dermal ...
Kunkel B A - - 2001
Routes by which nontarget predatory insects can be exposed to turfgrass pesticides include topical, residual, and dietary exposure. We used each of these routes to evaluate potential lethal or sublethal effects of two novel turfgrass insecticides, imidacloprid and halofenozide, and a carbamate, bendiocarb, on survival, behavior, and fecundity of the ...
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