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Andrews L S - - 1998
Irradiation processing has been researched extensively and is now in use worldwide for many food commodities. Irradiation has been successfully used to reduce pathogenic bacteria, eliminate parasites, decrease postharvest sprouting, and extend the shelf life of fresh perishable foods. Although food irradiation is widely accepted in world food markets, U.S. ...
Kulakovskaya T V - - 1997
A cytosolic preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is capable of hydrolyzing adenosine-5'-tetraphosphate and guanosine-5'-tetraphosphate with activities which are 1.5-2 times greater than that with polyP15. The apparent K(m) values for hydrolysis of adenosine-5'-tetraphosphate and guanosine-5'-tetraphosphate are 100 and 80 microM, respectively. A comparative study of inhibitors shows that these activities are ...
Guo D L - - 1997
AIM: To compare the characteristics of dauricine, sotalol, and quinidine on action potential duration (APD). METHODS: Using intracellular microelectrode method to record APD in guinea pig papillary muscles. RESULTS: Dauricine 20 mumol.L-1 prolonged action potential at 90% repolarization, the percent of APD prolongation were 22 +/- 8, 11 +/- 6, ...
Smith H - - 1997
Using dichromatic radiation, we show that the actions of phytochromes A and B (phyA and phyB) in Arabidopsis thaliana are antagonistic in mediating red and far-red radiation effects on seedling de-etiolation and yet act in a complementary manner to regulate de-etiolation, irrespective of spectral composition. At low phytochrome photoequilibria inhibition ...
Cerda H - - 1997
The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf-life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labelled as such, and to enforce ...
Soni A K - - 1997
Phytoplankton and zooplankton serve as major food material for primary and secondary consumers in the marine food web. Although phytoplankton are primary targets to UV radiation damaging effects, we have demonstrated that stratospheric ozone depletion will affect zooplankton to contribute to inhibition in biomass production. In this study, an annilid ...
Applegate L A - - 1997
BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that a UVA-induced erythema is difficult to detect except in the most sensitive individuals. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: As UVA effects on human skin and skin cells have been shown to depend strongly on anatomical body sites, UVA I, UVA I + II and solar simulator ...
Desrosiers M F - - 1996
This review gives a brief outline of the principles of the EPR detection method for irradiated foods by food type. For each food type, the scope, limitations and status of the method are given. The extensive reference list aims to include all which define the method, as well as some ...
Wong Y C - - 1996
A comparative study was undertaken to determine the effect of irradiation and thermal pasteurization on the functional, physical, and microbiological properties of liquid egg white (LEW). The LEW was irradiated or thermally pasteurized then stored at 4 C for 3 mo. Both treatments destroyed the inoculum, Salmonella typhimurium. The microbial ...
McCormick G M GM - - 1996
Winchester Ammunition has developed a bullet that was specifically designed to perform better than other hollow-point missiles. The resulting cartridge, the Black Talon bullet offers a low-velocity missile that retains its weight, penetrates even when interrupted by intervening objects, and remains capable of expansion in soft tissue. The bullet causes ...
Oda Y - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Finding an optimal soldering system for a titanium prosthesis has become increasingly important with the successful introduction of titanium and titanium alloys to dentistry. This study examined the effect of corrosion on the strength of the soldered joints of pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloys joined using various solders. METHODS: ...
McNally F J - - 1996
The assembly and function of the mitotic spindle involve specific changes in the dynamic properties of microtubules. One such change results in the poleward flux of tubulin in which spindle microtubules polymerize at their kinetochore-attached plus ends while they shorten at their centrosome-attached minus ends. Since free microtubule minus ends ...
Björklund K - - 1996
The width of the symphysis pubis was measured in a skeleton model using slide rule, ultrasonography and x-ray. Ultrasonography gave a 0.5-mm and x-ray a 1.0-mm narrower gap than the slide rule. Further, 15 nonpregnant females undergoing urography volunteered for an extra ultrasonography of the symphysis pubis. The widths of ...
Tsuji K - - 1995
Microcystins are very potent hepatotoxins and strong liver tumor promoters produced by cyanobacteria, and their occurrence has been reported all over the world. They could threaten human health when toxic Microcystis occurs in water supply reservoirs. In this study, we examined the stability of microcystins during photolysis with UV light. ...
Tucker N P - - 1995
Given the tunability of synchrotron radiation, photoemission spectroscopy can be used to monitor the growth modes of thin films in UHV. Cross-section effects such as Cooper minima and resonant photoemission can be exploited to maximize the adsorbate signal and minimize that from the substrate. Under favourable circumstances growth can be ...
Elliott C T - - 1995
The means to detect the irradiation of food has been investigated for many years. In recent times radiolytic products, termed 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-CBs), have been identified as excellent markers of irradiation in lipid-containing foods. An ELISA test was developed, which was capable of detecting a number of these compounds in irradiated ...
Gorgidze L A - - 1995
After enucleation of PK (pig kidney embryo) cells using cytochalasin D centrioles remained approximately in 80% of cytoplasts. Some cytoplasts retained a single centriole. 14-16 h after enucleation large secondary lysosomes and lipid droplets were evident around the centrosome of many cytoplasts. In part of the cytoplasts replicating centrioles were ...
Goulas A E - - 1995
Food-grade PVC and PVDC/PVC films containing 28.3% dioctyladipate (DOA) and 5.0% acetyltributylcitrate (ATBC) plasticizers, respectively, were brought into contact with olive oil and were irradiated with gamma-radiation [60Co] at doses equal to 4 kGy and 9 kGy corresponding to "cold pasteurization". Irradiation was carried out at 8-10 degrees C and ...
Tsay L M - - 1995
The UV mixing titration, gel electrophoresis, and CD measurements indicate that oligomers with a basic sequence of 5'-d-T-(C-T-)2C-(T-)4C-(T-C-)2T form a hairpin type triplex with the target 5'-d-A-(G-A-)2G. The stability, measured UV melting temperatures, were studied in aqueous solution as functions of mC (5-methylcytidine) replacement of C, pH (4 to 7), ...
Wirtanen G - - 1995
A microbiological screening method for the detection of irradiation of frozen poultry meat was developed on the basis of the combined use of total cell count by the direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and viable cell count by the aerobic plate count method (APC). Samples of ground, deboned poultry leg ...
Dodd N J - - 1995
Ionizing radiation can be used to control insect and microbial infestation of foodstuffs, inhibit sprouting, delay ripening and reduce the dangers from food-poisoning bacteria. Irradiation produces free radicals, most of which decay rapidly, although some are more persistent. These latter radicals can be detected and characterized by electron spin resonance ...
Sakurai Y - - 1994
The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum with a Maxwellian distribution at a higher temperature than room temperature (300 K), was studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution at depth in a living body for neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were carried out using ...
Gross K L - - 1994
Three different preservative treatments were applied to extruded dog food. After processing the dog foods were placed in bags and stored for 16 wk at 48.8 degrees C for 12 mo at 22.2 degrees C. The preservative treatments were as follows: 1) ethoxyquin and butylated hydroxyanisole (EX/BHA), 2) mixed tocopherols ...
Dario A C - - 1994
Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, ...
Woods R J - - 1994
Large amounts of food, perhaps as much as one quarter of the world's agricultural production, is lost due to spoilage or contamination by harmful bacteria and other parasitic life forms. Food irradiation is an energy-efficient, non-chemical method of food processing that can help reduce these huge losses. Properly treated, irradiated ...
Tölli H - - 1993
Cylindrical ionization chambers with varying radii have been used to determine the displacement effect at distances between 10 mm and 40 mm from 60Co and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Agreement with published values of the displacement factor for external 60Co beams is obtained. The shift between the centre of the ionization ...
Rao J S - - 1993
The pathophysiology of the cellular basis of radiation induced demyelination and white matter necrosis of the Central Nervous System (CNS) is poorly understood. There have been no previous studies that have shown the effect of irradiation on glia-derived nexin. In this study, rats were given cervical spinal cord irradiation, and ...
Bourges F - - 1993
The influence of electron beam irradiation on migrational behaviour of additives present in food packaging material was studied. The migration experiments were carried out on irradiated and non-irradiated polypropylene pouches containing aqueous food simulating liquids (FSL) for 10 days at 40 degrees C. The controls were irradiated and non-irradiated pouches ...
Lopez I - - 1993
In a cooperative study, four laboratories evaluated the micronucleus test in irradiated and non-irradiated lymphocytes with respect to time of storage, the difference between X-ray and gamma exposure and inter-observer variance. The results were compared with parallel studies on dicentric aberrations. No significant differences between laboratories, with respect to storage ...
Pinnioja S - - 1993
A thermoluminescence (TL) method was applied for the import control of irradiated foods. The method is based on the determination of the TL of mineral contaminants in foods. Detection of irradiation was incorporated in official Finnish control procedures in spring 1990. For foodstuffs with a reduced microbe content and in ...
Hozová B - - 1993
This work presents a literary survey of accessible information on the applications of binary and trinary combinations of preservation methods (thermosterilization and irradiation with other preservation methods) and on their influence on B vitamin groups (thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and folacin) in comparison with traditionally used thermosterilization. It refers to ...
Reszka K - - 1993
The UV or visible irradiation of pigments such as curcumin, anthralin, benzanthrone, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, and rose bengal- or eosine-complexes with cationic surfactants in aerated aprotic solvents, such as benzene, toluene, acetone, n-heptane, cyclohexane, in the presence of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) generates EPR spectra with hyperfine splitting constants (hfsc's) aN = 12.75 G, ...
Käferstein F K - - 1993
In view of the enormous health and economic consequences of foodborne diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce foodborne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. With the wholesomeness of irradiated food clearly established ...
Schreiber G A - - 1993
Irradiation of food for the purpose of extension of shelf life, control of microbial load, reduction of pathogenic microorganisms and disinfection is regarded by many consumers with suspicion. One reason is the lack of methods within food-controlling laboratories which can detect irradiation treatment and which are applied to control correct ...
Stachowicz W - - 1993
Survey is given of the EPR studies on irradiated bone mineral referred to transplantology, physiology, pathology, dosimetry and to the detection of irradiated food. Stability, dose-dependency and nature of radiation-induced EPR signal in bone mineral (hydroxyapatite) are discussed. Paramagnetic centers produced by radiation as "labels" as applied to biomedical experiments ...
Raffi J - - 1993
The results of an intercomparison, organized by the Community Bureau of Reference (Commission of the European Communities), on the use of Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy for the identification of irradiated food are presented. A qualitative intercomparison was carried out using beef and trout bones, sardine scales, pistachio nut shells, dried ...
Diehl J F - - 1992
Generalizations about effects of irradiation may be misleading if the dose and commodities are not specified. Irradiation could be used for inhibition of sprouting, disinfestation, destruction of parasites in meat, to delay maturation of fruit and for pasteurization and sterilization. In some applications it could replace chemical sprout inhibitors, fumigants ...
Findlay D J - - 1992
Samples of chicken, prawns, cheeses and spices were irradiated on the Harwell electron linear accelerator HELIOS at 20 MeV to assess mechanisms for the induction of radioactivity. The induced radioactivity was measured using a lead shielded Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometer, and the results were compared with activities calculated on the basis ...
EBERIEL, D
The presence of Vibrio bacteria in raw shellfish poses a significant health hazard to the consuming public. These human pathogens are natural, seasonal components of the microbial flora of shellfish which can result in primary septicemic or diarrheal fatal infections. Existing shellfish depuration neither targets nor eliminates the Vibrio bacteria. ...
Garmyn M - - 1992
The acute and chronic deleterious effects of UVA on skin have prompted a growing interest in developing effective UVA-photoprotective sunscreens. The quantification of their UVA photoprotection remains, however, a major problem. In the present study, murine skin edema induced by 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) is evaluated as a screening method ...
Johnson D P - - 1992
A prospective study analyzing the effects of intraoperative lateral patellar release for patellar instability in total condylar knee arthroplasty demonstrated that lateral release was successful in preventing postoperative patellar instability. Division of the superolateral geniculate vessels resulted in an increased incidence of wound discoloration (P < .01) and superficial wound ...
Yang X M - - 1991
To compare laser ablation abilities of bare tip and metal probe as well as spectraprobe, specimens from human normal and atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated with Nd-YAG laser. To evaluate the influence of photothermal effect thermal energy productions of 3 tips were measured with a calorimeter. The results showed that the ...
Nevo S - - 1991
A total of 1148 Israeli Jews was typed for PI and divided by areas of origin into six groups: Eastern Europe (n = 236), Central Europe (n = 156), Rumania (n = 158), Bulgaria (n = 215), North Africa (n = 229), and Middle East (n = 154). Frequencies of ...
Nikkels A - - 1991
Computerized image analysis was used to compare lentigines (brown freckle-like cutaneous spots) induced by treatment with psoralens and ultraviolet light A (PUVA-induced lentigines) with those induced by solar exposure (actinic lentigines). For these conditions, which appear to be distinctive clinically and histologically, the number, size and shape of the macules ...
Pospísil M - - 1991
The slight radioprotective action of inosine, when injected intraperitoneally to mice shortly before gamma-irradiation, can be enhanced by the administration of magnesium aspartate. This effect can be explained by the additivity of the vasodilatory actions of both agents. Inosine increases the radioprotective effectiveness of hypobaric hypoxia (10% O2), probably due ...
Betti O O - - 1991
Based on the concepts of Leksell and on recommendations of different Swedish physicists on the use of linear accelerator for radiosurgical use, we developed a new methodology coupling the Talairach stereotactic system with a commercial linac. Anatomical facts encouraged us to use coronal angles of irradiation employing the angular displacement ...
Davis D E - - 1991
1. Zeitgebers for circannual rhythms have been elusive. Demonstration that an external factor is a zeitgeber requires proof of a phase-shift that endures for several years. 2. The California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) is an ideal subject. Many features of behavior have circannual rhythms of which change in mass is ...
Swallow A J - - 1991
Irradiation with gamma-rays, X-rays or fast electrons can be used to change foodstuffs in beneficial ways or to destroy harmful organisms. Gamma rays do not induce radioactivity in foods, but X-rays and fast electrons can induce short lived radioactivity if sufficiently energetic. This imposes limitations on the energies which can ...
Autio T - - 1990
This investigation assessed the radiation-induced thermoluminescence (TL) of food minerals for identifying irradiated foods. Mineral contamination, rather than the inherent mineral content, of foods was studied. Positive identification of foods given 1-10-kGy doses depends on the contents and composition of the mineral contamination and the time span between irradiation and ...
Biyani A - - 1990
P.A. radiographs of both wrists were taken in 400 normal individuals to study the configuration of the styloid process of the ulna. Five different morphological variations were noticed, the commonest being an elongated process (102 wrists). Medially deviated (41 wrists), parrot beaked (27 wrists) and hypertrophic (16 wrists) patterns were ...
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