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Results 201 - 250 of 371
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Aubert B - - 2002
The B(0) lifetime was measured with a sample of 23 million BB pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e(+)e(-) storage ring during 1999 and 2000. Events from the semileptonic decay B(0)-->D(*-)l(+)nu(l) have been selected with a partial reconstruction method in which only the charged lepton and the ...
Lado Beatrice H - - 2002
High-pressure processing, ionizing radiation, pulsed electric field and ultraviolet radiation are emerging preservation technologies designed to produce safe food, while maintaining its nutritional and sensory qualities. A sigmoid inactivation pattern is observed in most kinetic studies. Damage to cell membranes, enzymes or DNA is the most commonly cited cause of ...
Unno Tatsuya - - 2002
Radiotherapy for malignant tumours often elicits anorexia or loss of appetite as an adverse effect. However, the mechanism for this is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate if visceral afferents are responsible for reduction of food intake following X-ray irradiation. Rats were exposed bilaterally to X-ray (10 ...
Park H K - - 2002
Using data collected with the HyperCP (E871) spectrometer during the 1997 fixed-target run at Fermilab, we report the first observation of the decay K--->pi(-)mu(+)mu(-) and new measurements of the branching ratios for K+/--->pi(+/-)mu(+)mu(-). By combining the branching ratios for the decays K+-->pi(+)mu(+)mu(-) and K--->pi(-)mu(+)mu(-), we measure Gamma(K+/--->pi(+/-)mu(+)mu(-))/Gamma(K+/--->all) = (9.8+/-1.0+/-0.5)x10(-8). The ...
Abe K - - 2002
We report the first observation of color-suppressed B( 0)-->D(0)pi(0), D(*0)pi(0), D0eta, and D0omega decays, and evidence for B( 0)-->D(*0)eta and D(*0)omega. The branching fractions are B(B( 0)-->D0pi(0)) = (3.1 +/- 0.4 +/- 0.5)x10(-4), B(B( 0) -->D(*0)pi(0)) = (2.7(+0.8+0.5)(-0.7-0.6))x10(-4), B(B( 0) --> D0eta) = (1.4(+0.5)(-0.4) +/- 0.3)x10(-4), B(B( 0) --> D0omega) ...
Halsey Thomas C - - 2002
Diffusion-limited aggregation has a natural generalization to the "eta models," in which eta random walkers must arrive at a point on the cluster surface in order for growth to occur. It has recently been proposed that in spatial dimensionality d=2, there is an upper critical eta(c)=4 above which the fractal ...
Gastélum S - - 2002
Food irradiation is extremely effective at reducing food-borne illness as well as losses caused by infestation and contamination. Despite the well-established regulations that permit irradiation to control pathogens in spices, there are no widespread methods to detect previously irradiated food. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new detection and ...
Cockell C S - - 2001
Ultraviolet radiation is an important natural physical influence on organism function and ecosystem interactions. The UV radiation fluxes in extraterrestrial environments are substantially different from those experienced on Earth. On Mars, the moon and in Earth orbit they are more biologically detrimental than on Earth. Based on previously presented fluxes ...
Frenzen P D - - 2001
Food manufacturers in the United States are currently allowed to irradiate raw meat and poultry to control microbial pathogens and began marketing irradiated beef products in mid-2000. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by substituting irradiated meat and poultry for nonirradiated products, particularly if they are more susceptible ...
Evans E M - - 2001
Differences in the mineral fraction of the fat-free mass (M(FFM)) and in the density of the FFM (D(FFM)) are often inferred from measures of bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD). We studied the relation of BMC and BMD to the M(FFM) and D(FFM) in a heterogeneous sample ...
Yamabe H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The tachycardia circuit in the fast-slow form of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (FS-AVNRT) has not been convincingly defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: To define the tachycardia circuit, single extrastimuli were delivered during FS-AVNRT to 9 intra-atrial sites in 12 patients: the His bundle (HB) site; the superior portion of the ...
Bolton K - - 2001
Ionization of hydrochloric acid (HCl) on stratospheric ice particles is believed to be a key step in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ab initio calculations based on a model HCl-water cluster show that HCl ionization on ice surfaces is a barrierless process. Since this mechanism is rapid and produces chloride ...
Steele J H - - 2001
Although the United States food supply is generally considered one of the safest in the world, foodborne illnesses remain a concern. Each year, millions of Americans become ill and as many as 5000 die from foodborne infections. The United States Department of Agriculture estimates that medical treatment and productivity losses ...
Louria D B - - 2001
Food-associated diarrheal disease is a major problem in the United States. One approach offered as virtually a panacea is food irradiation. Irradiating our food would have some unequivocal benefits, but there are some important unresolved issues that must be addressed before we commit our society to a technology that could ...
Sineshchekov V - - 2001
Previously, two pools of phytochrome A (phyA' and phyA") have been detected by in situ low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy and photochemistry; it was suggested that they might differ in the nature of their posttranslational modification. In order to verify this possibility Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza) phyA were expressed in yeast and ...
Carlsson D J - - 2001
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been used to identify and quantify the phosphite antioxidant, tris(2,4-di-tert.butylphenyl) phosphite, and its corresponding phosphate in high density polyethylene (HDPE) food trays, both in the original, commercial trays and also as a function of gamma-irradiation and post-irradiation, storage conditions. This direct method of inhibitor analysis complements ...
Sadler G - - 2001
Polymers used to package food intended for irradiation must currently receive separate US FDA approvals for e-beam, gamma and X-radiation. The three forms of irradiation have virtually indistinguishable effects on polymers held in vacuum. However, in air, irradiation damage is favoured by slow dose rates, such as that characteristic of ...
Cheng Y L - - 2001
We modified the urea reduction ratio (URR) equation to correct the effects of ultrafiltration and intradialytic urea generation on the delivered dose of hemodialysis: mURR = [1 - (R/1 + 2*UF/BW) + 0.01*t] x 100% where mURR is modified URR, R is postdialysis plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) to predialysis PUN ...
Sowby D - - 2001
The operations of ICRP and UNSCEAR have been partly complementary during the past half century, and there has been considerable overlapping of membership of the two bodies. From its inception in 1955 UNSCEAR collected imformation upon which estimates of radiation risk have been based; these have been used by ICRP ...
Goldberg B - - 2001
African trypanosomes are parasitic flagellates that live in the connective tissues of the host. Trypanosomes must obtain from their host adenine/adenosine and other nucleosides that can be salvaged through enzymatic cleavage. Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a byproduct of polyamine metabolism, formed from the donation of an aminopropyl moiety by decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine ...
Kozłowski C - - 2001
The paper presents the results of UV effective irradiance measurements at work stands for sources such as: welding arcs, gas blowpipes, exposure processes, printing machines and insecticide lamps. The irradiance measurements were performed using broad-band instruments with detector heads corrected to the Polish action spectra (erythematous and conjunctivitis). The obtained ...
Sakaki H - - 2001
The effects of the irradiation of weak white light on the growth of the red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and its production of carotenoids were investigated. The ability of beta-carotene and torularhodin, which are final products of carotenoid biosynthesis in R. glutinis, to quench singlet oxygen has also been investigated. Weak ...
Oldfield E C EC - - 2001
Changes in food production and societal pressures have led to a continuing increase in the incidence of foodborne illness. Many pathogens are associated with specific foods, e.g., E. coli O157:H7 with hamburgers or Salmonella with eggs. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved irradiation for sterilization of meat, ...
Shea K M - - 2000
Recent well-publicized outbreaks of foodborne illness have heightened general interest in food safety. Food irradiation is a technology that has been approved for use in selected foods in the United States since 1963. Widespread use of irradiation remains controversial, however, because of public concern regarding the safety of the technology ...
D'hallewin G - - 2000
Star Ruby grapefruit [Citrus paradisi (Macf.)] were harvested in November, February, and May, treated with ultraviolet C (UV-C) light at 0.5, 1.5, or 3.0 kJ.m(-)(2), and then stored at 7 degrees C and 90-95% relative humidity (RH) for 4 weeks with 1 additional week at 20 degrees C and approximately ...
Byun M W - - 2000
The effects of gamma radiation on sensory quality, microbial population, and chemical properties of salted and fermented squid were investigated. Squid (Todarodes pacificus) was sliced, washed, and then salted with 5, 10, and 20% (wt/wt) sodium chloride. Salted squid was irradiated with dosages of 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy ...
Wood O B - - 2000
Food irradiation has been identified a sa safe technology to reduce the risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling, and preparation. Food irradiation's history of scientific research , evaluation, and testing spans more than 40 countries around the world and it has been endorsed or ...
Hozová B - - 2000
The paper presents some results achieved by the evaluation of microbiological (total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, aerobic sporeforming bacteria, yeasts and moulds), nutritional (lysine) and sensory (shape, surface, colour consistency, taste, odour, the profiling of tastiness) quality and of the aw values of amaranth-based biscuits produced from the amaranth grain ...
McNally K M - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that the application of chromophore-enhanced albumin protein solders to augment laser tissue repairs significantly improves repair strength, enhances edge co-optation, and reduces thermal tissue injury. These investigations are furthered with this in vitro study conducted to assess a new range of specially designed ...
Louria D B - - 2000
Dr. Steele's extensive argument illustrates well one side of the food irradiation controversy. The proponents and opponents are involved in a heated debate. I am not opposed to the technology, but I am opposed to food irradiation as public policy until the proponents and the manufacturers are willing to answer ...
Kumar J K - - 2000
Stability of staphylococcal thermonuclease (TNase) on exposure to irradiation though expected has not been experimentally established. In the present work. TNase in presence of standard growth media as well as dairy and meat products was found to be completely resistant even at a dose of 10 kGy indicating that the ...
Huang J C - - 2000
A new cubic phantom was designed to improve the efficiency on the QA measurement of accelerator. It has a variety of applications, such as dose constancy check, depth dose verifications, and symmetry and flatness evaluations. In particular, this new design makes it much easier to perform the check on output ...
Steele J H - - 2000
Public health scientists have had an interest in food irradiation for a hundred years and more. The first investigations occurred within a few years of the discovery of x-ray and short wavelength by the German physicist Roentgen, in 1895. German and French scientists carried on studies on pasteurization of food ...
Thomadsen B - - 1999
Assessing the strength of individual seed-type sources in ribbon assembles remains a challenge in brachytherapy quality assurance. Geometries to measure a single source in the ribbon usually fail because of low signals if using very thick shielding to block the radiation from the other sources, or contributions from all the ...
Rahn R O - - 1999
A method is demonstrated for measuring germicidal (254 nm) ultraviolet radiation (GUVR) in an omnidirectional manner. This method has application for those situations in which GUVR from more than one direction or source impinges on a three-dimensional object, and when it is of interest to determine the radiant fluence experienced ...
Cerdán P D - - 1999
Phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) share the control of many processes but little is known about mutual signaling regulation. Here, we report on the interactions between phyA and phyB in the control of the activity of an Lhcb1*2 gene fused to a reporter, hypocotyl growth and cotyledon unfolding ...
Ma R - - 1999
This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron ...
Horiuchi S - - 1999
Enzymatic acetylation of (+/-)-gamma-cyclohomogeraniol[2-(2',2'-dimethyl-6'-methylenecyc lohexyl)ethanol] with vinyl acetate in the presence of lipase AK yielded the acetate of its (R)-isomer, leaving its (S)-isomer intact. The (S)-isomer was chemically converted to (S)-gamma-coronal[2-methylene-4-(2',2'-dimethyl-6'-methylenecyclohexy l)butanal], the ambergris odorant.
Vassar G J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: A series of experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is photothermal. METHODS AND RESULTS: To show that holmium:YAG lithotripsy requires direct absorption of optical energy, stone loss was compared for 150 J Ho:YAG lithotripsy of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones for hydrated ...
Margalith P Z - - 1999
Among the highly valued ketocarotenoids employed for food coloration, astaxanthin is probably the most important. This carotenoid may be produced biotechnologically by a number of microorganisms, and the most promising seems to be the freshwater flagellate Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae), which accumulate astaxanthin in their aplanospores. Many physiological aspects of the ...
Martin C J - - 1999
The influence of the angular response of radiometer probes on measurements of irradiance in ultraviolet phototherapy has been studied. Irradiance measurements were made using nine ultraviolet (UV) radiometers employed by phototherapy centres in Scotland and Northern Ireland, and compared with measurements made using two spectroradiometers. The light sources used were ...
Cockell C S - - 1999
Photosynthetic primary production, the basis of most global food chains, is inhibited by UV radiation. Evaluating UV inhibition is therefore important for assessing the role of natural levels of UV radiation in regulating ecosystem behavior as well as the potential impact of stratospheric ozone depletion on global ecosystems. As both ...
Mitsuiki M - - 1999
A novel procedure to determine the molecular weight (MW) and MW distributions for various agars is described. The MW values of commercial agars, an agarose, an agaropectin, and hydrolyzed agaroses were determined by size exclusion chromatography-low angle laser light scattering, using 4.0 M guanidine hydrochloride as eluent to avoid gelation. ...
Bruhn C M - - 1999
More consumers are concerned about microbiological hazards than any other area. Pesticide residues generate concern, especially among low income consumers with less formal education. Use of antibiotics and hormones in animal production is considered a serious hazard by fewer consumers. Consumer attitudes are influenced by media coverage. An increasing number ...
Mitchnick M A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Microfine zinc oxide (Z-Cote) is used as a transparent broad-spectrum sunblock to attenuate UV radiation (UVR), including UVA I (340-400 nm). OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the suitability of microfine zinc oxide as a broad-spectrum photoprotective agent by examining those properties generally considered important in sunscreens: attenuation spectrum, ...
- - 1999
This report presents the recommendations of an international group of experts convened by the World Health Organization, in association with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider the implications of food irradiated to doses higher than those recommended in 1980 ...
Machová E - - 1999
Different factors affecting the efficiency of the ultrasonic depolymerization of the high-molecular-weight carboxymethylated chitin-glucan prepared from the fungal mycelium of Aspergillus niger have been investigated. The influence of the following parameters was examined: concentration of the chitin-glucan complex, duration of ultrasonic irradiation, reaction temperature and volume of the ultrasonicated solution. ...
Farkas J - - 1998
Despite substantial efforts in avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses caused by nonsporeforming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms nor ...
Roberts W T - - 1998
The effects of irradiation on microbial populations in ground beef patties vacuum package and irradiated frozen at target doses of 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy were determined. Irradiated samples were stored at 4 or -18 degrees C for 42 days, and mesophilic aerobic plate counts (APCs) were periodically ...
Ozaki A - - 1998
Five synthetic food colours Food Red Nos 3, 40 and 102 and Food Blue Nos 1 and 2, and their UV irradiated products were tested for mutagenic activity by means of the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Food colours were irradiated with UV light for 14 ...
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