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Saunders J C - - 1988
Residues of veterinary products in food animals have been the subject of much debate in recent years. This paper attempts to define and classify what is meant by the term 'residue' and to discuss the toxicological significance of various types of residues and how they may be controlled to ensure ...
Singh P P - - 1988
Total diet samples, collected every 3 months during a period of 1 year, were analysed for DDT and BHC residues. The food items were purchased from retailers, prepared for eating according to local practices and divided into several food groups. The results show that average dietary exposure to DDT and ...
Di Muccio A - - 1988
The levels of o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-TDE (DDD), and p,p'-DDT were determined in 19 samples of Dicofol formulations commercially available in Italy. The total of DDT-like compounds, calculated on a Dicofol content basis, was in the range 0.63-23.19%, with an average of 8.28%. Setting a requirement of minimum purity for ...
Bellisai S - - 1988
Data on pesticide residue on vegetables, fruits, cereals, and other foods of vegetable or animal origin determined by Provincial Laboratories during the years 1980-1982 are presented and compared with levels permitted by Italian legislation. An analysis of the results obtained from about 3000 samples shows that a high percentage of ...
Kikuchi H - - 1988
A sensitive method is described to determine trace quantities of ethylene oxide (EO) in EO-sterilized intraocular lenses (IOLs). An IOL is dipped in ethanol containing 0.25 ppm propylene oxide (PO) in a 4 mL vial, 2 drops of freshly distilled hydrobromic acid is added through a septum, and the mixture ...
Hundley H K - - 1988
Nearly 20,000 samples of food and feed commodities were analyzed for pesticide residues by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Los Angeles District Laboratory during the 5-year study period 1981-1986. The resultant data base has been summarized to provide separate residue information for domestic and imported samples. The overall violation ...
Berry C L - - 1988
1. Chemical treatment of crops is essential not only to reduce losses but also to prevent certain food related diseases. 2. Pesticides, unlike many other compounds, are designed to kill higher organisms and thus pose special toxicological problems. 3. It is important to understand the mechanism of action of the ...
Kihn J C - - 1988
The physical meaning of the residual absorbance of a yeast suspension after flocculation and settling has been investigated. Starting with a dispersed suspension, agitation accelerates flocculation by increasing the probability of collision between particles. As flocculation advances, agitation also breaks the flocs. A stationary state is reached when flocculence (tendency ...
Hirsch G H - - 1988
During May and June of 1985 the Health Protection Branch and several other agencies were involved in the investigation of over 300 reports of illness reported in the Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. Symptoms reported included nausea, vomiting, dizziness, muscle fasciculation and blurred vision. A review of the onset ...
Fores E - - 1988
The effects of malathion + lindane biocide on Moina and Acanthocyclops populations were tested under experimental conditions. The LD50,24 for Moina is 0.00034 ml.liter-1. Percentages of Acanthocyclops surviving different biocide doses within the range 0.0002-0.0006 ml.liter were not significantly different from each other. The biocide dose used by the farmers ...
Luke M A - - 1988
During a 5 year period from 1982 to 1986, the FDA Los Angeles District Laboratory analyzed 19,851 samples of domestic and imported food and feed commodities for pesticide residues. A single, rapid, multiresidue method was used. The resultant data have been compiled showing the commodities sampled and the identity and ...
Conner M T - - 1988
Untrained assessors graphically rated the saltiness of plain slices of white bread relative to a personally ideal level of saltiness, with each test session designed to minimize known contextual effects on ratings. Judgements were highly reliable from the first session. However, the mean of the residual variances of individuals' psychophysical ...
Tripathi A K - - 1988
Widespread use of pesticides has no doubt benefited human beings in one way or another. However, their side effects on various organisms, including nontarget organisms, are largely overlooked. In the recent past, several studies have been done to assess the effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms, including microorganisms. Although pesticide ...
Bumpus J A - - 1987
Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of [14C]DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol ...
Pennington J A - - 1987
The Total Diet Study provides the Food and Drug Administration with baseline information on the levels of pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrient elements in the food supply and in the diets of specific age-sex groups. The study also identifies trends and changes in the levels of these substances in the ...
Reed D V - - 1987
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) carries out an extensive program to monitor foods for pesticide residues. The 2 main objectives of the program are to enforce tolerances established by the Environmental Protection Agency for pesticide residues on foods and feeds and to determine the incidence and level of ...
Varanka I - - 1987
The effect of four insecticides (Fyfanon, K-Othrin, Unitox 7 and Unitox 20) was investigated on the freshwater mussels Anodonta cygnea L., Anodonta anatina L. and Unio pictorum L. The studies were performed in hard water (total salinity of 310 mg/l). The LC50 values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr and ...
Albrecht W N - - 1987
To ascertain changes in the level of general central nervous system (CNS) excitability and, therefore, postulated neurotoxicity of some common environmental residues, a bioassay was developed that used a known general CNS stimulant, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, Metrazol). As a positive control, dieldrin was compared to PTZ and nine other compounds (caffeine, ...
Hajslová J - - 1986
A spectrophotometric method based on the liberation of carbon disulfide is suitable for the determination of ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (EBDC) residues on apples. Homogenization of samples before analysis initiates rapid breakdown of EBDC, resulting in low recoveries. Thermal conversion of mancozeb to ethylenethiourea (ETU) in the course of apple processing was investigated. ...
Newsome W H - - 1986
The technique of immunochemical analysis, including the principles involved, is described and the various types of assay are discussed. Application of these methods to the analysis of foods for residues of pesticides, contaminants, drug residues, and natural constituents is reviewed. Compared with conventional methods, immunoassays offer similar detection limits and ...
Hilton A F - - 1986
Four siblings in a family of five were found to be affected with hypermetropia in differing degrees and with differing effects. These were unilateral hypermetropia, producing amblyopia; hypermetropia inducing an accommodative esotropia with minimal amblyopia and fully controlled with glasses; hypermetropia producing an accommodative esotropia with a high AC/A ratio, ...
Gartrell M J - - 1986
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated ...
Gartrell M J - - 1986
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated ...
Eisenberg M - - 1985
Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, ...
Blaha J J - - 1985
A multiresidue method for the quantitative determination of organophosphorus pesticides in foods from the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study is described. The organophosphorus pesticides are separated on the basis of polarity and determined in both fatty and nonfatty foods with a minimum of interferences. The foods analyzed included ...
Gartrell M J - - 1985
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated ...
Gartrell M J - - 1985
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated ...
Gartrell M J - - 1985
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated ...
Gartrell M J - - 1985
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated ...
Krause R T - - 1985
Four laboratories obtained 177 carbamate recovery values using a liquid chromatographic method. The average recovery of 11 carbamates (aldicarb, aldicarb sulfone, bufencarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, 3-hydroxy carbofuran, 3-keto carbofuran, methiocarb, methiocarb sulfoxide, methomyl, and oxamyl) from 14 crops was 99% with a coefficient of variation of 8% (0.03-1.8 ppm fortification levels). ...
Stacey C I - - 1985
Two hundred sixty-seven samples of breast milk, supplied by 140 donors from both urban (N = 45) and rural (N = 95) areas, were analyzed on a whole milk basis for aldrin, gamma-benzene hexachloride (gamma BHC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to ascertain the effectiveness of restrictions placed ...
Zweig G - - 1985
Dermal pesticide exposure rates, expressed in mg/hr, by strawberry and blueberry harvesters and dislodgeable foliar pesticide residues were determined in 7 separate field experiments during 1981-1983 in California and Oregon. The pesticides which were studied included captan, vinclozolin, carbaryl, and methiocarb. A positive correlation between these two parameters was found ...
Reed D V - - 1985
Through an approach called the Surveillance Index (SI), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is systematically evaluating the potential health risk of pesticides that may be present as residues in foods. The SI is being used as a primary tool in the establishment of monitoring priorities. Each pesticide is ...
Eisenberg M - - 1984
Shellfish samples, including the American oyster (Craessostrea virginica), the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), the hard shell clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and the blue crab (callinectes sapidus), were taken from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five year period (1976-80) and analyzed to determine residue ...
Peattie M E - - 1984
Chlorinated benzenes are produced in large quantities on a world-wide basis. They are important industrial chemicals, chemical intermediates and components of the waste products of chemical synthesis. Their widespread occurrence and persistence, particularly in the case of the more highly chlorinated benzenes, has resulted in residues in food and human ...
Gretch F M - - 1984
An automated continuous flow procedure is described that improves the cost effectiveness and precision of AOAC methodology for multiresidue pesticide determinations in nonfatty foods. Individual modules capable of performing automated solvent partitioning and automated column chromatography were constructed and integrated into a continuous flow system. Data are presented comparing the ...
de Vos R H - - 1984
Over a period of 2 yr 126 different food items of a market basket of 16-18-yr old males were purchased every 2 months. The foodstuffs were prepared as for eating, and were combined in 12 commodity groups. Twelves samples of each food group were homogenized and analysed for 78 different ...
Podrebarac D S - - 1984
The Food and Drug Administration has conducted the Total Diet Study since 1964. The program originally focused on the average total diet of the young adult male but was eventually expanded to include the average total diets of infants and toddlers. This report is the fourth in the infant and ...
Börzsönyi M - - 1984
Although all people are exposed throughout life to pesticides (during manufacture and use, in the environment, via the food chain), with the exception of vinyl chloride and the arsenic compounds, no human carcinogen pesticide is known. In experimental animals and short-term tests, however, many pesticides have proved to be carcinogenic ...
Johnson R D - - 1984
Since 1964, the Food and Drug Administration has reported residues of pesticides and other chemicals in the average diet of the United States' heartiest eater, the young adult male, through the Total Diet Study. This report is the thirteenth in the series and includes results of analyses for 25 market ...
Regula E - - 1984
Dried apples (dice 298 samples, powder 35 samples) imported from Italy 1976 to 1982 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. All values lay well below the legal limits of the German Federal Republic. DDT residues in apple powder were higher than in apple dice, but DDT values decreased significantly during the ...
Podrebarac D S - - 1984
Residues of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and selected industrial chemicals and metals have been reported since 1964 through the Total Diet Study conducted by the Food and Drug Administration. This report, which is the fourteenth in the series, includes data for the adult diet market basket samples collected from October 1977 ...
Guzelian P S - - 1984
Workers in a small factory that manufactured the organochlorine pesticide chlordecone were exposed to large amounts of this toxic material for many months. Toxic manifestations prominently involved the nervous system, liver and testes. Chlordecone was present in high concentrations in samples of blood, liver, and fat from these workers. A ...
Karanth N G - - 1983
Insecticide fingerprinting technique enables the detection and location of DDT and HCH residues in vegetables through the development of green and prussian blue colors respectively. Cut vegetables are pressed against o-tolidine impregnated paper and exposed to sunlight where colored spots appear instantly. The studies on 18 vegetable varieties revealed the ...
Hathcock J N - - 1983
The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission publishes a Guide to Codex Maximum Limits for Pesticide Residues (1978) which gives both acceptable daily intake (ADI) values and maximum residue limit (MRL) values for many pesticides in raw agricultural commodities (rac's) from crops on which their use is approved. ADI values are determined ...
Uhnák J - - 1983
By studying the exposure of the human organism to chlorinated pesticide residues, revealed on the basis of ecological studies in the food chain in Czechoslovakia, the authors proved that the exposure was relatively low for the adult population (except for HCB), but with regard to the children's organism the acceptable ...
Burnam W L - - 1982
The 1978 Office of Pesticide Programs Guidelines gave guidance to the registrant as to the type and nature of the toxicological studies required to register a pesticide in the United States (Federal Register, Aug. 22, 1978, Part II). The most rigorous data requirements are for pesticides used on food or ...
Dimmock N A - - 1982
The performance characteristics of the Orion 97-70 total residual chlorine electrode have been determined and the electrode has been found to give a near-theoretical response down to chlorine concentrations in the range 1-5 mug/1. Within-batch relative standard deviations are about 6-8% at concentrations above 50 mug/1. and 10-15% at lower ...
Singh P P - - 1982
The potential of sulphuric acid treatment for clean-up of 10 food composites comprising 36 food items of north Indian total diet has been evaluated for the estimation of BHC and DDT residues by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. In all cases the clean-up was satisfactory without resort to column chromatography. ...
Líska D - - 1982
The authors put forth their proposition for pesticide classification from the points of view of acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin toxicity 'resorption), cummulation coefficient and chronic effect--anticipated chronic risk. The proposition of this kind may be considered a priority in Czechoslovakia. It is confronted with the criteria for pesticide classification ...
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