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Results 451 - 500 of 674
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Wittmann C - - 1996
On the basis of a semi-quantitative dipstick immunoassay (IA) for atrazine with visual detection (Giersch, T., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1993, 41, 1006), a quantitative format suitable as a field assay for the analysis of pesticide residues in water and liquid food samples on-site is described. For antibody immobilization, different ...
Zhang L - - 1996
Clonal deletion via activation-induced apoptosis (AIA) of antigen-specific T cells (ASTC) plays a very important role in the induction of peripheral tolerance. However, none of the studies performed so far has shown a complete deletion of ASTC, a small population always persisting in the periphery. The mechanism by which this ...
Losada A - - 1996
Residue levels of the organochlorine pesticides (alpha-HCH, lindane, heptachlor-epoxide, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, o,p'-TDE, p,p'-TDE, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT) were determined in raw bovine milk and compared with the maximum levels allowed by the European Union (EU) in these foods. The highest incidence percentage of the ten insecticides measured was for lindane, ...
Dejonckheere W - - 1996
In the period 1991-1993, an official study was conducted to measure the presence and evaluate the risk of pesticide residues in plantbased food in the Belgian total diet. Positive samples were subjected to one or more culinary treatments (washing, peeling, steaming, or cooking) to determine the decrease of residues in ...
Neidert E - - 1996
During the 27-month period between January 1, 1992, and March 31, 1994, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada analyzed 21,982 samples of fruit and vegetable commodities for pesticide residues. A multiresidue method capable of detecting over 200 analytes was used. In 5784 domestic samples a total of 676 residue findings were made. ...
Lovell R A - - 1996
During Fiscal Years 1989-1994, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected and analyzed 545 domestic surveillance samples of mixed feed rations (172 for cattle, 125 for poultry, 83 for swine, 61 for pets, 56 for fish, and 48 miscellaneous). All samples were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography for organohalogen and ...
Herrera A - - 1996
In many countries pesticide residues in foods are monitored to ensure that public health is not endangered by residue daily intakes in excess of the recommended tolerance levels (van Dokkum and de Vos 1987). In Spain, there is only a total diet study carried out during 1971-72 by Carrasco et ...
Fenner-Crisp P A - - 1996
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency serves as the lead agency of the Federal government for the regulation of pesticide use in the United States. Regulatory responsibilities are mandated in the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and several sections of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). In ...
Aprea C - - 1996
Xenobiotic residues and their metabolites in biological fluids of the general population are an important indicator of exposure to toxic substances dispersed in the environment. Urine samples collected from 124 subjects living in SW Tuscany, Italy were analyzed for alkylphosphates (dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, diethyldithiophosphate), aspecific metabolites of organophosphorus ...
Ekström G - - 1996
The Swedish Government has initiated three pesticide risk-reduction programs since the mid-1980s. Risk-reduction achievements have been measured mainly in terms of reduction in quantities sold. In this review, risk-reduction achievements have been described also in terms of pesticide residues in foods, both imported and grown domestically, acute health hazard to ...
Pennington J A - - 1996
The Total Diet Studies conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provide yearly information on levels of pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in the food supply and diets of specific age-sex groups. They also identify trends and changes in the levels of these substances in the food supply ...
Ferrer A - - 1995
The mechanisms of production of collective poisoning by pesticides have been contamination of foods consumed by man, cutaneous contact and occupational exposure. It is possible to distinguish 4 groups of alimentary epidemics: (1) contamination during transport or storage; (2) ingestion of seed dressed for sowing: (3) use of pesticides in ...
El-Kazzi M - - 1995
1. A sample of 48 hens and cockerels from generation 17 of a divergent selection experiment on residual food intake was examined to determine whether the large food intake differences between those lines were associated with differences of body composition. 2. Adiposity and lipid contents of various parts of the ...
Gallelli G - - 1995
Organochlorine compounds have been analyzed in human samples from residents of Genoa, a city in Northern Italy. Twenty-eight specimens of adipose tissue from 17 males and 11 females deceased from accidental causes in March and April 1989 were examined. In 12 of the 17 males, liver tissue specimens were also ...
Mergnat T - - 1995
Dehydrated fruits and vegetables, which may well be used in baby foods, must be of excellent bacteriological quality with an absence of contamination. In order to define the effects of the industrial dehydration process, according to the 'Hatmacker' drying method, on an organophosphorus pesticide, we have studied phosalone in Golden ...
Kaufman B M - - 1995
Measurement of levels of pesticides residues in foods and crops most often requires extensive cleanup and instrumental techniques such as gas chromatography. Immunoassay measurement techniques, on the other hand, may be used directly on the test portion or require only minimal cleanup. Further refinements of the common antibody-enzyme-based solid-phase assays, ...
Nakagawa R - - 1995
To estimate Japanese daily intakes of organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDTs), dieldrin (aldrin), heptachlor-epoxide (heptachlor), and hexachlorobenzenes (HCBs) from foods, fish, fish products, meat, eggs, milk, and milk products were analyzed as major sources of these pesticides in the diet. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) per person were ...
Simpson C L - - 1995
The four recombinant glucosyltransferases (GTFs), GtfJ, GtfK, GtfL and GtfM, that had previously been cloned from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, were individually expressed in Escherichia coli and their glucan products and kinetic properties were analysed. GtfJ was a primer-dependent GTF which synthesized an insoluble glucan composed mainly of alpha-(1-->3)-linked glucosyl ...
- - 1995
This report lists the pesticide and industrial chemicals found in the ready-to-eat foods tested repetitively for 10 years through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Revised Market Basket Study. The study operated from 1982 to 1991. During that time 37 market baskets, each containing 234 food items that represented about ...
Dwarka S - - 1995
1. The concentrations of some organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls have been determined in 193 samples of human milk collected between July 1989 and July 1991. 2. Comparison of the results with those from previous studies in 1979-80, and earlier, shows a continuing decline in residue levels except for polychlorobiphenyls. 3. ...
McNeal T P - - 1995
A limited number of soft drinks, juices, beers, and waters from processed vegetables were analyzed for trihalomethanes (THMs), benzene, and toluene by a modified Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 524.2. The THMs, which include chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, are reaction by-products of water disinfection by chlorination. EPA Method 524.2 ...
Matthiessen P - - 1995
There is now much information on the presence of pesticides in surface waters, but very little about their actual effects on aquatic life. This paper reports on the transient concentrations of a carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which were observed in a head-water stream draining treated farmland, and describes the resulting effects ...
Rose M D - - 1995
The heat stability of clenbuterol was investigated. The drug was shown to be stable in boiling water at 100 degrees C. In cooking oil at 260 degrees C, losses were observed, indicating a half-life of about 5 min. The effect of a range of cooking processes (boiling, roasting, frying, microwaving) ...
Petersen B J - - 1994
The method of dietary exposure assessment currently used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Dietary Residue Evaluation System (DRES), combines a consumption distribution derived from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) with a single estimate of residue level. The National Academy of ...
Cairns J R - - 1994
Incomplete vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation has been found in bone Gla protein (BGP) isolated from each of 20 different human bone samples. Using N-terminal protein sequencing of the methyl-esterified protein (Anal Biochem 1991;199:93-97), a method that directly measures the percentage of gamma-carboxylation at each target glutamate residue, the extent of incomplete ...
Maitre M I - - 1994
Pasteurised milk--120 samples--was analysed (in Santa Fe City, Argentina) to determine organochlorinated pesticides. Almost all samples showed the presence of such residues; the compounds more frequently detected being: heptachlor and its epoxide (98%) and hexachlorocyclohexane .HCH. alpha and gamma isomers. Residues of aldrin and dieldrin; chlordane (alpha and gamma); endosulfan ...
Rodríguez E M - - 1994
Female crabs of Chasmagnathus granulata, sampled at the external zone of the Rio de la Plata estuary, were chronically exposed to the pesticides parathion and 2,4-D, both of which have been extensively applied to crops in Argentina for a decade and have been detected several times above permissible levels in ...
Dolara P - - 1994
Lymphocytes obtained from 5 healthy donors were incubated with a mixture of 15 pesticides commonly found in foods of central Italy (dithiocarbamates (20.7%), benomyl (19.6%), thiabendazole (14.9%), diphenylamine (14.4%), chlorthalonil (13.1%), procymidone (8.0%), methidathion (2.3%), chlorpyrifos-ethyl (2%), fenarimol (1.9%), parathion-methyl (1%), chlorpropham, parathion, vinchlozolin, chlorfenvinphos and pirimiphos-ethyl (< 1%)). The ...
- - 1994
A total of 12,751 samples of domestically produced food from all 50 states and Puerto Rico and imported food from 107 countries was analyzed for pesticide residues in 1993. Of these, 12,166 were surveillance samples, which are collected when there is no evidence of a pesticide problem. No residues were ...
Gordon C J - - 1994
The regulation of body temperature is one of many homeostatic functions affected by exposure to anticholinesterase (antiChE) pesticides, and related compounds. In the study of antiChE neurotoxicity, thermoregulatory variables are often used as sensitive physiological indices. Hence, a review on the thermoregulatory aspects of antiChE agents would be useful to ...
Cullen M C - - 1994
A simple partition model was developed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides (dieldrin and heptachlor) in the soil-pasture-grazing animal system. Biomagnification factors (BFL) calculated on a lipid basis ranged from 0.115 to 0.175, but could not be directly compared with other values from the literature because of different ...
Abdelmajid H - - 1994
The neurohormone serotonin (5HT) triggers meiosis reinitiation in oocytes of the pelecypod molluscs Spisula solidissima and Ruditapes philippinarum. However, while Spisula oocytes complete maturation, Ruditapes oocytes arrest in metaphase I. Anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that serotonin triggered an early tyrosine phosphorylation of p42mapk which was transient in Spisula, but persisted in ...
Swarbrick M J - - 1994
It has previously been suggested that a single dose of magnesium citrate produces adequate cleansing of the bowel for barium enema examination. To determine whether such a regimen has any advantage over the widely used two doses of Picolax, a prospective randomized blinded trial was performed with over 100 patients ...
Bianchi L - - 1994
Four organophosphorus pesticides (azinphos-methyl, diazinone, dimethoate, and pirimiphos-methyl), and one carbamate (benomyl) were tested for cytotoxicity, reverse mutation and gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, with and without the S9 metabolic system. Furthermore, two mixtures of the above compounds, namely benomyl + pirimiphos-methyl (6/1 ratio) and dimethoate + diazinone + ...
Basri Ustünbas H - - 1994
In this study: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites [DDT + dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE)], BHC (HCH) and their main isomers such as alpha, beta, gamma BHC, aldrin and its metabolite dieldrin, heptachloride, heptachloride epoxide, were investigated in 51 samples of breast milk of 51 lactating women during 1988. The ages of the ...
Lenardón A - - 1994
Organochlorine pesticide residues were analysed in 150 samples of butter collected from several places in the cities of Santa Fe and Rosario (Argentine Republic) over a period of 18 months. Pesticides analysed in butter were: HCH (alpha and gamma isomers), heptachlor and its epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and DDT (p,p' DDE, ...
Kashyap R - - 1994
On the basis of the use of insecticides in agriculture and vector control programmes, two locations were selected in Gujarat state, India. In location 1 the insecticides are used in both agriculture and vector control programmes while in location 2 they are used only in agriculture. Raw food commodities, water, ...
Eglal - - 1994
Feeding chickens on profenofos contaminated food at levels of 50, 100 and 200 ppm resulted in significant decrease in food consumption and body weight with some mortalities in the third week of feeding. profenofos and its metabolites were found to distribute rapidly in the different tissues with a positive relationship ...
Kashyap R - - 1994
Duplicate samples of the diet of vegetarian adults were analyzed to estimate the residues of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and benzene hexachloride (BHC). The total food consumed by an adult per day was collected and categorized as fatty food, non-fatty food, water, and beverages. Fatty food was the main source of these ...
Wu N - - 1993
Trials were undertaken in a hypoendemic area of malaria in an area bordering Vietnam, in Napo County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The aim was to compare the relative cost effectiveness of DDT residual spraying and of bednets impregnated with deltamethrin in the malaria control program. The trials were ...
Trotter W J - - 1993
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has implemented a comprehensive monitoring program to determine the incidence and levels of organohalogen pesticide residues in milk representing most of the U.S. supply consumed in metropolitan areas. Residue findings for 806 composite milks collected through the Pasteurized Milk Program by the U.S. ...
Cullor J S - - 1993
Current control methods are not effective in eliminating various mastitis pathogens, and antimicrobial therapy introduces some risk of contaminating dairy products with antibiotic residues. Individuals involved in animal agriculture are sensitive to their responsibility to prevent antibiotic residues from entering the food chain. The ability to understand and perform the ...
Chen J - - 1993
The Chinese total diet study in 1990 estimated the dietary intake of 24 chemical contaminants and 72 nutrients from 4 market baskets collected and prepared in 12 provinces. Twelve food group composites were made for each regional market basket. The overall dietary Pb, Cd, Hg, hexachlorocyclohexane HCH, and DDT intakes ...
Nigg H N - - 1993
Applicators of chlorpyrifos, fluvalinate, and ethazol to ornamentals in a Florida greenhouse were monitored for exposure in a replicated experiment. Pesticide exposure was assessed, using pads placed inside and outside three types of protective coveralls. Potential total body accumulation rates, excluding hands, as calculated from outside pads, depended strongly upon ...
Dolara P - - 1993
To determine the toxicological effects of complex mixtures of pesticides, we obtained data on 100 pesticide residues in common foods of central Italy. Fifteen pesticides were more regularly detected at higher levels (dithiocarbamates, benomyl/carbendazim, thiabendazole, diphenylamine, chlorthalonil, procymidone, fenarimol, chlorpropham, vinchlozolin, methidathion, chlorpyriphos-ethyl, parathion-methyl, parathion, chlorfenviphos, pirimiphos-ethyl). Using itemized data ...
- - 1993
Under regulatory monitoring, 16,428 samples of domestically produced and imported food from 94 countries were analyzed for pesticide residues in 1992. Of these, 15,370 were surveillance samples, which are collected when there is no evidence of a pesticide problem. No residues were found in 65% of the domestic surveillance samples ...
Jacobs R M - - 1993
The US Food and Drug Administration carries out incidence/level monitoring in order to acquire data on the presence and amounts of pesticide residues in particular commodity/chemical combinations. In the survey reported here, imported green coffee beans were analysed for a variety of pesticide chemicals. A total of 60 green coffee ...
Yang Y - - 1993
Frictional transition of pesticides, the transition of the dried pesticide due to rubbing, from protective clothing was investigated by using an AATCC standard crockmeter. One insecticide (carbaryl) and two herbicides (atrazine and metolachlor) were studied, together with three protective clothing materials [cotton, polyester, and polyester/cotton (65/35) blend] and three crock ...
Vyas K - - 1993
A combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments has been used to identify and spatially locate the heme pocket residues in the paramagnetic, low spin, met-cyano complex of elephant myoglobin. In addition to assigning resonances of the conserved residues, we have also assigned Gln64 (E7) and an aromatic ring designated ...
McCracken D I - - 1993
Avermectin residues in the dung from treated livestock are detrimental to dung insects. Rare insects could be put at risk by the use of avermectins, especially those which breed exclusively in the dung of the herbivores on which avermectins are used. Livestock dung is an important feeding habitat for a ...
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