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Results 251 - 300 of 674
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Falcón M - - 2004
Organochlorinated insecticides are ubiquitous toxicants that are transplacentally transferred from mother to fetus and are reported to produce adverse health effects in pregnant woman and neonates. To investigate hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) exposure in pregnant woman, a total of 102 placentas were analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with ...
Xu Diandou - - 2004
The regional distribution of 10 potentially harmful organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) was investigated in pine needles from 18 sites in six Chinese regions. The OCPs concentrations in six regions were as follows: sigmaHCH (sigmaHCH=alpha-+beta-+gamma-+delta-HCH), 4.7-51.5 ng/g; sigmaDDT (p,p'-DDT+p,p'-DDE+p,p'-DDD), 0.9-30.9 ng/g; hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 1.1-5.3 ng/g; sigmachlordane (cis-chlordane+trans-chlordane), no detected-4.3 ng/g, on dry ...
Shapiro Michael - - 2004
Exogenous agents implicated in or suspected of precipitating subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) and lupus erythematosus (LE) are reviewed. An illustrative case of environmentally induced SCLE is presented. A previously healthy 30-year male homozygous for the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) 308. A promoter allele developed SCLE after spending several hours ...
Korpimäki Teemu - - 2004
Sulfa antibiotics (sulfonamides) are a group of molecules sharing the p-aminobenzenesulfonamide moiety. Sulfonamides are used in veterinary and human medicine. Sometimes, the meat or milk of medicated animals is contaminated with residual sulfonamides. Current analytical methods for sulfonamides are unfit for screening of food, because they are either too laborious, ...
Dewan Aruna - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: A number of families in a rural area of Jabalpur District (Madhya Pradesh), India, were affected by repeated episodes of convulsive illness over a period of three weeks. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause of the illness. METHODS: The investigation included a house-to-house survey, interviews ...
Kotretsou Stamatia I - - 2004
The widespread use of antibiotics in dairy cattle management may result in the presence of antibiotic residues in food. While rapid screening tests are commonly used to detect the presence of antibiotics in food, more accurate chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are required to determine the ...
Ahmad Nisar - - 2004
Galectin-3 is unique among the galectin family of animal lectins in its biological activities and structure. Most members of the galectin family including galectin-1 possess apoptotic activities, whereas galectin-3 possesses anti-apoptotic activity. Galectin-3 is also the only chimera type galectin and consists of a nonlectin N-terminal domain and a C-terminal ...
El-Saeid Mohamed H - - 2003
Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical ...
Rohrer Cynthia A - - 2003
The transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods was measured to determine the degree of excess dietary exposure that occurs when children's foods contact contaminated surfaces prior to being eaten. Three household flooring surfaces (ceramic tile, hardwood, and carpet) were contaminated with an aqueous emulsion of commercially available pesticides ...
Brewer Larry W - - 2003
Two 10-day field residue studies were conducted to measure the amount of chlorpyrifos residue found in typical avian food following applications of a commercial 480 g liter(-1) EC (Lorsban 4E) at 1.1 kg AI ha(-1) (1 lb AI acre(-1)) to alfalfa and at 2.3 kg Al ha(-1) (2.0 lb AI ...
Dockery Christopher R - - 2003
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to determine whether the hands of a suspected gun user contain traces of gunshot residue. Samples are obtained by pressing adhesive tape against the skin of the suspect and analyzing the tape directly. When the suspect has fired multiple shots, or if the ...
López A - - 2003
The 'fitness for purpose' of a probabilistic model designed to assess dietary exposure to pesticides was validated. The model had to meet two prerequisites. First, it should provide more realistic estimates of intake than conservative methods. Second, it should not underestimate 'true' intakes. True intakes were estimated using a duplicate ...
Toteja G S - - 2003
As part of a multicentre study conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000 samples of rice were collected from rural and urban areas of 13 states representing different geographical regions of India. The samples were analyzed for residues of DDT [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane] and different isomers of HCH [1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, a ...
DeLorenzo Marie E - - 2003
This study analyzed the toxicity of three pesticides (the herbicide atrazine, the insecticide chlorpyrifos and the fungicide chlorothalonil) individually, and in two mixtures (atrazine and chlorpyrifos; atrazine and chlorothalonil) to the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta). A standard 96 h static algal bioassay was used to determine pesticide effects ...
Stanek Katja - - 2003
This paper describes the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon in juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). The woodlice were exposed to different concentrations of diazinon added to food (5, 10, 50, and 100 or 150 micrograms/g dry food). Weight change and food assimilation efficiency were determined two ...
Cengiz E I - - 2003
The histopathological effects of malathion, an organophosphate pesticide, on the gill tissues in mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, were determined by light microscope. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (0.01 and 0.02 mg/L) of malathion for 10, 20 and 30 days. Histological examination of the gills treated with malathion showed a ...
Kowalski P - - 2003
Antibiotics are extensively applied in veterinary medicine for the treatment of various bacterial infections. Because of their use in food producing animals, the risk of occurrence of unwanted residues in edible products exists. To ensure human food safety, The European Union has defined maximum residue limits (MRLs) for veterinary drug ...
Chun Ock Kyoung - - 2003
The aim of this study was to evaluate theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) and estimated daily intake (EDI) for Korean by using maximum residue levels (MRLs), food intake, residue data and correction factors, and compare with acceptable daily intake (ADI) in order to estimate the health risk based on the ...
Broomhall S - - 2003
The organochlorine insecticide endosulfan is extensively used in Australia and can often contaminate aquatic environments. However, its effects on Australian frog species are unknown. We exposed tadpoles of the Australian treefrog Litoria frevcineti to endosulfan for 96 hours. Tadpoles exposed to 0.03 or 1.3 microg/L endosulfan grew more slowly than ...
Valbonesi Paola - - 2003
Anticholinesterases constitute a major portion of modern synthetic insecticides and the assessment of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition is widely used as a specific biomarker for evaluating the exposure of non-target organisms to these pollutants. To evaluate the possible exposure of the North Adriatic sea coastal environment to residues of agriculture practices, ...
Jensen A F - - 2003
The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected in the Danish ...
Sandra Pat - - 2003
The performance of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) for the enrichment of pesticides from vegetables, fruits and baby food samples is discussed. After extraction with methanol, an aliquot is diluted with water and SBSE is performed for 60 min. By applying a new thermal desorption unit (TDU), fully automated and ...
Kellner James R - - 2003
We tested seven hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which fluctuating asymmetry (FA) originates. We did this by analyzing data on four bilateral characters measured repeatedly during the development of individual domestic fowl. Immediately posthatching, there was substantial directional asymmetry, which rapidly decreased. We detected FA at significant levels in all ...
Schulz Ralf - - 2003
In situ testing represents an alternative to conventional laboratory toxicity testing of field samples. Juvenile Paramelita nigroculus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) were exposed in situ in two rivers downstream of fruit orchard areas in the Western Cape, South Africa. Exposure took place during six time intervals (3-7 d), of which three represented ...
Thomas Miles R - - 2003
The last decade has seen an increasing requirement throughout the United Kingdom (UK) for accurate, timely information on pesticide usage on fresh produce such as vegetables to satisfy government legislation and provide data as part of the registration and review process of pesticides. These data, collected by the Department for ...
Dinham Barbara - - 2003
Vegetables attract high applications of pesticides, and farmers in developing countries use many acutely toxic insecticides to control pests on these crops. With the liberalisation of agricultural markets in developing countries, the number of small-scale farmers growing vegetables for both domestic and export markets is increasing. Demand for supplies of ...
Fogg Paul - - 2003
Pesticides play an important role in the success of modern farming and food production. However, the release of pesticides to the environment arising from non-approved use, poor practice, illegal operations or misuse is increasingly recognised as contributing to water contamination. Biobeds appear to offer a cost-effective method for treating pesticide-contaminated ...
Lie E - - 2003
Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH ...
Barlow Brian K - - 2003
Exposure to pesticides may be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease based on epidemiologic data in humans, animal models and in vitro studies. Different dithiocarbamate pesticides potentiate the toxicity of both 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and paraquat in mouse models of Parkinsonism by an unknown mechanism. This study examined the effects of commercially ...
Loewy R M - - 2003
As a part of landscape-scale study, ground water samples were collected from 30 wells located in fruit production farms belonging to the valley of Neuquen river during the period 1995-1998 and analyzed for organophosphate pesticides. As a consequence of the leaching process, ground water from the Valley of Neuquen River ...
Partanen Timo - - 2003
The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are ...
Zhong Weike - - 2003
A monitoring study was conducted in 2001 to determine the organochlorine pesticides and their metabolite residues in milk taken from supermarkets in Beijing, P. R. China. The average concentrations of total HCH and DDT were 0.038 and 0.046 mg x kg(-1), respectively, expressed on a fat basis. The aldrin residue ...
Haith Douglas A - - 2003
The TurfPQ model was used to simulate the runoff of 15 pesticides commonly applied to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) fairways and greens on golf courses in the northeastern USA. Simulations produced 100-yr daily records of water runoff, pesticide runoff, and pesticide concentration in runoff for three locations: Boston, MA, ...
Lin Juan - - 2003
AIM: To study the antitumor effects of curcin from Jatropha curcas. METHODS: Antitumor activity of curcin was tested by MTT assay. The N-glycosidase activity of curcin was determined by characterization of R-fragment in gel. A cell-free system, rabbit reticulocyte lysate, was introduced to quantify the inhibitory activity of curcin on ...
Ripley Brian D - - 2003
The behavior and dissipation of several pesticides on selected cultivars of specialty vegetable crops were compared to determine appropriate preharvest intervals for compliance with maximum residue limits. To reduce application variability, a tank mix of pesticides was applied for each trial. Residues of eight pesticides applied to bok choi, Chinese ...
Kragten S - - 2003
Pesticide use in The Netherlands is very high, and pesticides are found across all environmental compartments. Among individual farmers, though, there is wide variation in both pesticide use and the potential environmental impact of that use, providing policy leverage for environmental protection. This paper reports on a benchmarking tool with ...
Careri M - - 2003
Traceability of genetically modified (GM) foods demands the development of appropriate reliable techniques in order to identify and quantify peptide or nucleic acid residues in GM plants and food products through the food chain. In this study the applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) was demonstrated for ...
Strayer R F - - 2003
Inorganic nutrients can be easily recovered from ALS crop residue solid wastes by aqueous leaching. However, oven drying and milling pretreatment of these residues has been frequently required to accommodate crop scientists and facility storage limitations. As part of a research study that will compare three different bioreactor technologies for ...
Suzuki Erika - - 2002
The role of glycosylinositol phospholipid 1 (GIPL-1) of Leishmania (Leishmania) major in the interaction of promastigotes and amastigotes with macrophages was analyzed. Monoclonal antibody MEST-1, which recognizes glycolipids containing terminal galactofuranose (Galf) residues (E. Suzuki, M. S. Toledo, H. K. Takahashi, and A. H. Straus, Glycobiology 7:463-468, 1997), was used ...
Gryspeerdt S - - 2002
Colon preparation technique is a major determinant factor for patient compliance and polyp detection in computed tomographic colonography (CTC). The purpose of this study is to compare three different colon cleansing techniques in terms of patient discomfort, sensitivity and specificity. The following colon cleansing methods were compared in 20 patients ...
Curtis Chris F - - 2002
Indoor residual spraying with DDT was the principle method by which malaria transmission was eradicated or greatly reduced in many countries between the late 1940s and 1970s. Since then, decreasing use of DDT has been associated with a resurgence of malaria in India, Sri Lanka, former Soviet Central Asia, Zanzibar, ...
Schulze Holger - - 2002
A highly sensitive and rapid food-screening test based on disposable screen-printed biosensors was developed, which is suitable for monitoring infant food. The exposure of infants and children to neurotoxic organophosphates and carbamates is of particular concern because of their higher susceptibility to adverse effects. The European Union has, therefore, set ...
Schafer K S - - 2002
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have spread throughout the global environment to threaten human health and damage ecosystems, with evidence of POPs contamination in wildlife, human blood, and breast milk documented worldwide. Based on data from the US Food and Drug Administration, this article provides a brief overview of POPs residues ...
Reddersen Kirsten - - 2002
Residues of three phenazone-type pharmaceuticals have been identified in routine analyses of groundwater samples from selected areas in the north-western districts of Berlin, Germany. Phenazone, propiphenazone, and dimethylaminophenazone have been detected in some wells at concentrations up to the low microg/l-level. Additionally, three phenazone-type metabolites namely 1-acetyl-1-methyl-2-dimethyl-oxamoyl-2-phenylhydrazide (AMDOPH), 1-acetyl-1-methyl-2-phenylhydrazide, and ...
Kieszak Stephanie M - - 2002
Concerns about pesticide exposure through food consumption have increased during the past several years. The main objective of our study was to determine whether we could use data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to detect a relation between self-reported food consumption--particularly consumption of fruits, ...
Curwin B - - 2002
Residents of Iowa were enrolled in a study investigating differences in pesticide contamination and exposure factors between 25 farm homes and 25 non-farm homes. The target pesticides investigated were atrazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, alachlor, 2,4-D, glyphosate, and chlorpyrifos; all were applied to either corn or soybean crops. A questionnaire was administered ...
Benbrook C M - - 2002
All US government pesticide residue datasets show that persistent organochlorine (OC) insecticide residues are surprisingly common in certain foods despite being off the market for over 20 years. Residues of dieldrin, in particular, pose substantial risks in certain root crops. About 60% of the samples of organic vegetables found to ...
Eddleston Michael - - 2002
In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced a voluntary code of conduct for ...
Frampton Geoff K - - 2002
During a 6-year study, effects of two contrasting regimes of pesticide use on pitfall and suction catches of Collembola were monitored in an arable field under a rotation of grass and winter wheat. Current farm practice (CFP) represented conventional fungicide and herbicide use plus applications of organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, whereas ...
Owen Richard - - 2002
The use of sequential measurements of hemolymph cholinesterase activities as a non-invasive biomarker of seasonal organophosphate/carbamate exposure was investigated for the tropical scallop, Euvola (Pecten) ziczac. Overall activities of both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were relatively high compared to studies with bivalve tissues. Acute in vivo experiments showed inhibition of hemolymph ...
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